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rilHE design of tlie Editors and Publishers of the 
-L Biblical and Theological Libraky is to furnish 
ministers and laymen with a series of works, which, in 
connection with the Commentaries now issuing, shall 
make a compendious apparatus for study. While the 
theology of the volumes will be in harmony with the 
doctrinal standards of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
the aim will be to make the entire Library acceptable 
to all evangelical Christians. 

The following writers will co-operate in the author- 
ship of the series : Dr. Harman, on the Introduction 
to the Stud}^ of the Holy Scriptures ; Dr. Terry, on 
Biblical Hermeneutics ; Drs. Bennett and Whitney, 
on Biblical and Christian Arclipeoloo^v ; Dr. Latimer, 
on Systematic Theology ; the Editors, on Theological 
Encyclopaedia and Methodology ; Dr. Ridgaway, on 
Evidences of Christianity ; Prof. Little, on Christian 
Theism and Modern Speculative Thought; Dr. Crooks, 



on the History of Christian Doctrine ; and Bishop 
Hurst, on the History of the Christian Church. 

In the case of every treatise the latest literature will 
be consulted, and its results incorporated. The works 
comprised in the series will be printed in full octavo 
size, and finished in the best style of typography and 
binding. A copious index will accompany each volume. 
All the volumes are in process of preparation. 




OT^ THE B^SIS OF- m?L O^E NB ^ C H. 





-»* * ■ >< 





Copyright 1884, by 
New York. 



Oim American and English theology has been singnlarly desti- 
tute of a general introductoiy work to the theological sci- 
ences. The following Encyclopaedia and Methodology is designed 
to supply this lack. It aims to give an outline of the importance, 
nature, and history of the four great divisions of theological 
study, together with a bibliography of the Continental and 
Anglo-Saxon literature. The volume on this subject b}^ the 
Eev. Dr. Karl Ilagenbacli, vrlio taught Historical Tlieology 
many years in Basel University, has been so highly esteemed 
that we have made it tlie basis of our work. We have greatly 
enlarged the bibliography by adding tlie titles of English and 
American books in each department. To meet the wants of 
students, we have also placed, in an appendix, a selection of the 
Eno;lish and American literature of the relations of reliction and 
science, and a list of histories of Christian Churches in the 
United States. We have endeavoured, by utilizing the rich ma- 
terial of ITagenbach, to make a handbook for the theological stu- 
dent; a guide to show him the right path of inquiry; a plan or 
draft of the science, so that by the help here afforded he can see 
its exterior lines, the boundaries of its subdivisions, and can take 
the whole into the compass of a complete survey. 

Geoege E. Crooks, 
John F. Huest. 

New York, March 1, 1884. 



Idea and Scope of Encyclopaedia, 7. 

Idea and Scope of Methodology, 11. 

Theological Science and Theological Em- 
piricism, 12. 

The Choice of Theology as a Vocation, 15. 

Importance of the Teaching Order to So- 
ciety, 18. 

Superiority of Religious Teaching to Law 
and Art, 20. 

Religion, 25. 

The Religious Community— Christianity, 

The Church and Theology, 44. 
Theological Schools and the Spiritual Or- 

der, 46. 
Relation of the Spiritual Order to the 

School and the Church, 50. 
The University, 52. 
The Formation of Character, 55. 
1 Doubt and Belief, 56. 



Theology considered as a Positive Science, 
As an Art Theory, 61. 
In its Historical Development, 62. 
As Related to Preparatory Stud- 
ies, 66. 

Philology the First of the Preparatory 
Studies, 68. 

Uses of Mathematical and Natural Science 
to the Theologian, 11. 

Theology as Related to the Arts and Gen- 
eral Culture, 72. 
As Related to Philosophy, 74, 

Brief History of the Relations of Philos- 
ophy and Theology, 74. 

The Leading Object of the Study of Phi- 
losophy, 79. 

Philosophy Incapable of Originating Theo- 
logical Doctrine, 81. 

No Objection to Philosophy from the Va- 
riety of Systems, 82. 

Unchristian Systems of Philosophy, 84. 

Sense in which a Philosophy must be 
Christian, 86. 

Relations of Ethics, Psychology, and Logic 
to Theology, 87. 

The Leading Tendencies of Theological 
Thought in the Early Church, 98. 
In the Middle Ages, 99. 
Among the Reformers, 99, 
In the Seventeenth Century, 100. 
In the Eighteenth Century — Ration- 
alism, 100. 

The New Direction given to Theology, 101. 

Pietism, Mysticism, and Confessional- 
ism, 103. 

Theological Tendencies in England and 
the United States, 105. 

Relation of the Student to these Tenden- 
cies, 107, 

App^endix — History and Literature of The- 
ological Encyclopaedia, 118. 




Division into Departments, 139. 
Arfangement of the four Departments, 143. 

Ex-egetical Theology. 

Idea and Scope of Exegetical Theology, 

The Holy Scriptures as the Subject of 

J^jxegesis, 147. 
Division of the Canonical Scriptures, 151. 
The Old and the New Testaments, 154, 156. 
Value of the Old Testament, 155. 
Influence of the Old Testament on the form 

of New Testament Thought, 154. 
Classification of Old Testament Books, 155. 
Scope of the New Testament, 15*7. 
Subdivisions of the New Testament, 158. 
Sciences Auxiliary to Exegesis, 159. 
The Original Languages of the Bible, 160. 
The Hebrew Language and other Shemitic 

Dialects, 161. 
History of the Study of the Hebrew, 163. 
The Hellenistic Greek, 169. 
Brief Sketch of the Study of Hellenistic 

Greek, 171. 
Biblical Archseology, 175. 
The Material of Biblical Archaeology, 176. 
History of Biblical Archaeology, 179. 
Isagogics, 191. 
Limits of Isagogics, 191. 
Formation of the Canon, 194. 
Biblical Criticism, 202. 
Conditions of Canonicity, 204. 
Critical Procedure, 208. 
Positive and Negative Criticism, 210. 
The Relation of Criticism to Exegesis, 212. 
History of Criticism 213. 
Biblical Hermeneutics, 228. 
A Branch of General Hermeneutics, 230. 
The Science of Hermeneutics a Gradual 

Growth, 231. 
Exegesis as the Product of Hermeneutics, 

The Application of Exegesis, 241. 

The Method of Exegetical Theology, 243. 
History of Interpretation, 245. 

Historical Theology. 

Sacred History, 262. 

History of the Hebrew People, 263. 

Periods of Hebrew History, 263. 

Life of Christ, 271. 

The Life of Jesus Self -interpreting, 274. 

History of the Biographies of Jesus, 276. 

Strauss and Renan and the Replies, 278, 

Lives of the Apostles and of the Found- 
ers of the Church, 283. 

Biblical Dogmatics, 286. 

Relations of Life and Doctrine, 288. 

History of Biblical Dogmatics, 289. 

Church History, 294. 

Historical Development of the Church, 296. 

External and Internal History of the 
Church, 296. 

Periods of Church History, 299. 

Proper treatment of Church History, 302. 
Criticism of Sources, 302.. 
Mediate and Immediate Causation, 

Deistic, Pantheistic, and Theistic 

Methods of History, 305. 
The Moral and Religious Disposition 
of the Church Historian, 307. 

Method of Church History, 309. 

Monographs and Parallels, 312. 

History of Church History, 313. 

Sciences Auxiliary to Church History, 343. 

Separate Branches of Historical Theology, 

The History of Doctrines, 358. 

Definition of the History of Doctrine, 359. 

The Task and Province of Doctrinal His- 
tory, 359. 

General and Special Doctrinal History, 361. 

Division of Doctrinal History, 363. 

Method of Treating Doctrinal History, 365. 


Patristics and Symbolics, 3*70. 

The Church Fathers, 370. 

The terra Classic, 3*72. 

History of Patristics, 3*73. 

Definition of Symbolics, 380. 

Scope of Symbolics, 382. 

Relation of to History of Doctrine, 

History of Symbolics, 383. 
Archaeology, 388. 
History of Archaeology, 390. 
Statistics, 390. 

History must furnish Statistics, 391. 

Best Source of Statistics, 391. 

Systematic Theology. 

Definition and Scope of Systematic Theol- 
ogy, 394. 

Christian Docti^ne Ethical, 396. 

Dogmatics and Ethics distinguished, 397. 

Dogmatics, the Center of all Theology, 399. 

Apologetics — Its Relation to Dogmatics, 

The Task of Apologetics, 406. 

The History of Apologetics, 408. 

Polemics and Irenics, 413. 

The History of Polemics and Irenics, 417. 

The Method of Dogmatic Theology, 420. 

Outline of a Dogmatic Rystem, 423. 

Theology (Doctrine of God), 424. 

Anthropology, 427. 

Christology, 429. 

Soteriology, 431. 

The Church and the Sacraments, 434. 

Eschatology, 436. 

The Trinity and Predestination, 438. 

Orthodoxy and Heterodoxy, 440. 

History of Dogmatics, 442. 

Christian Ethics, 453. 

Christ's Work the Basis of Ethics, 457. 

Division of Ethics, 459. 

The History of Ethics, 462. 

The Methodology of Systematic Theology, 

Practical Theology. 

Province of Practical Theology, 472. 
Practical Side of Clerical Life, 475. 
Method of Treating Practical Theology, 

History of Practical Theology, 482. 
Catechetics, 486. 
Catechetical Methods, 488. 
The Mental and Spiritual Endowment of a 

Cateehist, 492. 
History of Catechetics, 493. 
Theory of Worship — Liturgies, 498. 
Roman Catholic and Protestant Liturgies, 

Forms of Worship and their Relation to 

Art, 506. 
The Methodology of Liturgies, 513. 
History and Literature of Liturgies, 515. 
Homiletics, 519. 
Homiletical Arrangement and Material, 

The Method of Homiletics, 532. 
History of Homiletics, 

I. History of the Christian Sermon, 

II. History of the Theory of Preach- 
ing, 540. 

The Literature of Homiletics, 543. 

Pastoral Theology in its Limited Meaning, 

The Pastor's Relation to Church and Peo- 
ple, 547. 

Practical Sciences Auxiliary to Pastoral 
Theology, 550. 

The Method of Pastoral Theology, 551. 

History of Pastoral Theology, 553. 

The Further Cultivation of Theological 
Studies, 555. 

Literature of Pastoral Theology, 556. 



THEOLOGICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA is a survey of all the de- 

-*- partments of theology, with a statement of what has been 

accomplished in each. It is a branch of Universal En- ^ ^ , . 

^ , . ... Definition of 

cyclopaedia. It does not aim, however, to unite within Theological En- 
itself the substance of aU that deserves to be known, ^yc^°P®<^^- 
but rather to comprehend the further development of the science 
as conditioned by its historical character; and, also, to describe its 
form and extent in their inward and outward relations by correctly 
indicating its limits.^ 

The position of Theological Encyclopaedia is outside the organism 
of theological science, since its office is to describe that organism 
and open the way into it for the student. On the other hand, how- 
ever, it forms a part of the larger, universal organism 
of science, and in the character of theological encyclo- 
paedia constitutes a fragment of encyclopaedia in general. Every 
student should endeavour, at the outset, to gain a general idea of 
the range of human knowledge, not for the purpose of superficially 
determining every question, but that he may recognise his true 
place upon the orhis doctrinoe.^ 

* With regard to the force of kyKVKltog iraiSeia, kyKVKkia (la&rinaTa (orbis docirince^ 
QuinctiL, i, 16), see Lobeck, Aglaophamus, torn, i, p. 54; Philo, comp, Diihue, Alex. 
Rlgsphil., i, 90; Clem. Alex., Strom., i, pp. 333, 373 (ed. Potter); vi, 781, 787 (in 
opposition to Philosophy in the proper sense); vii, 839. The compound form, kyKv- 
KXoTraiSeta, is first (?) found in Gralen(f A. D. 201); comp. Staudenmaier, Theol. En- 
cj'-kl., p. 3, sqq. ; Pelt, Theol. Encykl., p. 6, sqq. ; Pauly, Realencykl. der klass. Alter- 
thumswiss., s. v. Educatio, p. 39 ; and my article, Encyklopsedie, in Herzog's Real- 
encykl., iv, p. 9, sqq. 

^ " The recognition of the organic whole of the sciences must precede the definite 
pursuit of a specialty. The scholar who devotes liimself to a particular study must 
become acquainted with the position it occupies with relation to this whole, and the 
particular spirit that pervades it, as well as the mode of development by which it 
enters into the harmonious union of the whole — hence the method by which he is 
himself to estimate his science, in order that he may not regard it in a slavish spirit, 
but independently, and in the spirit of the whole." — Schelling, Method., p. 7. " Phi- 
losophy is substantially encyclopaedia, inasmuch as truth can only be a totality, and 
it is only by observing and determining its differences that the necessity for them. 


Both general and special (theological) Encyclopaedia aim to con- 
centrate rather than to dissipate the mental faculties. Encyclo- 
paedia should not degenerate into a pattern-card, but rather resemble 
a map — a comparison that demonstrates itself. But few works of 
recent times fulfil the required object/ While German resolution 
and thoroughness, in a form that is no longer adequate to the needs 
History of En- ^^ science, appear in Ernesti (Initia Doctrinse Solidioris, 
cyclopedia. ^^st ed., 1736, and often), the so-called French encyclo- 
pedists brought the science of encyclopaedia into bad odour, '^ so that 
an encyclopedist, like a philosopher, became synonymous with a 
freethinker. The lexical method followed by those writers, which 
now became popular, and was adopted also by the German encyclo- 
pedists,^ suffered from the additional disadvantage of being limited 
to the discussion of subject-matter only, and might as readily be 
made to serve the superficial mind for destructive purposes, as to 
aid the cautious scholar in referring to matters that deserve to be 

As the material deficiencies of the science became apparent, there 
arose also a demand for its organic and comprehensive treatment; 
that is, for a proper science of encyclopgedia. Eschenburg was the 
first to employ the title of Wissenschaftskunde (Introduction to the 
Sciences, third ed., Berlin, 1809), and Jaesche (Prof, at Dorpat) 
wrote an Architektonik der Wissenschaften in 1816.* Large and far- 
reaching views into the organism of the sciences were opened by 
Schelling's Vorlesungen tiber die Methode des akademischen Stu- 

and the freedom of the whole, can be made to coexist. Hence it follows that an en- 
cyclopaedic treatment of science is not to present it in the thorough development of 
its particulars, but must be confined to the beginning and fundamental ideas of the 
particular science." — Hegel, Bncykl. der phil. "Wiss., sees. 7 and 9. 

^Concerning the older works — Martianus Capelia (about A. D. 460), Cassiodorus 
(f after 562), Isidore of Seville (f 686), Hugo de St. Victor (f 1141, see Liebner's Mo- 
nographie, p. 96, sqq.), Vincent of Beauvais (f about 1264), Louis de Vivos (f 1540), 
Gerh. Job. Voss (f 1649), Grotius (f 1645), Lord Bacon (f 1626), J. G. Alsted (f 1638), 
D. G. Morhof (f 1691, Polyhistor., fourth ed., Liibeck, 1732), Joh. Matth. Gessuer 
(f 1756, Isagoge, see Herder's Sophrou., "Werke zur Phil, und Gesch., x, p. 253) — 
see Pelt, I c. 

^ (Diderot et d'Alembert) Encyclopedie ou dictionnaire raisonne des sciences, des 
arts, et des metiers, etc., Paris, 1751-1772, 28 vols. Comp. Herzog's Encykl, iv, p. 1, 
and M'Clintock and Strong's Cyclop., s. v. Encyclopaedia, French, etc. 

^ Deutsche Encykl. od. allg. Realworterbuch aller Kiinste u. Wissenschaften, etc. 
Frankfurt, 1778-1804, (A-Ky), and other works of that day, which have been sup- 
planted by later productions; e. g.^ H. A. Pierer, Univers.-lex. od. vollst. Encykl. 
Worterbuch. Altenburg, 1822-1836, 26 vols., 8vo., fourth ed. ; ibid., 1857-1864. A 
fifth edition was begun at the close of 1867 ; and especially the (not yet completed) 
Allgera. Encykl. d. Wissenschaften u. Kiinste, by Ersch and Gruber. 

See Pelt, pp. 12, 13, where additional works are cited; Scheidler, Hodegetik, p. 51. 


diums (seconded., Tilb., 1813) ; and still earlier Fichte had consid- 
ered the "Vocation of the Scholar" (Bestimmung des Gelehrten, 
Berlin, 1794) and his Character (Wesen des Gelelirten, 1806) in an 
ideal light. The works by Heidenreich,^ Tittmann," Beneke,^ Schei- 
dler,* Mussmann,^ Leutbecher," Kirchner,^ von Schaden,® and others, 
are better adapted to practical requirements, and are of a more 
methodological character. 

With reference to the nature of the encyclopaedia of theology it 
should be observed that the real encyclopaedia, or dictionary, which 
contains the subject-matter of theological knowledge, 
is distinct from the encyclopaedia in our sense. The ttjeiSaiE^nc^ 
value of the former consists in the completeness of the ciopaedia, or 
matter to be imparted,® while the latter seeks to avoid 
crushing the mind beneath the weight of a mass of knowledge, and 
confusing the vision by the number of objects to be presented. It 
confines itself, instead, to the work of pointing out the road to be 
pursued. The aims of encyclopaedia are not the objects sought by 
the different branches of theology, but those hranches themselves." 
It is, of course, impossible to separate a study from its object, or 
the form from its matter, for the one conditions the other ; and, 
therefore, encyclopaedia will be compelled to put on flesh, unless it 
is to become a naked skeleton. The matter, however, which it con- 

'Ueber die zweckmassige Anwendung der Universitatsjahre. Leipsig, 1804. 

TTeber die Bestimm. des Gelehrten u. seine Bildung durch Schule u. Universitat. 
Berlin, 1833. (The Vocation of the Scholar: The Nature of the Scholar, and its 
Manifestations. Both translated by Dr. Wm. Smith. London, John Chapman, 1848.) 

^Einl. ins akad, Studium. Gottingen, 1826. 

* Grundriss der Hodegetik od. Methodik des akad. Studiums. Jena, 1832 ; second ed., 
1839 ; third ed., 1847. 

" Vorlesungen iib. d. Studium d. Wissenschaften u. Kiinste, etc. Halle, 1832. 

® Abriss d. Methodologie d. akad. Studiums. Erlangen, 1834 (p. 15, sqq. — the older 
and more recent literature in this field). The same author has translated Yan Heusde, 
Socrat. Schule, parts 1 and 2, Encyklopadie. Erlangen, 1840. 

■^ Akad. Propadeutik od. Yorbereitungswissensch. zum akad. Studium. Leipsig, 1842. 
Hodegetik od. Wegweiser zur Universitat fiir Studierende. Leipsig, 1852. Compare, 
also, Fritz, Yers. ub. die zu d. Studien erforderlichen Eigenschaften. Strasburg, 1833. 

^Ueber akad. Leben u. Studium. Marburg, 1845. 

' Real-encyklopadie fiir protestant. Theologie u. Kirche, by J. J. Herzog, assisted by 
other Protestant scholars and theologians. 22 vols. Gotha, 1854-1868. Partially 
translated by Bomberger, of Philadelphia, 1856, sqq. Of Roman Catholic works : Jos. 
Ashbach, Allgem. Kirchen-lexikon. Frankfurt, 1846-50, 4 vols., 8vo. Wetzer and 
Welte, Kirchen-lexikon, od. Encykl. der kath. Theologie u. ihrer Hiilfswissenschaften. 
Freiburg, 1846-1860. 12 vols., 8vo., with index. 

"In other words, "The object of encyclopaedia is the organism of science rather 
than its subject-matter, since it aims to discover the relations existing between the 
manifold branches of knowledge." — Harless, p. 2. 


nects with its descriptions is only designed to aid in comprehend- 
ing the form. But inasmuch as the science is not definitely com- 
plete, being rather in process of growth, it becomes a matter of pri- 
mary importance that its ideal object should be brought into view, 
by the clear pointing out of the goal it strives to reach. This like- 
wise requires a substantial foothold, a 66g fioL ttov otg)^ without 
which the entire structure will be a castle in the air. Care must, 
however, be taken that the footstool be not regarded as the top- 
most round in the heavenly ladder, beyond which lies an infinite 
perspective. Encyclopaedia thus becomes not merely "a descrip- 
tion of the circle of human knowledge as it should be, nor yet a dis- 
cussion of the character of that circle as it is . . . it is the under- 
standing of what has come into being, through the recognition of 
its end" (Harless, Theol. Ency., etc., p. 459.) 


The relation of theological encyclopaedia to the body of theolog- 
ical science is twofold ; it stands at the threshold of the course as 
an introductory science, and it serves a complementary 
cyciopajdia to purpose for him who has arrived at its end, by collect- 
Theoiogy. ^^^ together the results obtained. Upon this distinction 

in the relations it sustains to the whole course of study will, in great 
measure, depend its treatment. In the former aspect it is predom- 
inantly stimulating, methodological, working toward its object, 
which in the latter case has been attained and passed. The proof 
of every truly scientific method consists in this — that the beginning 
and the end correspond; and that what proceeds from a living con- 
ception of things and their relations, shall again lead to a deeper 
spiritual apprehension and insight of the object sought. 

This distinction has generally received too little attention in con- 
nexion with the teaching of Encyclopaedia.^ Most of the recent 
encyclopaedias have not only attempted to introduce the student 
into the field of theology, but also to develop the science itself. In 
this regard the whole of theology is greatly indebted to Schleier- 
macher's little book.'^ But all men are not Schleiermachers. He, 
like all reforming spirits, closed an old, and at the same time opened 
a new, era. And yet that very book presents insurmountable diffi- 
culties to the beginner. An encyclopaedia for the learned (virtuosos 
was Schleiermacher's term) should certainly exist, for the study of 

^ See Harless, § 4, p. 2. 

'Kurze Darstellung des theol. Studiums, etc. 2d ed., Berlin, 1830. (Comp. th« 
history of encycl. at the end of Part I.) (Brief Outline of the Study of Theology 
Translated by William Farrer. T. & T. Clark, Edinburgh.) 


encyclopaedia, like that of the catechism, can never be pertains both 
exhausted: and as exponents change with varying^ mas;- ^ ^^^ be^n- 

. , ' ^, -,.1 .;*. * nins? and the 

nitudes, so does encyclopaedia keep pace with science, end of theoiog- 
It forms the dial-plate to the mechanism of the clock, if'a.i study. 
But to introduce the pupil into the deliberations of the masters, and 
allow him to participate in forecasting the future before he has 
comprehended the present, would be to reap where we should sow. 
It might, therefore, be wise to recommend that every student should 
give attention to encyclopaedia twice, provided that it be presented 
from these two points of view — the beginning and the end of the 
course. The present encyclopaedia professes to belong to the intro- 
ductory class.* 


Methodology (Hodegetics) is applied encyclopaedia ; for a true 
conception of the nature and combinations of the sci- Definition (rf 
ence will lead to its correct treatment; and as an ency- Methodology. 
clopaedic comprehension is the necessary condition of a correct 
method, so the latter demonstrates the former. 

In other words. Methodology contains " the regulative conclusions 
from the principles and historical character of a science, which are 
requisite for the process of appropriation."' These conclusions 
might be properly regarded as self-evident, were it not that many 
unpractised persons whom introductory encyclopaedia is designed 
to aid require some guidance. Introductory encyclopaedia will, 
therefore, in proportion as it has comprehended its task, of neces- 
sity assume a methodological character, without finding it requisite 
to tow methodology in its wake as a supplementary and distinct 
study. For works on General Methodology (Hodegetics) see on 
Section I. 


Two dangers are to be avoided in connection with Methodology: 

first, that of failinpf, by reason of the numerous obiects ^ , ^^ 

' to' J ^ J Dangers In the 

presented from without, to attain to a connected view treatment of 
and an intellectual control of the subject-matter (a false ^®^^o^°^°^y- 

* This distinction does not imply, however, that introductory encyclopaedia differs 
materially from the complementary. The relation is, rather, that of the germ to the 
fruit, of the school-grammar to the fully-rounded system of instruction in language. 
It furnishes the first lines toward an art which must be perfected by study. Nov 
does it imply that the masters are in the possession of an esoteric learning, while the 
pupils are obliged to content themselves with mere exoteric knowledge. The lowest 
round upon the ladder conducts toward the highest, but no round may be overleaped. 
In science, as elsewhere, intermediate stages have their value ; and a view from be- 
neath creates a different impression from that obtained by a view in perspective from 
above. " Harless, p. 6, 


empiricism); and second, that of being puffed up with the conceit 
of idealistic wisdom, which loses sight of actual life and its condi- 
tions, as ordered of God, and consequently mistakes and fails to 
realize the true object of science, and, more than all, the life-object 
of the theologian. 

Lord Bacon makes use of a suggestive figure upon this point, 
when he compares the raw empiric to an ant, the idealistic dreamer 
to a spider, and the true devotee of science to a bee. The previous 
age suffered more from the first ailment, the present languishes 
under the influence of the second. 

"N'on scholae sedvitte discendum," is an old maxim. ^ The school 
and actual life are not, however, to form a contrast; for life is itself 
Life the object ^ school, and the school is designed to prepare for life, 
of all study. to impart life, to beget and promote life. What do we 
understand by life ? If it be explained to denote the multiplicity 
and diversity of objects among which we are placed and with which 
we are interwoven, without understanding our experience, life cer- 
tainly forms a contrast with science, whose office it is to unify this 
very multiplicity of diversity, and to seek an inward comprehension 
of the objects presented from without. But while penetrating their 
nature, it first vivifies them, and not until this has been done can 
we realize that we have hitherto been employed upon dead matter. 
Science, however, can only give life by entering into things, not by 
taking its stand, as an abstract theory, over against them. In the 
latter character it is itself dead, and its corpse-like pallor is more 
repulsive to the mind than even the diversified and fluctuating play 
of life. If the life is to assume a scientific character, it will be 
necessary that science should also live; they must react upon each 
other. Kant strikingly observes, "Ideas without observation are 
einpty, and observation without ideas is hlindP 

The maxim that " theory has become gray " has often been abused 
in the service of a lazy empiricism. Among medical men empirics 
Theological ^^'^ contrasted with " rational physicians," and the term 
empiricism, jg applied especially to persons who are entirely governed 
by the accidental circumstances of a particular disease presented to 
their notice, and the accidental possession of remedies which, by a 
sort of mechanical routine, they have become accustomed to employ, 
and who lack the ability to rise into a higher and more legitimate 
method of treatment based on scientific diagnosis. But empirics are 
also found in theology; and their empiricism is manifested in two 

' Comp. Herder, in the Sopliron. "Werke zur Philos., x, p. 207, sqq. Ceteros enira 
pudeat, qui se ita litteris abdiderunt, ut nihil possint ex his neque ad communem 
affere fructum neque in aspectum lueemque proferre. Cic. Orat. pro Archia poeta, c. 6. . 


different directions, and from two thoroughly opposite religious 
points of view. The one is ciscetically pious, and imagines that 
practical piety will be all-sufficient; perhaps defending itself witJi 
the plea that the apostles themselves were unlearned men, thus mis- 
interpreting the connexion between primitive Christianity and the 
requirements of the present age. This tendency has always found 
supporters among persons who are too indolent to study or think, or 
has been ironically advocated by the class w^hich occupies the stand- 
point of extreme idealism, and despairs of the scientific character of 
theology.^ The other is the philcmthropic, cosmopolitan view (allied 
to the older rationalism), which restricts the duty of the clergyman 
to lecturing and enlightening the public, and, therefore, regards an 
encyclopaedic training in a normal school as possessing the highest 
value. Theological knowledge and dogmatic proficiency are thrown 
overboard. It calls for practical men. Its idea of practical Chris- 
tianity differs from that of pious empiricism, however — a proof that 
even the most trivial schemes cannot be sustained without a previ- 
ous scientific explanation. 

The bad repute into which science has been brought 
with both these classes is not, however, the fault of tween^'scienS 
science itself, but of its caricature, which constitutes and learned 
the most wretched of all empiricisms, because it is 
thoroughly impracticable in its nature. We refer to that dry 
learning which simply heaps up lumber, and smothers itself with 
the dust of books, without attaining to a clear consciousness of 
what it is doing, or of the object towards which study is direct- 
ed.*^ Learnedness and scholarship are unlike. There may be 
very learned persons who are unable to appreciate science; and 
although science cannot exist apart from learning, it is yet possible 

* Strauss, Glaubensl., ii, p. 625. "Theological study, formerly the means employed 
to prepare for the service of the Church, now forms the most direct road to unfitness 
for that service. The cobbler's bench, the writing-room, and any other place that is 
secure against the entrance of science, now constitute better places for preparatory 
practice for the ministry than the universities and seminaries. Religious idiots and 
self-taught theologians, the leaders and speakers of pietistic gatherings — these con- 
stitute the clergy of the future." 

'^Kant (Anthropologic, p. 164) says: "There is a gigantic ei'udition which is yet 
Cyclopean, in that it lacks an eye with which to comprehend rationally, and for a pur- 
pose, this mass of historic knowledge, the burden of a hundred camels, viz., the eye 
of a true philosophy." With reference to this mechanical knowledge, in which the 
memory does not operate as the " energy of mental retention," but simply as a store- 
house of perceptions, compare Carblom also (Das Gefiihl, etc., p. 4,^^sqq.): "The most 
repulsive exhibition of this kind is afforded by the spiritual office, when simply the 
tongue, hand, and foot of the clei'gyman are engaged in it, but not his spirit, to say 
nothing of the Spirit of God." 


to display the scientific spirit in a high degree, in cases where the 
learning is confined within very narrow limits (as with a youthful 
student). Learning without scientific culture commonly wears the 
garb of school-boy pedantry, except when it simply has the appear- 
ance of a superficial acquaintance with many studies; it at once 
dries up and inflates the mind, and, being confined within the nar- 
row boundaries of its specialty, its estimate of other branches of 
knowledge is often coarse and contemptuous. 

While, however, it is admitted that a false empiricism exists, 
whose unscientific character is manifest, even when it appears in 
the garb of learning, there is also a falsely vaunted science (1 Tim. 
vi, 20), which superciliously spreads itself under that usurped name, 
but in the end dissolves into empty vapour. The present gene- 
True method of ration should be warned against both errors, with an 

making theo- emphasis increasing: with the separation which exists 

logical science ■•■ ° , ^ , 

practical. between the school and actual life, and in proportion as 

the contrast between scientific theology and the practical perform- 
ance of clerical duties threatens to become irreconcilable.^ If it be 
true, that every science which lacks sufiicient support from observa- 
tion and experience resembles the soap-bubble, in which the colours 
of the light are, indeed, magnificently displayed, but which bursts 
at the slightest breath of air, it is especially true of theological sci- 
ence, which can only lay claim to the name and character of a dis- 
tinct science by reason of its living relations to religion and the 
Church. It should accordingly be required, in the interests of gen- 
uine science, that the study of theology be made practical^ but 
practical in the sense that the science itself is to become action, 
that the indwelling word of life is to be made flesh, and the inhe- 
ring germ of life to produce appropriate fruit. Science must be- 
come a salt that shall penetrate the entire mass; "but if the salt 
have lost its savour, wherewith may we salt ? " 

"The letter is not science!" True; but the mind cannot dispense 
even with the letter. It must achieve its results through the 
Word, the firm, clear, living Word, not by means of idle words; 
but without the letter there can be no words, and no Word. Gen- 
uine science is as far removed from a dead materialism as from a 
dead formalism and an empty idealism. It deals with the nature 
of mind and the nature of things, and in this light it becomes at 
once both realism and idealism. The idea of science is conditioned 

^ " Is, then, the historical knot to be so solved, as that Christianity must take sides 
with barbarism, and science with unbelief?" was the question of Schleiermacher, 
thirty years ago. Compare the preface to the Prot. Kirchenzeitung fiir das evang. 
Deutschland, 1854. 


by thoroughness, clearness, depth, free activity, and originality of 
thought,^ in connexion with caution and soberness of judgment, as 
opposed to superficial and confused thinking, shallowness, dullness, 
servile subjection to prejudices old and new, pedantic dryness, and 
boorish narrowness. It will, moreover, maintain a steady regard 
for the purely human while pressing toward the divine. It certainly 
seems as if clearness at times detracted from depth, or depth from 
clearness; but dullness and a fluid-like transparency carried to the 
verge of shallowness, should no more be confounded with clearness, 
than a darkly -brooding, shadow-loving stupidity should be identi- 
fied with depth. Shallow-headedness finds every thing obscure that 
is beyond its comprehension, while wi'ong-headedness attributes the 
profoundest depth to the very thing it fails to understand. 

It is no doubt true that he who would be eminent in science must 
confine himself to a single branch (a specialty) ; but devotion to a 
specialty should not beg^in too early. The p:eneral cul- ^ , ^ . 

^ •' . . ° •', ° . General train- 

ture, which itself involves progressive gradations, must ing should pre- 
precede the special. Elementary schools call the desire ^^*^® special. 
to know into being; the gymnasial training strengthens and intensi- 
fies its character. The training, whose method was conditioned by 
the study of languages and mathematics, realizes its higher object 
in the departments of history and the natural sciences. The univer- 
sity training follows, not only to bring the whole field of science 
within the range of vision, but also to concentrate the efforts of the 
student by assigning to him a definite field of learning. ISTot until 
the university studies are ended is the practical preparation for 
active life in place, whether for the pastorate, or for independent 
scholarly investigations with a view to carrying forward the theo- 
retical development of science by means of authorship or academ- 
ical instruction. 



Dan. Schenkel, Die Bedeutung des gelstllclien Berufs, etc., in Stud. u. BMt., 1852, p. 205, sqq. ; 
Hagenbach, Ueber die Abnalime des theol. Studiums, in Kirclienbl. f iir die ref. Scbweiz, 1856, 
Nos. 6 and 7 ; Ibid., 1862, and Gelzer's Monatsbl., 1863, January ; Dieckboff (Rom. Oath.), Ueber 
den Benif u. d. Vorbereitung zum geistl. Stande, Paderborn, 1859. 

Although the study of encyclopaedia is necessary to the theologian 
for a clear understanding of the nature of his work, it is yet proper 
to require that every person who enters thereon should have 
reached a general conception of the position he expects to occupy 

* No absolute originality is intended, but simply independent repi'oduction. " To 
accept and submit to authority," says Marheineke, " is not unworthy of an indepen- 
dent spirit. But the mind must reserve to itself, especially in scientific matters, the 
right to know and understand the authority in the principle of its necessity." 


in human society, and tliat he should have formed a clear and satis- 
factory idea of the nature of the calling to which he gives himself 
in the exercise of his own independent choice. 

We begin with the concrete, with the individual and his relation 
to the science. What urges you to the study of theology ? Die 
Worldly mo- ^^1' ^'^^^ ^^ inquire of every candidate who is an- 
tives for tbe nounced. Dat Galenus opes, dat Justinianus honores. 

study of theol- -^-r . , , f ,^ • . .• ■, /i. ^ 

ogy not suffl- -Neither of these can come into question here (Matt, x, 
cient. 8^ sqq.), even less in our day than heretofore. Is it 

matter for complaint, that the time is over in which persons stud- 
ied theology in the expectation that they would soon receive an 
assured provision for their wants, and be able to lead a life devoid 
of care ? ^ l!^or is it a misfortune that theology is no longer the 
outer court through which the scholar engaged in the pursuit of 
other objects must pass in order to secure official position in the 
schools. None are co7npelled to become theologians, unless they 
choose. The apostle's words, "Let a man examine himself," and 
"he that eateth and drinketh unworthily, eateth and drinketh 
damnation to himself," are not without significance in this connex- 
ion also, where no mere hread-and-hutter science in the usual sense 
is involved,^ but the dispensing of the bread and drawing of the 
water of life itself.' 

* We recommend to persons who still entertain such desires, the perusal of Valen- 
tin Andrea's glorious poem, Das gute Leben eines rechtsehaffenen. Dieners Gottes, in 
Herder's Briefe iiber das Studium der Theologie (No, 49), lately published by Lau- 
rent (1865); and also the twenty-fourth of Herder's own letters. 

'^Hoc intelligamus, hominum duo essa genera, alterum indoctum et agreste, quod 
anteferat semper utilitatem honestati, alterum humanum et politum, quod rebus om- 
nibus dignitatem anteponat. Cicero Orat. part. c. 25. Comp. Ancillon, Vermittlung 
der Extreme, i, 47 ; Herder, 1. c. : " There is scarcely one among the learned classes 
that contains so many cripples as does the clergy; necessities, poverty, ignoble am- 
bition, hundreds of miserable motives, urge people to that work, so that God is fre- 
quently obliged to accept the refuse instead of the firstlings of its kind." — The twenty- 
fifth letter : " Perhaps no study has in all ages had so few to serve it with entire faith- 
fulness, as theology ; precisely, however, for the reason that it is an almost superhuman, 
divine — the most difficult study." " He who devotes himself to the Church," says 
Daub, " and to that end studies theology, will miss his aim, if he simply desires a 
church office that he may have life, sustenance, comforts, ease, honour, etc. ; foi* 
while he considers the office as a means, and himself or the gratification of his desires 
as an end, he can never become a church officer, but must remain a hireling." See 
Daub and Creuzer, Studien, ii, p. 6*7. 

^ Archbishop Leighton speaks, in like manner, of " men ministering the doctrine of 
salvation to others, and not to themselves ; carrying it all in their heads and tongues, 
and none of it in their hearts ; not hearing it, even while they preach it ; reaching the 
bread of life to others, and eating none of it themselves." — Commentary on 1 Peter, 
ch. i pp. 10-12. 



The resolution to study theology will be inspired more especially 

either by the influence of practical religion, or by the love of study, 

in accordance with the varying^ peculiarities of natural 

. "^ ^ \ . A desire for 

endowment, and of previous training and culture. It both religion 

will be sufficient in the beginning that a disposition and needfurto^the 

desire for both religion and learning should exist, to- study of tneoi- 

gether with a general conviction that piety without ^^* 

learning is as incapable of forming a theologian, as is learning 

without piety. 

Young men who approach the study of theology do not invaria- 
bly bring from their homes an assured religious consciousness, so as 
to be able to say, with Schleiermacher, " Piety was the maternal 
womb, in whose sacred darkness my young life was nourished and 
prepared for entrance on the as yet inaccessible world." Not all 
of them are Timothies, of whom it may be said that they have 
"known the Holy Scriptures" from their childhood (2 Tim. iii, 15), 
although such characters are not, upon the whole, very uncommon. 
It is, after all, the correct principle, that the desire to study theol- 
ogy should spring from religious impulses, even though much that 
is confused and sickly be in particular instances involved. It is the 
office of study to clear up the uncertain, and to correct the sickly tone 
of the mind. Experience has shown that an unconquerable religious 
impulse to become a minister of God whether as pastor or as mis- 
sionary has enabled many, even in advanced years, to suraiount the 
difficulties which opposed their resolution; and, however supercil- 
iously the fact may be criticised (comp. § 4, note 2), it is true that 
the writer's desk, the cobbler's or the tailor's bench, have contrib- 
uted servants to the Church of whom she has no cause to be 
ashamed, while the same boast will not apply to all who have simply 
stepped from the schoolroom into theology. 

Such, however, are exceptional cases. The rule probably is, that 
with a majority of persons who have received a proper preparatory 
education, the resolution to study is formed before they come to de- 
cide upon the particular course in which they will engage. Prac- 
tical considerations have less effect upon their determination than 
theoretical; and this again is proper, provided the religious factor 
be not reduced to zero in making the decision. When religious 
motives are not ignored in such a case, a real study of theology 
serves naturally to increase their power; for scientific interest is 
as certainly conditioned by religious interest, as the religious by 
the scientific. Each must increase with, and be nourished by, 

the other. 


Within the circle of the sciences persons may, moreover, be de- 
termined to theology by a variety of endowments. So philology 

^ .^. becomes for some the bridare into theolosrv, while others 

Premonitions . ® °' ' 

of a vocation come to it through philosophy, oratorical, or artistic 
to theology. gifts, or a talent for teaching. The future theologian 
may be suspected in the person who at school displays readiness in 
the acquisition or use of languages, just as a mind turned toward 
the natural sciences indicates the future physician, political econo- 
mist, or technicist.' 

As a preliminary qualification, the existence of a genuinely scien- 
tific spirit must be considered important. The more a religious 
mind is in earnest about the determination to study, the less will it 
yield to the vagary that piety can take the place of learning ; and 
the more thoroughly the studious disposition enters into science, the 
more powerful will be its conviction that a sound theology cannot 
exist without piety, since all theological truth becomes intelligible 
only in the light of religion. The sharp contrast between " pious " 
and "scientific" students can be obviated on no other principle. 

Without anticipating the discussion of the special place belong- 
ing to the clergy (§ 17), we now include them in the category of 
teachers, whose high importance demands recognition 
Sher?^the ^^"^^ ^^ ^- ^® therefore remark that the order of 
highest in so- teachers stands first among the cultivators of man's 
spiritual nature, and is superior, in this regard, to the 
legislative and artist classes. 

This exaltation of the teaching order is, however, in no wise in- 
tended to excite learned or spiritual pride. The agriculturist and 
the soldier are likewise of great importance to the organism of 
society ; and they, too, may, in the hand of God, become an element 
of culture and development. The cultivation of the soil was the 
most ancient teaching of mankind, and the sword of the warrior 

^ Great importance should be attached to such natural indications ; nothing is more 
hurtful than a human predestination to any study, and especially that of theology. 
The days when it was believed important to dedicate children in the cradle to God by 
devoting them to the pulpit, are probably over. But how many sons of clergymen 
adopt the paternal calling in obedience to family custom, without being inwardly 
moved thereto either by religious or scientific considerations ! The inclinations of a 
child or youth are not, of course, to be held decisive in every case ; but Goethe is 
probably correct when he says, *' Our desires are premonitions of the abilities that lie 
in us, intimations of what we shall be able to perform. The things we can and wish 
to accomplish present themselves to our imagination from without and as future ; we 
feel a longing for that which we already secretly possess." Autobiography, vol. i, 
pp. 331, 332. 


opened the earliest furrows into which the seed of culture might 
fall. Commerce and manufactures became the most powerful levers 
of culture in the Middle Ages. It accordingly is a blinded judg- 
ment which conceives of the height that industrial Teachers notan 
life has reached in our day, as being purely material- isolated order oi 
istic. The range of encyclopaedic culture involves ^°^^® ^' 
rather that such facts, however distant from the field of the- 
ology they may lie, should be estimated in accordance with their 
social importance; and to theology in particular, unless it prefers 
to perish in monastic isolation, belongs the task of comprehending 
these " secular matters " in their relations to the household of God 
and the sacred order of his kingdom, in harmony with the apostle's 
thought, " all things are yours." (1 Cor. iii, 21.) In that divine order 
each thing is linked with every other thing, and the most material 
elements strive to become spiritualized. Accordingly, the military 
calling finds its spiritual expression in legislation, and the handi- 
craft rises to the dignity of an art; but both legislation and art rise 
above the preliminary conditions illustrated by the soldier and the 
artisan, since the former not only controls wickedness by the re- 
straints of law, but also establishes the fundamental principles of 
behaviour in the State, and the latter does not confine itself to the 
adorning of the sensual life, but, in addition, spiritualizes the sen- 
sual in harmony with its ideal character, and employs it for ideal 

The legends of immemorial times, and the traditions of later ages, 
have always represented artists and legislators as the spiritual lead- 
ers of mankind, and as revealers of the godlike, who derived their 

origcin from heaven.^ They, too, are teachers of man- ^ 

o ^ . J ' 7 ^ The relation of 

kind in a certain sense, although not in the complete teaching to art 
and highest sense; for with the one the teaching ele- ^^<^iegisiation. 
ment is subordinate to the purposes of illustration, and with the 
other it is secondary to the idea of absolute rule. Mere law has in 
itself no life; its whole importance depends upon external condi- 
tions ; it can only determine the outward character of human action 
with reference to a given case. Habit and custom may enable the 
power of the law to penetrate into the depths of the moral disposi- 
tion, and from thence to put forth shoots; but law will never be 
able to develop the actual root of the moral life from within itself. 
Art, on the other hand, is uncertain and undecided in its effects. 
Every work of art is a concealed symbol, to be interpreted only 

^Odyss., xix, 1*79. Herod., i, 65. Plutarch, vita Lycurgi, c. 5; vita Numae, c. 4. 
Anthol. graeca, iv, 81. Philostrat. vita Apollonii, vi, 19. Jacobs, academische Re- 
den, i, 362. 


by the cultured person who has been initiated into the interior life 
of art; to the uncultivated mind it remains an unexplained hiero- 
glyphic/ But what is beyond the ability of both law and art is 
accomplished by the living word of teaching alone. It goes down 
into the depths of human dispositions, taps every vein, passes 
through every stage of culture, addresses both the child and the 
adult; and as the magic of art calls forth a god from the rough 
block of marble, so does the powerful magic of the word bring into 
view the image of God from the undeveloped spiritual tendencies 
in man. In this regard the teacher unites in himself, and with in- 
creased efficiency, the functions of both legislator and artist with 
reference to the cultivation of mankind. He is the bearer of the 
divine, an administrator in the domain of holy things, a priest of 
God. Without an order of teachers men would still be in a savage 
or half-civilized state. The heritage of culture is forever secured 
and guaranteed to a people only where wise men, scholars, philoso- 
phers, orators, poets, ^ prophets, authors, in one word, the instructors 
of manhind have by vivid employment of the vernacular given 
their intellectual treasures to the public, and, through the medium 
of a free circulation of ideas, have developed a common conscious- 
ness, the results so gained being embodied in history for the ben- 
efit of succeeding generations. 


Inasmuch as the teaching-order is preeminently the spiritual 
trainer of mankind, it follows that only a religion which has a 
body of doctrine, and consequently an order of teachers, will corre- 
spond to the idea of religion in its highest form. 

Religion (on its nature see infra, § 12), which we consider for the 
m^oment, in its general character, as the highest interest of man. 
Superiority of G<^^l<i Only appear, in any period, under the three forms 
the teaching of of Law, Art, and Teaching, discussed in the preceding 
trine to law Section. The laws of ancient peoples were religiously 
and art. sacred; priests and scholars were at the same time polit- 

ical and religious personages. This fact rests upon the truth that 
ideas of right have their origin in the eternal laws of reason, and, 

* Griineisen, referring to Grecian art, observes very correctly : " It was the lack of 
positiveness, power, and depth, the unsettled and undecided elements in the moral 
consciousness, and its influence over the world- view and artistic conceptions of the 
Greeks, that permitted illusions and immorality to intrude upon this field also, and 
that in the end opposed with steadily decreasing energy the superior force of moral 
corruption." Compare his treatise, Ueber das Sittliche der bildenden Kunst bei deu 
Griechen, p. 14. 

* Poets convey art and instruction through spirit and word. 


therefore, in the Divine; but what was true in the idea became 
perverted by the abuse of the spirit in the letter. The law can 
only represent the eternal by an inadequate comparison with the 
temporal, whose conditions are limited and modified by existing 
states. When circumstances undergo a change, the law becomes 
a dead statute. Law is moreover deficient in seizing upon only a 
single aspect of religion — that of unconditional obedience and the 
consequent recompense. It knows nothing of an unconstrained 
love and enthusiasm. Upon this latter point art is in advance of 
law. It assumes the infinite (ideal), and makes that its object; but 
in the qualities in which law is too rigid, art appears entirely too 
free and unrestrained. The moral element, which appears in the 
law under the rigid form of commandment, is here entirely subor- 
dinate; it is neither desired nor allowed to become prominent, for 
fear that it might injure the purposes of art which accounts for 
the mongrel character of all didactic poetry ; but art can never 
displace doctrine, because its function is not, primarily, to teach. 

A merely aesthetic religion, a mere " worship of genius," is quite 
as deficient as a merely legal religion. The latter lacks the power^ 
the former the discipline, of the spiritual element; the one is deficient 
in not providing for the free exercise of the religious disposition, 
the other in not possessing the strict principles and the impelling 
power of the ethical.^ It follows that the doctrine, the word, in- 
struction, and sermon {6idaxf\^ Aoyo^, Karrj^rjai^, Kij^vyfia) occupy 
a higher place than either law or art, the two inadequate modes of 
revealing the life of religion. Teaching possesses the ability to 
excite the entire man to action. It arouses feeling — to create it is 
beyond its ability also — develops the understanding, and gives 
direction, although not ability, to the will. It lifts man out of the 
undecided chaos of impressions into a harmoniously-developed ra- 
tional life, and treats him as a free, self-determining nature. It is 
the "fountain of life, to depart from the snares of death" (Prov- 
erbs xiii, 14), 


The conclusion reached in the foregoing discussion may be his- 
torically illustrated by the Jewish, heathen, and Christian religions, 
since the development of Judaism has been chiefly in the direction 
of law, of heathenism in the direction of art, and of Christianity in 
the direction of doctrine. 

The Jews were the people under the law {ol vnd rov vo^iov). The 

* Valuable observations on this point iu Ullmann's work, Der Cultus des Genius, 
Hamb., 1840. 


law was conditioned by the theocracy. So long as the latter con- 
superiority of tinned, the law retained the peculiar importance as- 
the teaching signed to it in the Divine economy (John iv, 22). It con- 
and art iUus- tained elements (aroi%em) of Divine training that tended 
trated. toward a higher development, and became a school- 

master (jTaidayojydg) working toward perfection (Gal. iii, 24; iv, 3). 
The prophetical institution was already introduced as the necessary 
complement of the law, and of the priesthood founded upon law. 
A still more decided turning toward doctrine is apparent after the 
Captivity. Provision for teaching is made in the synagogues, 
which, however, affords opportunity for the perversions of Phari- 
saism to vaunt themselves, until the true Teacher, sent of God, 
appears in Israel. In ancient heathenism art formed the leading 
element of religion, attaining its highest development in Hellen- 
ism (the gods of Greece)/ While, however, the Jews strove in 
vain to express from the rind of the law the last drop of the juice 
of life, and the statues of gods left the heart as cold as the marble 
from which they were carved, and while only a dreamy suspicion of 
the existence of an " unknown God" pervaded the nations, the hu- 
manized divine doctrine, the Logos, the Word from heaven that 
was made flesh,^ was walking quietly and humbly among men in the 
form of a servant, and scattering the seed which should produce 
the Divine regeneration of the nations. Preaching gave birth to 
faith (Rom. x, IV), and faith to love, while love bloomed in the life 
that conquers death. The worship of God in spirit and in truth 
took the place of the law, and the altar of "the unknown God" 
received name and significance. 

The inter-relation of these elements should, however, be ob- 
served. In each of the religious systems to which we have re- 
ferred, the three, law, art, and doctrine, exist, although in vary- 

^ "Heathenism," says Rust (Philos. u. Christenthum, 2 ed., p. 103), "had no lumi- 
nous teaching in which the result of the development of its religious life was laid 
down, and it had no need for it. Instead of doctrine, it cultivates a mighty symbol- 
ism^ which has emanated from its own being, a concrete representation of its relig- 
ious spirit to the senses." (Also in Griineisen, at § Y.) "Nowhere in heathendom 
does the human spirit rise above natural conceptions. In the figures of his gods the 
heathen beholds simply the form of his own being." " Schenkel, Der ethische Char- 
akter des Christenthums, in Gelzer's Prot. Monatsbl., ISSV, p. 44; comp., also, p. 47: 
" The pagan systems of religion exhaust their strength in the effort to construct a 
thoughtful and frequently artistic symbolism. They are extravagant in ceremonial 
manipulations and changeless customs, but indifferent about moral manifestations, and 
unconcerned about the eternal nature of things." 

^ It is scarcely necessary to observe that no attempt to exhaust the Logos idea, in 
an exegetical or dogmatic way, is here implied. 


ing proportions and combinations. Not only does Judaism, by vir- 
tue of its worship, include artistic elements, and the law 

T . T • 1 l^'dw. Art, and 

stand forth m religious dignity among the heathen, but Doctrine co-re- 

doctrine also seeks to gain acceptance with both Jews ^^^^^' 
and pagans. The prophetic order toiled for this among the Jews, 
as did philosophy among the Greeks. The great importance of 
Socrates consists in this, that he turned the attention of philosophy 
away from nature and toward man, that he aroused reflection upon 
moral and religious questions, and that he represented in himself 
the noblest work of art — a moral renovation. Christianity, on the 
other hand, includes in its constitution both law and art; for to the 
extent to which " man's highest work of art is man," ^ will appear 
the representation of a pure man, which existed in Socrates only as 
an effort, in absolute perfection in Christ, the Divine Son of man; 
hence the ideal Christ represents art's highest task. Christ, in like 
manner, came not to destroy the law, but to fulfil it ; in harmony 
with which principle, it cannot be disguised that modern art and 
the public life of modern nations are essentially determined by the 
teachings of Christianity. That Christianity is not a mere abstract 
system of doctrine, but a living loord, a higher law, and independent 
(art-) work of the Spirit, will appear from what follows. 


The teaching function of Christianity is more strongly empha- 
sized by Protestantism than by Roman Catholicism, since the latter 
elevates law and art, at least to the level of doctrine, while with 
the former doctrine holds the first place. 

In the apostolic age teaching was the leading element, most fully 

developed in the Pauline Christianity, while the Ebionitish Judaiz- 

ing Christianity retained a legal character, and Gnosticism severed 

the doctrine from its historical foundations, and carried it back into 

mvtholoffv. At a later period' the body of doctrine, 

♦^ *. , , ^. , , T . . ^, ^ ' The teaching 

after having been speculatively and ecclesiastically de- function more 

veloped, was held in the unyielding restrictions of prXSantisirr 
dogma, and became rigid. A theoretical legalism was than in Rom- 
developed side by side with a practical righteousness ^"^^°^* 
of works, and as the latter manifested itself, as formerly in Juda- 
ism, only in the performance of ecclesiastical ceremonies, a supera- 
bundance of symbolic and artistic matter was produced, which, in 
its turn, served to encourage the legal spirit. The two elements 
are combined in the established canon of the mass. The unlicensed 
sensuality of common life at last resulted again in heathenism; but 

^UUmann, Cultus des Genius, p. 57. 


while art celebrated its prosperous condition in modern Rome over 
the ruins of the Apostolic Church, the restoration of the word to its 
primitive authority, and the preaching of the free doctrines of the 
Gospel, were being accomplished in Germany and Switzerland/ 
From this time forward the sermon became the heart and centre of 
Protestant worship, to an extent which compels the admission that 
in some instances the element of teaching received undue promi- 
nence, to the exclusion of every thing artistic, and even that doc- 
trine itself hardened into legalism, which gave rise to reactionary 
movements endangering the existence of the Protestant faith. 

Although the religious instructor belongs preeminently to the 
order of teachers, he is still so far to be distinguished from the sci- 
entific instructor, as religion is not bare knowledge, and therefore 
cannot be taught and acquired directly, and without the interven- 
tion of other agencies. 

The position of We have now reached that point in the field of learn- 
the ^^ religious -j^^ ^^^ which the different courses and methods of study 
other teachers, may be distinguished from each other. With respect 
to methods of instruction the clergyman, as a teacher of adults, 
holds a position midway between the teacher of youth and the aca- 
demical professor. Being addressed to adults, his teachings will 
assume a more elaborate character, and take a higher range than 
those of the teacher of youth; but as they do not subserve a purely 
scientific purpose, they will be more popular and less purely didactic 
than those of the academical instructor. The sermon, moreover, is 
not to become a mere intellectual discourse, though the preacher 
should never cease to be a teacher.'^ The clergyman, in the exer- 
cise of both his catechetical and his pastoral duties, divides the 
function of training with the teacher of youth. The subject-matter 
of his instructions is determined by the peculiar nature of religion 
itself, to which we now direct attention. 

' The Lutheran Reformation in Germany bore predominantly the character of a re- 
action against the Judaism that had intruded into the Churcli, while the Reformed, in 
Switzerland, was chiefly a reaction against paganism. This distinction is, however, 
only relative. Comp. Al. Schweizer in the Introduction to the Glaubenslehre der 
evang.-reformirten Kirche, Zurich, 1844. 

^ " The clergyman should be both preacher and teacher of religion. It is even im- 
possible, in various regards, for him to be a genuine teacher, without being, at the 
same time, a preacher, and introducing one element of the sermon — illustrative dis- 
course — into his teaching ; and he cannot be a true preacher of religion without being 
at the sa<ne time a teacher, and basing his entire preaching upon his teaching func- 
tion, so as to connect it with, and ground it in, the doctrine itself." — K. Sack, Werth 
u. Reiz d. Theologie, Sixth Discourse, p. 92. 




Elwert, Das Wesen der Religion, etc., in Tub. Zeitsehr. fiir Theologie, 1833, No. 3 ; 
Reich, Das Schleiermachersche Religionsgefiihl, in Stud. u. Krit, 1846, No. 4, p. 845; 
Herra. Renter, Die Religion als die Ureinheit des Bewnsstseins, in Hanov. Vierteljahrs- 
scrift, Gott., 1846, No. 4; J. P. Lange, Phil. Dogmatik, p. 183, sqq.; E. Zeller, in 
Tub. Jahrbb., 1845; D. Schenkel, in Herzog's Encycl., s. v., Abhangigkeitsgefiihl ; 
Tholuck, id., s. v., Gefiihl, iv, p. 704, sqq.; C. D. Kelbe, psychischer Ursprung u. Ent- 
wicklungsgang der Religion, Brunswick, 1833 ; Carlblom, Das Gefiihl in seiner Be- 
deutung fiir den Glauben (Religionsplul.) ; H. Paret, Eintheilung der Religionen, in 
Stud. u. Krit., 1855, No. 2; Jul. Kostlin, in Herzog, s. v., Religion, xii, p. 641, sqq.; 
Jens Baggesen, Phil. Nachlass, 2 vols., 1858-63 ; Jiiger, Was ist Religion? in Jahrbb. 
fiir deutsche Theologie, x, No. 4, p. 118, sqq.; Bobertag, Einige neuere Bestimmungen 
d. Begriffes d. Religion, id., xi, No. 2, p. 254 ; Tolle, Die Wissenschaf t der Religion, 
2 vols., 1865-71 ; Pfleiderer, Die Religion, ihr Wesen u. ihre Geschichte, 2 vols., 1869 ; 
Fauth, Ueber die Frommigkeit, in Stud. u. Krit., 1870, No. 4; Biedermann, Bilanz iib. 
d. rationellen GrundbegrifPe der Religion, in Zeitsehr. f. Wiss. Theologie, 1871, No. 1. 
(Comp, the literature on the philosophy of religion, § 30.) 

Religion (piety, the fear of God, godliness, mh' nxT, (p6(iog rbv 

•^eov, evaefieia) is, primarily, neither knowledge nor ac- Deflnition of 
tion, but rather a definite state of feeling, which is to religion. 
be developed into a clear and rational consciousness through the 
exercise of intelligent reflection, and into a firmly established dis- 
position through the moral determination of the will. As the true 
principle of life, it is to permeate the whole inner man (6 eacx) dv- 
'dgcjTTog), and to manifest itself externally as the highest fruitage of 
human nature.^ 

An objection might be raised at the outset against the use of the 
Latin term religion (from religio), and "godliness" be suggested as 

a substitute: but if Hase's definition,^ that, obiectively 

-, ,. . . , , . '. / . •; Scope of the 

considered, religion is man s relation to the mnnite, and word religion, 

that, subiectively, it is the determination of human life andthedistiuc- 

'•'.•" ^ , ^ tion between 

by that relation, be accepted, " godliness " and similar it and various 

terms will be inadequate, as indicating only the subjec- ° ^^ ^^™^" 

tive side of religion. The word "faith" is likewise not entirely 

sufiicient ; for, as David Schulz (Die Chr., Lehre von Glauben, 

2 ed., p. 104) observes: "In the word religion, for which the Bible 

* On the etymology of the word (whether from relegere, Cicero, De nat. deor, ii, 8, or 
from religare, Lactantius, Inst, div., iv, 28 ; or even from relinquere, M. Sabin., in 
Gellius Noctt. Att., iv, 9), comp. Nitzsch, Religionsbegriff d. Alten, in Stud. u. Krit., 
i, No. 3; *J. G. Miiller, Ueber Bildung und Gebrauch d. Wortes Religio, Basle, 1834; 
C. A. Dietrich, De etymol. vocis religio, Schneeb., 1836 ; K. F. Braunig, Religio nach 
Ursprung u. Bedeutung erortert, Leips., 1837. Also, Rohr's Krit. Predigerbibl, xviii, 3, 
p. 248, sqq. ; Redslob, Sprachl. Abhandll. zur Theologie, Leips., 1840, and Stud. u. 
Krit., 1842, No. 2. 

*Lehrbuch der ev. Dogmatik, 1838, § 2. 


has no special term, but which in the Now Testament is generally- 
represented by nlarig and Tnareveiv, wb conceive of all the rela- 
tions of man to God in their entirety and their connexions wiih 
each other. The fear of God, trust in God, love, reverence, piety, 
hope, all express definite and particular relations of the rational 
creature towards the Deity, and therefore constitute separate feat- 
ures of religion." However inadequate this term may be, there- 
fore, when the object is to illustrate a decided piety, it is yet con- 
venient and even indispensable, whenever choice or necessity com- 
pels a more general discussion, as in scientific exposition. 

Thus much on the word. A^'^ith reference to its interpretation, it 
is to be observed that the older method, dating from Buddaeus, 
by which "religio" is taken as equivalent to "modus Deum cog- 
noscendi et colendi," has been shaken in both its members by the 
more recent definition, which, according to Schleiermacher,^ denies 
that religion is either bare knowledge or action. 

]. It is not simply knowledge. Cicero's derivation (from relegere), 

and, to some extent, the scriptural and popular usa^e^ 

Religion Is not . ,, ^ ,, ..^, 

merely knowi- (mn^ n;'"], encyvojaig rov icvpiov), seem to justiiy the ren- 
dering of religion by "knowledge," inasmuch as it may 
be both taught and learned. But, practically, religion presents a 
somewhat abnormal appearance among the courses of study in an 
institution of learning ; and it cannot be said, with the same pro- 
priety, that a student is a good religionist as that he is a good 
philologist, mathematician, geographer, etc. The maxim that re- 

* Glaubensl., i, § 8. Schleiermacher, however, was neither the first nor the only 
person who regarded religion as a matter of feeling. Without recurring to the 
earliest period and to mysticism, we may notice that Zwingle defined religion to be 
devotion to God, hence an inclination and determination of the feelings, (De vera 
relig., p. 51 ; Yera religio vel pietas haec est, quae uni solique, Deo haeret.) Among 
moderns the emotional theory, with various modifications, has been adopted by 
Herder, Jacobi, Lavater (Biographie von Gessner, iii, p. 151), Clodius, Fries, de 
Wette, Twesten, Benj. Constant, and, with si)ecial thoroughness, by Elwert. The 
philologist, J. G. Hermann, expresses similar views (in his oration at the jubilee of 
the Leipsic reformation, p. 6) ; Non enim mentis, sed pectoris est pietas ; and also 
Bulwer (England, i, 2), " Religion must be a sentiment, an emotion, forever present 
with us, pervading, colouring, and exalting all." An additional question concerns the 
adequacy of the term "feeling" itself, which must be settled by what follows in 
the text, 

^ It is evident, however, that the exercise of reflection and the scrupulous exami- 
nation into questionable features, which are involved in the term religio, in their turn 
direct attention to a state of feeling that lies at the basis of all such questionings. 
The knowledge, moreover, to which the Scriptures refer, is a practical heart-knowl- 
edge. It is also significant that the Hebrew regarded the heart (^^5) ^s the seat of 


ligion is a concern of the intellect is, moreover, subject to various 
interpretations. The lowest view would be that which it is not bare 
makes it a mere matter of memory, which is often done ^0,^^^^^ ^ 
in practice. The memory should certainly not be ex- the memory. 
eluded, for all positive religion rests upon tradition, and religious 
instruction properly begins with impressing on the memory the 
facts of religion and its truths as conveyed in proverbs, hymns, etc. 
This, however, must be regarded simply as a method of reaching 
the heart, in which the scattered seed is to take root and grow, so 
as to exert an influence over the dispositions and the character. 
Such one-sided cultivation of the memory, and the contentment with 
such religious knowledge, constitutes a dead orthodoxy. 

Another doctrine advocates a different view. Religion is not to 
engage the memory alone, but is to be received into the understand- 
i,ng and wrought over by it. Some try to improve on j^. ^g j^^^ ^isire 
this by substituting the word reason, though they often knowledge, as 
mean the understanding simply, ^. e., the logically an- the under- 
alytic and synthetic faculties of the mind, or also a standing. 
sound common-sense, which, without being conscious of its proc- 
esses, instinctively discovers the right. No sensible person will 
deny that understanding is necessary in all things, and religion 
among the rest, and the Scriptures concur in attributing proper dig- 
nity to this faculty.^ Experience teaches, however, that bare intel- 
lectual knowledge is by no means identical with religious knowledge. 
The work of the understanding in the field of religion is strictly crit- 
ical, and, therefore, negative. It strips off the robes of figurative 
speech from religious conceptions, guards against misapprehen- 
sions and stupidity, and, like a current of fresh air, becomes a 
healthful corrective to religious feeling; but there is unceasing 
necessity that it be confined within its proper limits and reminded 
that the infinite cannot be embraced within the range of finite 
ideas. An exclusive tendency to cultivate the understanding con- 
stitutes a false rationalism. 

Science, however, presses its claims from a third point of view. 
In opposition to both a formal orthodoxy and an intel- it is not a 

lectual rationalism, it contends that relis^ion belono-s transcendental 
' . o &" knowledge of 

to the department of a higher knowledge. It takes the absolute, 
exclusive possession of the term reason, and declares that religion 
belongs to the field of the thinking spirit, which mediates all con- 

* Jesus was pleased when the scribe answered him " discreetly " {vovvexiog), Mark 
xii, 34 ; and St. Paul counsels Christians to be children in malice, but men in under- 
standing. 1 Cor. xiv, 20. The Old Testament, likewise, connects the religious dispo- 
sition with the understanding (n>3), Pro v. ix, 10, and elsewhere. 


trasts, and penetrates and energizes all things (knowledge of the 
absolute). Not the dead conception, but the living idea, forms 
the element in which religion lives. Short-sighted understanding 
cannot penetrate to the highest ideas of reason. We agree to this : 
but we question whether reason as here described is innate to the 
mind, instead of being the product of the feelings and the under- 
standing — a resultant higher unity of the two. It is a further ques- 
tion whether the grasping of this idea or whatever phrase may be 
applied to it is itself religion and eternal life, or whether reason 
as thus conceived is not rather a mere phantom of the mind, so long 
as it is not the reflex of a profound personal feeling and experience. 
As the word reason is, with rationalists, often merely a sort of 
Sunday suit in which ordinary understanding clothes itself, so the 
same word serves with idealists to conceal an arbitrary poetizing 
fancy, which is incapable of satisfying either the feelings or the 
understanding.^ That imagination in its proper character is not 
the source of religion will be universally conceded, although it 
must be allowed, like every other faculty, to share in the religious 

The following general considerations should be brought to bear 
against the assumption that religion is merely an intellectual 
affair : — 

1. If religion were simply this, it would follow that knowledge 
Evidence that ^^^ right thinking concerning it would determine the 
religion is not measure of piety. Our own ae^e ou2!:ht to be more 

exclusively the i ./ o o 

product of the pious than former ages, philosophers than the public, 
intellect. j^gj^ than women, adults than children. Why was sal- 

vation transmitted through the Jews, rather than through the 
schools of Greece ? Why did God conceal it from the wise men 
of this world, and reveal it to babes and sucklings ? Why did the 
renaissance of learning simply prepare the way for the Reforma- 
tion, instead of completing it? Why is the finely-cultured Erasmus 
eclipsed by Luther, his inferior in culture ? 

2. If knowledge were to constitute religion, the Church (com- 
munion of believers) would possess no value, and must become 
transformed into a community of the learned, or school. The dif- 
ferent degrees of learning among its members would produce an 

' Comp. C. A. Thilo, Die Wissenschaftlichlieit der modernen speculativen Theologie 
in ihren Principien beleuchtet, Leipsic, 1851 — a book that deserves to be noticed, 
despite its prudish bearing towards all religious speculation, since it urges soberness 
and watchfulness. 

^ Ullmann has beautifully developed this idea in Theol. Aphorismen, in Stud. u. 
Krit., 1844, p. 417, sqq. 


esoteric and an exoteric class, so that " many men of many minds " 
might be said of this community, but not "one heart and one soul." 
[f such descriptions are heard even now, it is the result of the fact 
simply, that in the Church undue importance has been attached to 
learning, and theology has been allowed to supplant religion. Sec- 
tarianism and controversial tendencies have their origin chiefly in a 
false assertion of the claims of knowledge, and in a lack of purity 
and simplicity of faith.' 

3. If thinking and investigation constituted the peculiar organs 
of religion, their exercise ought to produce religious satisfaction, 
and religious inspiration ought to reach its highest energy during 
the process of thinking ; and in like manner religion should decrease 
in moments when the faculty of thought is impaired or restrained, 
e. g., in old age," and upon the sick and dying-bed, while the truth 
is, that, under precisely such circumstances, it often appears in its 
highest perfection. The emphasis placed upon thinking is mis- 
placed ; for in the vocabulary of religion the emphasis rests rather 
upon feeling. "When the Quietists asserted that the most perfect 
prayer is that in which thought has no place, they were guilty of 
exaggeration verging upon the absurd ; but a profounder truth 
lies at the basis of the apparent absurdity, which is wholly over- 
looked by those whose views would reduce even prayer to a mere 
arithmetical example. 

II. Religion is not merely action. The idea that re- Religion not 
ligion is altogether a doing, a moral determination of ^^^^^^ action. 
the will, has even more support than that which identifies it w^ith 
knowledge. " If ye know these things, happy are ye if ye do them " 

^ A fact stated by an old Reformed Theologian, Keckermann, Is generally forgotten 
(he himself overlooked it occasionally), namely, that theology is not simply a disci- 
plina contemplatrix, but also operatrix. See Al. Schweizer's Ref. Dogmatik, p. 103. 
The members of the general S}Tiods of Bergen, beginning with A. D. 1680, were, 
on the same principle, required to pledge themselves to the studium pietatis as 
well as the studium orthodoxige. The excessive importance attached to the so-called 
Confessions is evidently owing to the misconception that religion has its seat in the 
cavities of the brain instead of the chambers of the heart, or that it may be preserved 
in formulas, as anatomical subjects are preserved in alcohol. 

2 For a remarkable psychological proof of the fact that religious ideas are capable 
of being clearly present to the consciousness, independently of other processes of 
thought, and even under circumstances when the power to think is departing, comp. 
John Spalding's Life of his Son, G. L. Spalding (Halle, 1804), p. 188, sqq., note, and 
also the death of Schleiermacher, in W. von Humboldt's Briefe an eine Freundin, ii, 
p. 259. Schenkel's remark is, therefore, of great force : " The religious consciousness 
is infinitely greater than the world-consciousness, even as God is infinitely greater than 
the world ; and it, therefore, contains a fountain of inexhaustible power and perennial 
comfort." — Dogmatik, i, p. 153. 


(John xiii, 17.) It is sustained also by the expressions nin' 'nm bddg 
rov Kvplov, mb;', ■^grjaKela, deQaneia, epya, Kapnog, etc., religio (in the 

sense of conscientiousness), and by popular usage, according to 
which a pious person is the same as one who is good or uprio-ht 
(SiKatog), and which conceives of virtue and godliness as being iden- 
tical. There are, however, different methods of conceiving religion 
as confined to the sphere of action. The lowest view, a counterpart 
of that which places it in the memory, regards piety altogether 
Not action in as a work to be outwardly performed (opus operatum), 
mecScamo- ^ "^^^'^ ^^^^^ mechanical doing. It is evident that this 
ing of works, does not deserve the name of religion. It is to be 
observed, on the other hand, that they who contemplate religion 
chiefly with the miderstanding , generally identify it with 7noral- 
ity (the Kantean, rationalistic view), or, at any rate, regard as 
essential to religion only such elements as will promote the moral 
Religion not ^'^^^t^^^^my of reason. A higher view (corresponding to 
identical with the speculative theory, among those wha assign religion 
mora i y. ^^ ^^^ intellect) makes religion an internal activity, or 

an action of the spirit in us. If the latter expression be not a mere 
speculative phrase, behind which moral indifference may hide, it 
may be understood, in the Christian sense, as a work of the Divine 
Spirit in us, and therefore as equivalent to "regeneration." The 
supporters of this opinion add that at bottom piety is concerned to 
Not identical bring abouL the improvement or sanctification of our 
posed spiritual dispositions and our walk ; so that here rationalism and 
activity. pietism agree in the practical demand that religion mitst 

produce residts. To insist upon religious action does not, hoAvever, 
constitute a proof that religion in its last analysis is action. In 
opposition to this view we present the following: — 
Tbe reasons for 1. While religion and morality coincide in their high- 
*^eUo-u?n ^^^and ^^* development, so that a true religion without morality 
morauty. and a true morality without religion are equally incon- 

ceivable,^ they are yet clearly distinguished in their details as well 

^ Rothe (Anfange der Christlichen Kirche, p. 27) remarks : " A complete morality, 
which is not in its positive aspects substantially religious, does not exist. In the 
same proportion in which morality should not have acquired the certainty of religion 
(the certainty of conscious dependence upon God) would its development as morality 
be deficient," K3'm (Die Weltanschauungen und deren Consequenzen, Zurich, 1854, 
p. 9) : "A religion that should not pass over into morality, and through this into life, 
would be a centre without circumference, therefore a half, and accordingly untrue, 
unreal religion. A morality that should have no connexion with the Deity would be 
without depth and without a last (?) central point The morality which separates it- 
self from religion is likely to become self -righteousness and self-satisfaction, because it 
lacks provision for the judgment of self. Hence faith is the creative reason of love." 


as their general character. A genuine piety is found to exist in 
which the moral element leaves much to be desired, but which can- 
not be justly rated as hypocrisy; and there are many poorly- 
behaved and ill-bred children of God who yet know that God is 
exercising discipline over them, and submit to his authority. This 
was true of David and other Old Testament characters. Without 
this presumption it becomes impossible to understand the Old Test- 
ament as a whole,^ and also the Middle Ages, with their profound 
apprehension of God and their boundless immorality. 

The period of the Reformation asid modern pietism might also 
furnish illustrations of this point.'^ On the other hand. Morality and 
the piety of many is put to shame by the existence of ^^gj^^^ f^^^l 
a praiseworthy and correct morality, which has grown separated. 
beyond a mere legality, and become moral self-respect and self- 
control, in a measure compelling approval and admiration, which 
yet lacks the sanctions and the impulse of religion; i. e., a definite 
relation towards God and eternity. This applies not only to the 
stoicism of the ancients, but also to the categorical imperative of 
Kant, and the morality of cultivated persons in our day. While, 
therefore, morality and religion belong together, and in their ulti- 
mate development must coincide, they may yet be logically distin- 
guished, and bear a separate character in the lower stages of their 
development even in actual life. It is, however, the mark of a 
truly religious disposition, that, when moral imperfection or sin is 
recognized, it should be acknowledged as shi, and as a wrong com- 
mitted against God (" I have sinned against heaven and in thy 
sight," Luke xv, 21) ; and that the soul should bow before God, and 
humble itself and repent. Morality without religion knows nothing 
of sin as such, but recognizes only moral deficiency; and it therefore 
substitutes " self -improvement " for repentance. Sin and repent- 
ance are religious-ethical ideas. ^ 

2. Morality presupposes capacity^ developed by practice, and 

evidencins: itself in a series of moral actions or denials. „ ,. . . . 

... . . . . . Religion IS ong- 

Religion is original poioer, original spiritual life, and is inai spiritual 

concentrated upon a single point. It stands related to P°^®^- 

^All objections against the moral character of the patriarchs are founded on this 

^ What a contrast exists between the spiritual songs and the passionate polemical 
writings of Angelus Silesius (Scheffler) ! a contrast so great as to apparently require 
that two different persons be assumed in explanation of their authorship (comp. Kahl- 
ert, Ang. Silesius, Breslau, 1853, conclusion). A similar contrast is presented by the 
Lutheran poet Philip Nicolai, whose hymns breathe a profound piety, while his con- 
troversial works bear witness to a morality by no means refined (comp. Schweizer, 
Prot. Centraldogmen, p. 584). 


morality as genius to talent in the sphere of art. Men of genius 
may exist who possess a rich fund of intellectual conceptions, but 
who nevertheless are exceedingly awkward in the application of 
technical rules, while others may work in obedience to the highest 
rules of art to represent utterly commonplace ideas; and a similar 
distinction holds good between morality and religion. The real 
master, of course, is he whose talent has become subservient to 
genius, and impregnated by it. 

3. Moral action is determined by the external conditions of life. 
Moral action and its range is confined within the limits of such con- 
uutwaxd^con- f^i^ions. The castaway cannot employ his morality in 
ditions. the solitude of his island, unless moral self-respect 
should become for him a mode of worship, and thus idolatry supply 
the place of religion. The religious life, on the contrary, may ap- 
pear in its highest perfection under circumstances of quiet seclusion 
from the world. ^ Anchoretism, like Quietism, is a morbid phenom- 
enon; but it arises from the truth that a religious person, unlike the 
merely moral man, has occasional need of solitude; and the ideal 
element in such phenomena can be properly estimated only from a 
religious point of view. 

4. The moral life needs no worship ; the moral action constitutes 
Religion re- its cult. The religious life likewise finds expression 
Sn^actionfor ^^ ^^^ion : "By their fruits ye shall know them." But 
its expression, it seeks, in addition, to manifest itself symbolically in 
words and imagery. It seeks to express itself in prayer, to portray 
itself in art, to communicate itself to others, and, when rejected by 
them, to commune Avith God himself. It was because of this that 
the conduct of Mary Magdalene was incomprehensible to the pro- 
saic company of banqueters; and similarly a rational morality still 
asks, " Why this waste ? " whenever the religious life finds expres- 
sion without regard to utility: "The money might be given to the 
poor," etc. A community founded simply on morality would not, 
as Kant conceived, exhaust the idea of the Church. It could only 
have either a negative tendency, like a temperance union, or an in- 
structive purpose, as in schools of morality and lectures, which, 
however, are no longer necessary to the advanced learner, or, finally, 
it must aim at practical results in the outward life (benevolent and 
mutual aid societies). The Church-union is grounded in a totally 
different want, and it is a misconception of the religious idea to re- 

^ In the exercise of religion man is primarily concerned for himself ; he alone is in- 
volved therein, in his relation towards God. In this he is alone with his God. . . . For 
this very reason the view that religion in itself is the relation of the individual to the 
community, or of the community to the individual, is erroneous. Schenkel, 1. c. p. 156. 


gard a congregation of worshippers as belonging to any of the above 
classes. Are prayer and the sacraments simply means for the pro- 
motion of virtue ? and are they necessary only to the weak ? Let it 
be remembered that the ideal of the Church is not the ecdesia niil- 
itans, but the ecdesia triumphans, the glorified community of 
heaven, which is exalted above all conflict. Religion is not only to 
accomplish something for God, but to receive something from him 
(the idea of grace), and is ultimately to rejoice in God, and find its 
perfect rest and satisfaction in him (the idea of glory). 

5. Morality is based on the ideas of independence and self-deter- 
mination; religion on those of dependence and direc- Morality is 
tion from above. The two do not exclude each other, based on iMe- 

. . pendence, re- 

and are even necessarily conjomed, though they may ligion on de- 
be separately considered. The religious element may pendence. 
predominate at one time, and the moral at another, in the life of 
every individual, and as the result of his circumstances and dis- 
position. The most perfect state, however, is that in which religion 
transfigures morality, and in which the moral attests the religious 

III. Should religion, then, be considered a matter of feeling ^^ 

Loud protest is raised against this view. Baume^arten- ^ • ^ , 

i , * . , ° In what sense 

Crusius has most forcibly included the various objec- is religion root- 
tions to it in the sentence, "No one who understands ®<^^^^66^°s^ 
himself, and who is concerned to attain to an assured and definite 
life, will make feeling the basis of religion."" The problem pre- 
sented will be solved, however, if we set the idea of religious feel- 
ing in a clear light, and show that a " definite and assured life " 
may exist in connexion with it when properly understood. 

A clear apprehension of this subject is certainly necessary, for 
the name of religious feeling is not due to all that lays claim there- 
to.^ It will be needful, first of all, to exclude the sensuous feeling^ 

^ "Although religion and morality are two noble buds upon a single stalk, they have 
nevertheless their respective shoots and crowns. For religion is nothing else than a 
conscious life-connexion with God, a conscious dependence of the finite spirit upon |;he 
infinite. The flower could not lose the feeling of connexion with its roots, were it, 
like man, capable of feeling. Religion is in a derived sense only a matter in which 
the thinking and volitional spirit is concerned ; primarily, it is the feeling of the re- 
lations our life sustains to God." — Tholuck, Gesprache iiber d. vornehmsten Glaubens- 
fragen der Zeit, Halle, 1846, p. 60. 

- Einl. in die Dogmatik, p. 64. 

^Steffens beautifully remarks: "While the term 'feeling' maybe indefinite, and 
not entirely appropriate, this feeling (of Schleiermacher) was more comprehensive ; it 
contained a life and consciousness of its own, and designated the sacred ground of its 
own origin^ — Christliche Religionsphil., p. 11. 


to which some have applied the term sensibility .^ It would be 

danarerous to assume that the most impressible, emo- 
Rellgious feel- . ° n t • n • 

ing not mere tional, sensually and intellectually excitable persons are 

sensibiuty. ^^ ^^^^ account the most pious. They who are unable 

to conceive the subject in a different aspect from this are entirely 

justified in rejecting a religion of feeling at the outset, and taking 

refuge in a religion of action. Spalding's essay, On the Value of 

the Religious Feeling, will continue to assert its force against such 

defenders of sentimentalism, even though, like many others, he fails 

to comprehend the true nature of feeling. That Schleiermacher, 

the keen dialectician, whose sermons have even been described as 

icy-cold, should have advocated mere sensibility, can be asserted 

only by persons who are determined to misunderstand. Nor is ms- 

„ ,. . ^ thetic feeling intended. A certain relation of art and 

Religious not ^, ^ 

the same asses- poetry to religion cannot be denied; but it would be 
ee mg. Yejjt^i-esQjiig ^q assert that all who are unable to appre- 
ciate art, or, more boldly still, who are not endowed with creative 
imagination,^ are thereby unfitted for religion ; or, on the contrary, 
to maintain that the greatest poet, painter, or, possibly, even the 
most eminent actor, is therefore the most pious man. We are com- 
pelled to acknowledge that often the devotees of the beautiful and 
the priests in the service of genius resemble the parasitic plants, 
which fix themselves upon the sacred blossom of religion, and ex- 
tract from it the life-giving sap ; ^ while, on the other hand, the 

^ The usage upon this point is, apparently, not yet settled. It is as allowable to 
speak of a sensibility for religious and material things, as of feeling for them. We 
shall not err greatly, however, if we consider sensibility as excited more particularly 
by impressions received from without, while feeling is a spiritual faculty that is rooted 
in the inmost depths of our being. Hence it might be more proper to attribute sensi- 
bility than feeling to brutes. Sensibility is more especially related to the perceptive 
faculty, and to the individual object upon which it is engaged (thus, the eye is sensi- 
ble of the entering ray of light) ; in feeling, the subject and the object are more inti- 
mately combined (I feel myself blessed). In this view we coincide with Carlblom, 
who finds in sensation single points of contact between the subject and the object, 
while 'va. feeling he discovers the collective relations between the two — "the collective 
impressions made upon the subject by the object as a whole," or " the uplifting of the 
subject through the ideal power of an object " (inspiration). Comp. p. 2 ; also, Twes- 
ten, Einl. zur Dogmatik ; Kym, 1. c, p. 5. 

^ Ullmann, 1. c, makes the just observation that " feeling and imagination, although 
they connect in the unity of the spirit and condition, and excite each other, are yet 
not one and the same." 

"An evidence of this is found, upon the one hand, in the degenerate romancing of 
a Zacharias Werner ; and, on the other, in the observations of a now defunct " Young 
Germany." The course which the young German school of poetry believed itself com- 
pelled to adopt, in its reaction against an overwhelming romanticism, serves, however, 
to illoBtrate also the damage inflicted upon poetry when it is separated from religion. 


fulness of religious life, existing side by side with imperfect forms of 
art and a neglected aesthetic culture, justifies us in overlooking such 
deficiency. What else gives attractiveness to a badly-modelled 
image of some saint, or endows the excruciating church music of an 
assembled village congregation with the power to edify, nay, to 
excite profoundest emotion ? We would not approve the bad taste 
which, under the influence of religious zeal, appears to have con- 
spired against whatever is beautiful. An unaesthetic piety, and 
that miserable absence of taste which is so often commended as 
being originality, are assuredly more hurtful than beneficial to re- 
ligion. Who would venture to assert, however, that a lack of 
religious feeling in Zinzendorf is evident, because he sometimes 
wrote verse m bad taste, or in Abraham a Santa Clara, whose 
preaching was of a like character? Such men have religion, but 
they lack the sense of beauty ; a proof that the two are different. ' 

But are religious and inoral feeling identical? They are certain- 
ly closely related, and touch upon and interpenetrate ^eiieious n t 
each other. It is possible, however, to distinguish the identical with 
two in thought, for the purpose of scientific inquiry, in "^^^'^ 
the same way as has been done with religion and morality them- 
selves. The moral feeling manifests itself more particularly in its 
negative aspects as tact, and on the positive side as impulse or in- 
stinct. The substance in which it adheres is conduct — the doing 
of things, or leaving them undone. It impels or restrains. Relief- 
ions feeling is self-centred, and finds its satisfaction in itself. It is, 
in short, the sacred chamber of our inner being ^ that ddvrov of the 
soul, in which all earthly changes cease to agitate, together with all 
opposition of desire and aversion, within whose limits the merely 
sensuous has its range. This inner sanctuary,'^ which is first disclosed 

^Kahler, Sittenlehre, p. 239, distinguishes in a similar way between the religious 
feeling, and the pathological or sesthetical. 

^ The internal basis of life, the Ego, in which are comprehended all distinctions in 
their individual simplicity and their concrete lack of dissimilarity, must be regarded 
as the soil and ground of religion," — Deinhardt, Beitr. zur rel. Erkentniss, Hamb., 
1844, p. 5. "Religion is and must remain an immediate influence, a something that 
lies as near to man as do the impressions which are made upon the senses by the 
outer woi'ld. If, for this reason, religion be defined as the ' feeling of dependence,' a 
real truth will be conveyed, provided a spiritual feeling is understood thereby ; for in 
matters relating to the spirit there can be no reference to sensuous impressions." — 
Fritze, Ideen zur Umgestaltung der Kirche, Magdeb., 1844, p. 2. We can readily ap- 
prove of the substitution of the term heart for feeling (in popular language), as being 
justified by scriptural usage, and including both the intellectual and the moral ele- 
ments (37). " The assurance with which genuine culture retains words like heart in 
their higher significance, despite the definitions of the sciences, unquestionably rests 
upon the assumption that the animal life is the counterpart of human being, even as 


to the penitent alone — this heaven in the soul, whence shine the 
stars of faith, and love, and hope, to cheer the darkness of our 
night — this anchor that holds firm, upon which every thing depends 
and must depend if it shall not founder in the current of fleeting 
time — is religious feeling. 

We designate it more closely as the feeling of dependence / that 
j.^. is, dependence upon God, the Infinite One. Objections 

lug of depend- are raised against this also. It is said, " The very dogs 
enceuponGo . ^i^^^ ^j^g feeling of dependence !" — a cynical reflection, 
which is beautifully disposed of by Matt, vii, 6, and xv, 21-28. 
Comp. Isa. 1, 3, and Athenag. Apoloog. for Christ., p. 16 (ed. Oxon).' 
Dependence is construed to mean servility, and the saying of Jan- 
sen, "Dei servitus vera libertas," or of our Lord in John viii, 32, is 
forgotten. We likewise discover a twofold character in religious 
feeling — a discouraging (humbling) and an encouraging (exalting) 
element; but in their ifimost nature the two are one. Even the 
feeling of liberty and of communion with God must be derived 
from God; and St. Paul's exclamation, " I can do all things through 
Christ, which strengtheneth me," is as thoroughly pervaded by the 
sense of dependence as that other word, "Without me ye can do 
nothing."^ To be dependent is equivalent to being conditioned 

the former finds its counterpart in the organism of the visible body ; or, that in this 
life, at least, the anatomical and physiological organization corresponds to the spirit- 
ual forms of the human soul, that it was constructed for and determined by it, so that 
it still conveys the shadowy image where the soul itself has fled. From this point of 
view the cultivated person, whom we request to undertake an explanation of the idea 
hearty will describe it as the centre, or the pulse ; or, better still, as the proper source 
of our entire inner life." — Steffensen, Das menschl. Herz u. d. Philosophie, in Gelzer's 
Monatsabl., 1854, p. 281. 

^ Deinhardt, 1. c, p. 9, strikingly observes : " The genius of religion lies in the rec- 
ognition of our limitations and our nothingness. The limitation does not of itself 
lead to religion, for the very beasts would in that case become possessed of religion ; 
but the consciousness of our limitations involves at the same time the recognition of 
the infinite, and of our relations to the infinite." And Carlblom writes (1. c, p. 180) : 
" The feeling of unqualified dependence, freed from pantheistic and Pelagian elements, 
can only work advantage to our time, as a scientific principle." 

^ Kahler's remark is therefore correct (Sittenlehre, p. 324) : " In their relation to 
God or the absolute, dependence and communion hold the same position ; they are 
inseparable. Upon what is such communion based, if it be not upon dependence ? 
We do not invite him to fellowship, he calls us ; and we attain to the feeling of com- 
munion with him only through that of dependence upon him ; through the fear of 
God to the love of God." Comp. Nitzsch, System of Christ. Doct., p. 18, "There is 
nothing religious in free consciousness but the consciousness that we are free through 
God and in God; that is, dependent on him." Kahler nevertheless endeavours to 
limit the idea of dependence, against which see Elwert, p. 79, sqq. It may be true 
that, with Schleiermacher, the feeling of dependence is connected with pantheistic 
assumptions ; but if so, the attacks of criticism should be directed simply against his 


and determined by an outward power, as is sufficiently apparent in 
the relations that exist between men. Who so dependent upon 
others as he whose life is interwoven in such a way with another life 
as to justify the language, "Without thee I cannot live?" The 
religious man depends on God in this sense, that he cannot be with- 
out God, that his life is guided and controlled by God, and that he 
knows himself to be so determined and controlled. It is impossible 
to see how such a feeling of dependence can impair or negative our 
freedom. It is, on the contrary, itself the highest freedom. 

If we have been successful in isolating religious feeling in the 
way of analysis, so that it becomes available for scien- r^^^ synthesis 

tific observation in a pure and unmixed form, it will of religious 
, -Ti'i c ,-\ • in feeling with 

now be required that, m the way oi synthesis, we shall our other fac- 
again connect it with the faculties of the soul, by which, ^^^ies. 
and through which, it finds expression. The " theory of feeling " 
is not antagonized simply because its opponents misconstrue the 
term, but because they deduce the radically erroneous conclusion 
that feeling alone is implicated therein, and that cognition and ac- 
tion are excluded by the fact that they are not made the immediate 
seat and organ of piety. A " definite and assured " life would, of 
course, be impossible, if religion were so restricted to the feelings 
as to never venture out of its sanctuary, either into the light of 
knowledge, or into the fresh air of active exertion. As the germ 
contains Avithin itself the principle of development, so the nature of 
healthy religious feeling involves the disposition to strive for the 
attainment of clearness on the one hand, and of steadiness, firmness, 
and thoroughness on the other. The infant in the manger grows 
to maturity, and becomes the light and. joy of the world. Kahler^ 

methods of deduction, not against the principle itself. Nor can we acknowledge that 
the feeling of dependence is " wanting in the moral element " (Schenkel, in Herzog's 
Encykl., p. 64). What is obedience, the source of religious morality, but the ethical 
outworking of the feeling of dependence ? or sacrifice ? or the devotion of love ? 
moral self-denial ? humility ? When Biedermann (Dogmatik, p. 32) observes that the 
necessary correlative of "liberty in God," that is, in an "infinite dependence," is 
" freedom from finite dependence," that is, " from the world considered as world," he 
is simply stating in speculative language what we have expressed merely as a dictum 
of experience. In the same connexion that author gives some noteworthy observa- 
tions concerning the interrelation between God, the infinite, and man, the finite spirit, 
and also concerning the " correlation of revelation and faith," although we find it im- 
possible, from our point of view, to accept his conclusions. 

^Christl. Sittenlehre, p. 195. Comp. also Dav. Schulz, Yom Glauben, p. 112: 
" When a person has attained to self -consciousness, he cannot avoid observing the 
movements of his feelings, which at first are possibly involuntary, and, as it were, pas- 
sive, but which he will now elevate, by his free activity, into a condition of greater 
clearness, and consequently into convictions." 


strikingly remarks : " From feeling, as it sends forth its roots, pro- 
ceeds the more definite activity which is termed thought, and desire 
Religious feel- when it grows the bud." It connects itself with the 

ing connects it- understanding, and thereby attains to clearness: it ioins 
self with the •> o 

understanding with itself the power of the will, and thus acquires 
and will. steadiness and firmness. The knowledge that is rooted 

in religious feeling, and supported by it, is religious faith. Faith, 
in its turn, is capable of a further development, and ripens toward 
a state of, as yet, conditioned sight. The moral power arising from 
religious feeling manifests itself in analogy with faith in the form 
of GonsGience,^ and develops into moral disposition or firmly-estab- 
lished religious-ethical principle, ultimately resulting in that cer- 
tainty of action, that devotion to virtue, which is the highest 
expression of true liberty. 

Religious feeling should become a conscious feeling. The relig- 
Reiigious feel- ious feeling has correspondent religious conceptions, 

Ihf ?t^!lr,o^ and with reference to these receives aid first from the 
the imagina- 
tion, imagination, which clothes the conceptions in figurative 

garb. " It is the sculptress who collects the heavenly treasure into 

earthen vessels." ^ The understanding comes to its support in the 

service of imagination, arranging the figurative conceptions, and 

combining them into a whole. Thus arise mythology and mythol- 

ogizing symbolism, bare, or more refined ; and the greater the 

supremacy acquired by logical sequence over the original fresh and 

vivid poetical conceptions in such a system of symbolism, the less 

will it be able to satisfy the reason, which seeks to discover a higher 

unity. It will be only a shell, a dry skeleton, from 

Reason cooper- ^ "^ _ *' . , 

ative with re- which the life has departed. It is the ofiice of reaso?i 
igious ee mg. ^^ recognize, by virtue of its ideal nature, the eternal 
character of the contents of the feelings, though given under a finite 
form, and to combine and reunite in a higher unity the elements dis- 
tinguished hj the understanding. While unable (supra) to regard 
reason as the source of religion, we yet consider it the pure mirror 
(reflex) of all that has its birth in the feelings ; it is reason that 
catches and reflects the ray which emanates from that source. It 
does not create the religious life out of its own substance, but it 
watches over that life as over every other impulse, and it stamps it 
with the mark of intelligence. We, therefore, consider a religion 

^ We cannot regard the conscience proper as the original seat and organ of religion, 
after the noteworthy observations made by Schenkel upon this subject, though we 
cordially recognize the importance of conscience, as the moral factor within the sphere 
of religion. 

^ Ullmann, 1. c, p. 430. 


of reason as impossible as a poetry of reason or a commonwealth of 
reason ; but we demand a rational religion as we demand a rational 
poesy or a rational government. True reason cannot be hostile to 
religious feeling, but is rather necessary to the recognition of the 
latter {mortg develops into yvcoatg). Keligious knowledge, thus 
borne upon the feelings, is no longer mere dead knowledge, but a 
living consciousness. 

An objector might now admit that the primitive form of religion 
was feeling, and that the feelings constituted its earli- obiection- 
est seat; but he might add that this was the worst "Feeling if the 
form, and that religion has no more urgent duty to ^^tTorm of 
fulfil than that of removing its seat from the feelings reUgion." 
to the reason, from the heart to the head. This, however, is not 
correct.^ It is important that the double meaning of the word 
"feeling" be not forgotten. Feeling certainly involves a pre- 
liminary perception. There is a spiritual as well as a physical 
sense of touch, which often instinctively discovers the ri2:ht in 
either case. It must not be assumed, however, that such feeling 
and touching {i})7]Xa(f)dv) is all that is required (Acts xvii, 27); for 
he who does no more than feel in religious matters, " is blind and 
gropes with the hand," where he ought to avail himself of the eye 
of knowledge. The merely anticipative consciousness of feeling 
must accordingly give way to a clear understanding. A different 
principle applies to feeling in its proper character (the feeling of 
love, of gratitude, of devotion, etc.). This cannot be dissolved into 
reason, any more than music may be resolved into one of its parts, 
or may petrify into a building. Keason does not love, give thanks, 
or pray, any more than it eats or drinks; but love, gratitude, and 
prayer, may be justified to the reason as highly rational matters, as 
readily as eating and drinking. Religious feeling is the root of the 
religious life ; and we certainly do not aid the tree to put on its 

* Rousseau has already observed, " Quand on commence Sb penser, on cesse de sentir." 
On the other hand, Passavant (to Diepenbrok) says truly, *' This statement is false, for 
the reason that only a certain class of feelings are displaced by thought; while the pure 
thought and the pure volition carry with them a higher feeling in steadily increasing 
power and exaltation. So the feeling of pleasure, in which the unskilled person 
shares, becomes a higher and more intelligent emotion to the connoisseur in music 
when observing the harmony of some grand composition. So, too, the indeterminate 
feeling of immensity caused by a view of the starry heavens changes into an intelli- 
gent admiration with the astronomer, whose thought embraces not only the magnitudes 
of masses and their distances, but also the laws which govern the most distant worlds 
and the falling grain of sand, and who realizes that he has apprehended in nature one 
of the thoughts of God." — Briefe von J. M. Sailer, M. Diepenbrok, u. J. K. Passavant. 
Frankfort, 1860, p. 100 sq. 


crown of bloom when we cut off the root, or permit it to decay. 
The soundness of the root determines the brightness of the foliage 
and the perfection of the blossom ; for " as feeling is the point at 
which all spiritual life begins and breaks forth in man, so it is also 
the goal of perfection in the cultivation of the spirit." ^ 

Religious feeling should be firm and steadfast. As it develojDS 
Through con- ^^^^ definite convictions, it should also become a settled 
science reiig- disposition. In this regard the conscience renders the 

ious feeling be- . . x« i • i <• • -, 

comes a stead- Service m practice which reason performs m theory, 
fast disposition, ^g ^]^g religious feeling is enlightened \i^ reason, so it is 
established and morally strengthened by the conscience. In practical 
matters law stands related to conscience as the understanding to 
reason in the domain of theory. In the latter province, that is, 
theory, the cognitions, being merely logically arranged and com- 
bined by the understanding, may harden into a lifeless dogma, and 
become rigid ; and, in like manner, the law of outward morality 
may become a dead statute, for the letter of the law kills, the spirit 
makes alive. A conscience enlightened by reason will doubtless be 
one in which religious feeling manifests and approves itself. But 
Religious feel- as feeling could not be resolved into reason, so here it 
ex^ ^ resolvable ^^^^^^^^ ^^ resolved into conscience. What we are accus- 
into conscience, tomed to term a good conscience, which gives us bold- 
ness before God and happiness in him, is of itself an indication 
that conscience is rooted in feeling. But the fervent love-life 
of communion with God, which forms the crowning point of all 
religion, the blessed life, which, as being designed for eternity, 
makes use of the finite forms of earthly worship to find expres- 
sion in a rich anticipative symbolism as "joy in God" — this sure- 
ly is not a mere matter of the conscience ! The contrary is true : 
for if a system of worship were to assert itself in the character 
of a concern of the conscience, it would degenerate into work- 
righteousness. Worship is altogether an expression of the feelings. 
Religious impulses may possibly emanate from the conscience under 
certain circumstances (e. g., the impulse to pray) ; but this will be 
the case only when religious feeling has become dull and listless, so 
as to need a spur. Where the religious feeling is in a healthful 
state, it overflows in thanksgiving, praise, etc., without requiring 

^De Wette, Vorlesungen iiber Keligion, p. 73. Carlblom uses similar language 
(1. c, p. 184): "An absolute feeling of dependence is the proper expression for re- 
ligion, even in the highest stages of its development. The Christian's heart is moved 
because he believes; he conceives himself in feeling as a personal unit before God. 
In the character of devotion, feeling combines clearness of understanding and force 
of will in a mighty ardour, that is inspired by the present God." 


the admonitions of conscience. The same reasoning applies to love. 
Conscience may admonish to works of love, but the love that is 
dictated by conscience is not the highest and truest love, which 
loves because it must, and cannot refuse. Conscience does not love, 
give thanks, pray, and praise, in its own character ; and for that 
very reason is no more capable than reason, which likewise fails in 
this regard of being the organ of religion. 

We sum up in the following paragTaph what has been pre- 
sented : — 

Religion, far from being, in the first instance or exclusively, con- 
fined to knowledge or to action, has its seat in the centre of man's 
spiritual and moral nature — in the heart ^ (which is the summary of 
scriptural and popular term for what we have hitherto ^iie argument. 
designated as the feelings^ and what others call the spirit) . This 
religion of the heart, however, must develop into a living conscious- 
ness through the intellectual process of rational thinking (reflec- 
tion), and must ripen into a settled disposition, and attest itself 
in action, through the moral processes induced and perfected by 
the conscience. 

We may accordingly say that religion is a subject in which the 
whole inner man is engaged," but whose pivotal point is in the feel- 
ing of dependence. "A healthy religion," remarks an excellent 

* On the heart, as the seat of religion, see Prov. xxiii, 26 ; Josh, xxiv, 23 ; 1 Sam. vi, 6 ; 
Ezek. xi, 19 ; xxxvi, 26 ; Matt, v, 8 ; Phil, iii, 7 ; Col. iii, 15 ; Heb. xiii, 9, and many other 
passages. A new objection might arise here, based on the language of the Scriptures, 
viz. : that the heart is represented as the seat of evil, of ungodliness also. Gen. vi, 5 ; 
viii, 21 ; Psa. xiv, 1 ; liii, 1 ; Jer. xvii, 9 ; Matt, xv, 19. These passages, however, illus- 
trate this very point, that the heart is man's central organ, the hearth, upon which both 
pure and impure fires may burn, the soil, capable of propagating both good and evil 
seed. Comp. Luke viii, 15. Hence we do not make the heart the source of religion; 
if it were, man might devise a religion in accordance with the desires of his heart. 
The source is in God ; but God addresses his revelations to the heart, as the receptive 
organ of religion. God's word takes root in the heart ; regeneration proceeds from 
the heart, and the peace of God, in the character of a good conscience, dwells in the 
heart. The non-identity of heart and conscience, which forbids the substitution of 
one word for the other, is apparent from the usage of ordinary speech, which approves 
of a large heart, but not of a large (elastic) conscience. We therefore commend the 
language of Julius Kostlin : " According to the ordinary usage, conscience is simply 
the organ for the recognition of requirements as such, etc. The recognition of gra- 
cious impressions, and, more emphatically still, the feeling of blessedness, which 
steadily becomes more profound, and connects more and more intimately with God in 
the truly religious, Christian life, cannot be assigned to it ; for which reason the con- 
science may not be designated the religious organ, in an unqualified sense." Comp. 
also Immer, Das Gewissen, seine Gesundheit u. s. Krankheit, Berne, 1866. 

^ This is strongly asserted also by Mynster (Ueber den Begriff der. Christl. Dogmatik, 
in Stud. u. Krit., 1831, 3, p. 449) ; Olshausen (BegrifE der Religion, ibid, 1830, 3, p. 644) ; 


theologian, " exercises power over all the circumstances and condi- 
tions of life. Where its authority is acknowledged it is the heart, 
the silent pulse-beat of our entire being. It there consecrates and 
transfigures all things, however humble ; and it applies a correct 
rule to all things, however proud and ambitious they may be. Not 
in states of spiritual excitement and exaltation merely does the con- 
sciousness of God's presence express itself, but in discouragement 
and deepest sorrow likewise does it convey peace, and exert a sanc- 
tifying power." * 


The task of the religious instructor is consequently threefold: 
Threef Id t k (■^) *^ excite and quicken religious feeling itself; (2) to 
of the religious Cultivate the understanding and develop perception, 
under the guidance of reason, into a clear consciousness ; 
and, (3,) to bring moral influences to bear upon the conscience and 
the will, until the religious consciousness becomes an abiding dis- 
position. The three lines of effort in the one task are not, however, 
entirely separated, but are mutually dependent on each other for 
their successful prosecution. 

Neither an exclusive attention to feeling, nor a bare exercising 
of the understanding, nor yet the mere inculcation of moral maxims, 
will satisfy the conditions of this task. The religious teacher must, 
at the outset, fix his attention upon the entire man. He is to edify, 
to arouse, to teach, to guide, to admonish, to reprove. The modes in 
which the separate features of the task acquire a more distinct prom- 
inence in the work of the Christian Church will appear hereafter. 



The religious community constitutes the soil in which the relig- 
ious life of the individual is rooted, in which it develops, and upon 
which it reacts. Hence the teacher who desires to achieve perma- 
nent results in the religious cultivation of otber minds should not 
only be penetrated by religious principle, but also stand connected 
with a religious society, and hold an active relation thereto. 

A purely subjective religion and a corresponding culture, after 
the manner of Rousseau's JBjmil, are conceivable; but they will exist 
in the imagination only, and be without a corresponding object in 

but they do not indicate what constitutes the controlling element in this whole. For 
a contrary view, see Elwert, 1. c, p. 46. Deinhardt, 1. c, p. 4, defines religion as " the 
life of God in man, and the life of man in God," and joins us in limiting the term 
" man " to the inner nature, and in understanding by religion the living presence and 
efficacy of the Deity in the inner self-conscious man or Ego." 
* Ullmaun, Ueber den Cultus des Genius, p. 52. 


the world of realities, besides being deficient in depth. However 

earnestly we may have sousjht to locate reliction in the „ ,. . 

*^ ^ . TTT 7. Religious feel- 

leelmgs, we have not implied that the suqjeetive feeling ingcommouto 

of one person alone is sufficient to meet the require- ^community, 
inents of the case, or that any one may construct his religion accord- 
ing to the likes and dislikes of his heart. Religion is certainly 
subjective and personal in its root, and is a natural principle, as 
being grounded in the human constitution, instead of being the re- 
sult of accident; but that which animates a single person is designed 
to quicken all. Religion is a common interest of the entire human 
race. Subjective feeling must expand into the feeling of brother- 
hood ; it requires prompting ; it is rarely powerful enough to be 
self -stimulating.^ When it does so manifest itself, its subjects are, 
humanly speaking, religious geniuses, comparable with the creative 
minds of art in its religious aspects ; men endowed and inspired of 

Such " elect persons " become founders of religions, about whom 
gather congregations of believers. An erroneous and misdirected 
feeling may, no doubt, likewise display such energy (as in the case 
of false prophets) as to be successful in founding a communion; and 
for this reason the communion to which one belongs is by no means 
a matter of indifference. He only can be a genuine and properly 
qualified founder of a religious system, in whom the religious feeling 
exists in absolute strength and purity, and in a spiiitual harmony 
with all the faculties of the soul ; in whom the God-consciousness 
and the self -consciousness are so one that all friction is removed. 
That such a Being has actually appeared, and that he has founded 
a religion which not only deserves a place beside and above all 
others, but which, accurately considered, is the only religion ;' and 
that, consequently, the salvation which the individual vainly seeks 
in himself or others is to be found in him alone, are necessary as- 
sumptions, if we would extend our way farther into the field of 
Christian theology, within which a proper place (apologetics) will 
be found for justifying what we now take for granted. 

'This should especially be asserted against the mistaken objection that the religion 
of feeling excludes all objectivity. Against this, see Elwert, 1. c, p. 69, »§'§'., and 
Schleiermacher, Glaubenslehre, i, p. 188. The feeling of beauty is excited in like 
manner by the study of real works of art, the sense of justice by the study of positive 
laws, etc. 

^ All the statements we have made concerning religion as such are actualized in 
Christianity. God was in Christ, and Ids life was involved in the life of God. This 
psychological-historical fact is the root of the entire tree. In no other positive relig- 
ion does religious feeling, as a primary feeling, possess such fervid, energetic power ; and 
no other religion has so clear a consciousness and such free determination of the will. 




H. Schultz, Die Bewegung innerhalb der evang. Kirche u. d. Aufgabe d. Theologie derselben 
(Zu den kirclil. Fragen d. Gegenwart). Frankfort, 1869. 

The teacher of the Christian religion belongs to the Christian 

Church, or to the visible religious communion of believers in Jesus 

Christ, and must regulate his course as a teacher of religion by that 

^ ,.^ ^. fact. To qualify himself for the duties of his calling. 
Qualifications n j ... * 

of the religious he must, first of all, come to regard Christianity, the 
eac ei. kingdom of God in its historical manifestation, as di- 

vinely ordained, and a necessary, rather than accidental, fact. He 
must trace its origin and recognize its bearings in every direc- 
tion, and appropriate to himself all the knowledge and skill made 
necessary by the historical progress of the Church and its present 
state. The scientific treatment of a positive religion as here indi- 
cated constitutes the study of theology in the narrow sense. 

Every positive religion which is rooted in the facts of history 
presumes positive intellectual acquirements. The necessity for such 
historical mediation should impress the theologian at the very be- 
ginning of his studies, that he may avoid the danger, on the one 
hand, of falling into a false idealism, and, on the other, of pursu- 
ing, in a merely mechanical way, studies whose importance to relig- 
ion he is not able to estimate. Our ideal suggests a man filled with 
religious fervour entering the theological school, and finding there 
the critical, historical, and philological apparatus, which must be 
regarded as the source from which theological wisdom is to be 
drawn. He may, no doubt, be discouraged by the thought of such 
a mass of apparently dead and unproductive material. It would 
tru s irit ^^^'^^i^^ly seem more attractive and profitable to draw 
of the theoiog- simply from the depths of the soul, and with strong 
ica s u en . (^^raughts to drink what nature, art, and, perhaps, his- 
tory (chiefly regarded, however, in the large perspective outlines of 
its development), may have to offer, than to toil laboriously with 
grammar, and devote the greater part of student-life to the interpre- 
tation of single letters, which frequently have but a very distant re- 
lation to the word of God.' We cannot do otherwise than rejoice 
in the question, Cui bono ? the very question to which encyclopaedia 
is to furnish the answer. There is a certain kind of self-denial which 
does not pause to inquire about the utility of prescribed studies, 
but rather enters on them in the conviction that the future will 
throw light on this point. Such modesty is rare, however, and dif- 
fers greatly from the indifference and the listlessness which lead so 

^ Goethe, Faust, i. 


many to "be directed by, instead of directing, their studies. They 
hear lectures on exegesis. Church history, dogmatics, etc., simply 
because these belong to the course ; they would, in the same way, 
pursue any other study — heraldry, for instance — if an examination 
at the end of the term should be required. The object of Encyclo- 
poBdia is to deliver from the dullness that asks no questions. 


The theology developed by a positive religion will assume a sci- 
entific character in proportion as its body of doctrine is intelligent 
and complete. In this regard the highest place is held by the the- 
ology of Protestant Christianity.^ 

So long as a religion contents itself with the transmission of 

myths and legends, and with the observance of symbolical usages. 

it confines the wisdom of its priests within narrow ^ ,.,. 

^ Conditions of a 

limits. A higher scientific character belongs to a the- fuiiy developed 
ology which stands related to existent sacred writings, ^^^^^°^^- 
whether they be found in a sacred language and accessible to the 
priests alone, or whether they be the common possession of the peo- 
ple, and consequently require interpretation. But wherever the 
letter of the writing is not animated by the spirit which pervades 
the community, and wherever the religious idea laid down in such 
writings is permitted to remain undeveloped, the theology will 
speedily become a lifeless letter. That religion only which adds 
to its sacred writings a living history, to its standard and unchange- 
able elements others capable of being modified, can produce a sound 
theology. This character belongs to Christianity. It has sacred 
writings in languages which, though ancient, are accessible to all. 
The writings are not the exclusive property of a priestly order, but 
belong to the people as a whole; on this account they require a 
thorough exposition, based on the original meaning. It has also a 
historical development in a higher degree than any other religion. 
More than any other, historical Christianity has become 
the religion of the world, seizing upon every language tions fumued 
and popular custom, and entering so thoroughly into ^ ristiamty. 
the culture of modern times as to seem, during an extended period, 
its sole support. These remarks are preeminently true of Protes- 
tantism. The Roman Catholic Church, which has an authorized 
version of the sacred writings, but reserves their interpretation to 
itself, cannot demand of its servants that each individual shall so 
carefully go back to the first meaning of the original ; and, in view 
of the limited use of the Bible by the people, it does not place an 

' Comp. Schleiermacher, § 2 and 4. 


equal value on the practical exposition of the Scriptures. The 
principle of historical development is more apparently present in 
Roman Catholicism (tradition) than in Protestantism. As, however, 
development in Roman Catholicism is restrained by outward au- 
thority, and stability is exalted into a ruling principle instead, it 
results that even history has a higher importance in Protestantism. 
This does not imply that, on the one hand, many individuals will 
not pass beyond, or, on the other, that many will not fall behind, 
the requirements of their Church in scientific matters. The scien- 
tific character of Roman Catholic theologians is, accordingly, a very 
praiseworthy opus supererogativum, while a similar character is, 
with Protestants, a conditio sine qua non.^ 



K. Ullmann, Theologie, Theologen u. Geistlicbe zu dieser Zeit; preface to Studd. u. Kritt. for 
1849; K. Lechler, D. neutest. Lehre vom heil. Amte, Stuttg., 1857; W. Preger, d. Gesch. vom 
geistl. Amte, Nordlingen, 1857 ; Nesselmann, Ueber Priester-u. Prophetenthum in ihrer Bedeu- 
tung f. d. Christl. Kirche, Elbing, 1830 ; G. F. Magoun, Theological Education in England, Bib. 
Sacra., xxiv, p. 531; E. A. Park, Bib. Sacra., xxviii, pp. 60-97. 

In proportion as theological science widens, and its treatment 
becomes more profound, will a division of the work be found nec- 
Theoiogians Gssary. To some persons will be presented the duty of 
and practical cultivating the Science for its own sake, while to others 
ers— bow dis- it becomes simply a means for the practical ends of the 
tinguished. teaching ofiice in the Church. The former constitute 
the theological school, and are termed theologians, in the strict 
sense ; the latter form the teachers of the Church (clerus), and are 
variously designated in accordance with local or denominational 
usage, or as their stations in the Church and their leading duties 
may suggest; e. g., priests, clergymen, ministers of God's word, 
rectors, preachers, pastors, cures, and confessors. 

It should be remembered that the Church is more ancient than 
Scientific theo- the school. The latter sprang from the former. Pas- 
paftOTs co^S *^^® ^^ *^^ congregation existed before doctors of the- 
lated. ology. The distinction between them, which has now 

become necessary, is not designed to result in their alienation from 
each other; for the life of the Christian community depends for its 
soundness largely upon the effects produced by the school and 
Church upon each other. The scientific theologian can only form a 
correct estimate of his science when he views it as having living 

^ The future must decide the extent to which the " Old Catholic " party, which de- 
nies the infallibiUty of the Pope, but nevertheless, in its own fashion, acknowledges 
the authority of the Church, shall secure an independent organization as a Church, 
and develop a theology corresponding to its character. 


relations to the Church and its specific needs; while the practicjil 
clergyman can successfully measure up to the duties of his calling 
only when he holds friendly relations to theological science and its 
cultivators.^ The pretended gentility of scholars, which, instead of 
seeking to train faithful servants for the Church, rather aims to de- 
prive her of their aid whenever possible (on the ground that good 
heads are too valuable for such business, is quite as perverse as the 
boorishness of unscientific empirics, which looks with suspicion upon 
the advantages of learning, and seeks, to the extent of its ability, 
to repress all inquiry. It is, therefore, important to the preserva- 
tion of the union between the school and the Church that men 
should be found in whom the scientific and the clerical characters 
combine, so as to fit them for successful labours in either field (as 
was the case with most of the reformers, and in a qualified sense 
with some in recent times; e. g., Tzschirner, Schleiermacher, Sack, 
Nitzsch, Tholuck, J. Miiller, Al. Schweizer, Rothe, Schenkel, Bar- 
row, Wesley, Chalmers, Jonathan Edwards, Hopkins, Moses Stuart, 
etc.). The same rule, however, does not apply to all. All that can 
be required is that men should be open to influences from the one 
department, even while exclusively employed in the other. The 
Church must not be excluded from the school, nor the school 
bolted out of the Church. 

A few words on the appellations above cited. We do not take 
the title doctor of theology in the empirical sense, which ^^^ ^ 
implies that the holder of it has received a diploma? which pastors 
but in its more pregnant meaning as involving scientific 
acquirements. It applies not only to academical teachers, but to 
all who are called to give material aid in the further development 
of theological science as such, and also to theological writers.'* 

All Christians are priests (1 Pet. ii, 5), for the spiritual priest- 
hood, to which all are called, must for that very reason lead to the 
universal priesthood. But, inasmuch as the priestly character is to 
be especially exemplified in those who are called to minister in holy 
things in the name and in behalf of the congregation, it is not im- 
proper that the Protestant clergyman should bear the title, although 
not in the exclusive sense of the Roman Catholic Church. Viewed 
in its etymological bearings, it is very simple ; for if the word priest 
be derived from TZQeafivrTjg, npeajSvTegog, a presbyter, it follows that^ 
every pastor is a priest, or even a hisho}^, since hmoKonoq and ttqeo- 
fivrepog denoted the same ofiicer, in the apostolic Church. But it is 

^Comp. Schleiermacher, § 12. 

' Comp. De Wette, Opuse. theol., p. 169 s^., who compares doctors of theology to 
the prophets of the Old Testament. 


evident that we think rather of the Sacerdotmm {iF.pdTevfia *) than 
of the Preshyteiniim, when we use the word, and in that sense the 
Protestant clergyman cannot properly appropriate the title exclu- 
sively to himself.^ This consideration, however, has not prevented 
defenders of the priestly character (as the possession of a privileged 
class) from arising even in Protestantisn. When Spalding ex- 
pressed a purely economic view of the utility of the clerical office, 
(Nutzbarkeit d. Predigtamtes, 1772), Herder replied in the Provin- 
zialblatter for 1774, defending its priestly character, but guarding 
against erroneous conclusions.^ Marheineke* and Harms'^ likewise 
came to its support, the latter remarking that the priest need not 
necessarily be conceived as armed with the sacrificial knife, while the 
former held that the sacrifice and the priest are most intimately con- 
nected, because "every one who sacrifices is a priest, and, on the other 
hand, the jD^iest exists only for the sake of sacrifice." — Lect. ii, p. 14. 
In the Reformed Churches the clergy are usually designated as 
the spiritual order (geistlicher stand, geistlichkeit), and the expres- 
sion is employed in the confessions. Many have protested against 
the phrase, among them Harms (1. c), who insists that the spiritual 

class should include all Christians (Gal. vi, 1, Trvevaan- 
Various desig- ,x rm i -, . . -, ' 

nations of the Koi). Ihe language, however, is not mtended to oppose 

clergy. ^-j^^ rrvevfiaTLKog to the ipvxiKog, or the oapKiicog, but has 

reference to the distinction between KXriQiKoq and XacKog. The or- 
ganized body of teachers in the Church (ordo) is now known as the 

' Some derive the word priest from the Persian Perestar, one wJio prays, equivalent 
to the apTjTTjp of Homer. Comp. linger, Reden an kiinftige Geistliche. Leipsic, 1834. 

^Comp. Conf. Helv., ii, c. 16: Diversissima inter se sunt sacerdotium et ministe- 
rium. Illud enim commune est Christianis omnibus, hoc non item. Luther is particu- 
larly emphatic : "In the New Testament wo find no external, visible priests, except 
those raised up and established by the devil through the lies of men. By the testi- 
mony of the Scriptures the external priesthood is hurled to the earth in the New 
Testament, for it makes prayer, access to God, and teaching the privilege of all."^ 
"VYerke, Walch's ed., vol. xix, p. 1311. Similarly Spener. 

^ " We are not set apart to sacrifice for the people, to be intermediate between God 
and man, half divine and half human, theurgists and theanthropists, in short, exor- 
cists of the devil — ^nor do I know what rabble could suppose this. Not the bearer of 
an offering for the people, but bearer of God's gift to the people, teacher of his rev- 
elation, scatterer of the truest means of culture, and to that extent really a separated, 
chosen, m.ediating person, a messenger and an instrument of God ! Not an anointed 
administrator of sacred usages, especially as based on human arbitrariness, but some- 
thing nobler : an anointed, i. e., chosen administrator of sacred functions, of the holi- 
est duty on earth, the cultivation of the soul through the influence of religion," See 
Werke zur Religion u. Theologie, vol. x, p. '64:2, sg. 

* Grundlegung der Homiletik in einigen Vorlesungen lib. d. wahren Charakter der 
Prot. Geistlichkeit. Hamb., 1811. 

^Pastoral theologie, ii, 1st and 2d discourses. 


clergy, and the above designations are simply familiar versions of 
this term. The clergy are not termed " spiritual " in the subjective 
sense, as being more spiritual than other persons, but in the objec- 
tive sense of having in their official character to perform certain 
functions. This of course does not forbid that the laity also may 
and should be a spiritual order; and, in any case, the designation 
may serve to continually remind him who bears it by reason of his 
office, that he should be spiritually-minded beyond all others.^ 

Minister of God's word (verbi divini minister) is an expression that 
prevails especially in the Reformed Church. It forms the direct 
contrast to the term priest, but by that very fact becomes one-sided, 
since it limits the service to the Word, and disregards the liturgical 
element. The proper term to apply to the body of servants of the 
Word would, accordingly, be the miivistry (ministerium, not clerus 
or clergy). 

The term rector properly denotes the person who has a parish, 
as distinguished from the unappointed candidate, the mere admin- 
istrator (vicar), or the assistant (diaconus). In this sense some 
derive its German equivalent, Pfarrer, from ndpotKo^, naQOLKia, 
comp. diotKTjOLg. If it be derived from ndpoxog, [napexcj,) it is 
equivalent to dispensator, administrator, and then every person 
who administers the Word and Sacraments might assume the title.'' 

^The German language makes a keen distinction between the outwardly spiritual 
and the inwardly spiritual. The outwardly spiritual should always be spiritual in its 
inward essence, but the latter does not always fall into the category of the former. 
Differently expressed, not every thing that is spiritual is the object of spiritual func- 
tions. It has been said (Wechsler, Charakter u. Zukunft d. Protestantismus, Konigsb., 
1844, p, 6, sq.) that "the great mission of Protestantism consists in promoting the 
subjectively spiritual (das Geistige), rather than the spiritual in its outward bearings, 
as i-elating to order, functions, etc. (das Geistliche). The latter merely indicates like- 
ness to the spiritual, and is related to it about as reddishness is to red." This is an 
entire perversion. The subjectively spiritual is the demonstration of tlie spirit in 
the most general way, including its worldly (cosmical) relations, while the objectively 
spiritual expresses the relation of the finite spirit to the infinite spirit, and thus be- 
comes a powerful exponent of the religious idea. 

^ Another etymology that is urged with much confidence — from pf aren (f aren), the 
same as to beget (Vorfahren, ancestors, those who have previously begotten), or even 
from Farr, a bullock (Parr, the herd), is adduced simply as a cui'iosity. See Clamor, 
Die Zustande d. Christl. Kirche in d. ersten 6 Jahrhunderten, Halberst., 1856, p. 46, 
note. The word Pfciff^ (out of TrdTTTraf), which had a good meaning in the Middle 
Ages, now denotes the caricature of the priestly character. The danger of becoming 
a Pfaffe threatens every clergyman more nearly than may be supposed ; for, while the 
teaching order is a necessity for the Church, the merely professional administration 
of religious duties is always an unhappy indication. Only a high and enthusiastic de- 
votion can secure against falling into the depths of vulgar frivolity or of hypocrisy. 
See Zollikofer's Predigten lib. d. Wiirde des Menschen, ii, p. 474. 


Preacher (predicant) is a name derived from the leading function 
of the Protestant clergyman, to which those of the pastor and over- 
seer of souls are added in a complementary way; but as the liturgi- 
cal element is not included, the term is insufficient and one-sided.' 
Pastor (TToifiTJv, njn) is taken from John x, 11, sqq./ xxi, 15, sqq,; 

Eph. iv, 11; Heb. xiii, 20; 1 Pet. ii, 25. Comp. the Paator of Her- 
mas, and the Shepherd (Hirte) of Zwingle. Every person who, in the 
love of a disciple, feeds the sheep and lambs in healthful pastures, 
is accordingly entitled to this name. As an official title it corre- 
sponds to rector (Pfarrer). Curate (Seelsorger) in the Reformed 
Church, and Confessor (Beichtvater) in the Lutheran, have refer- 
ence more particularly to the relation sustained by the clergyman 
toward the individual members of his charge.'^ In the Church of 
England, the word curate denotes a rector's assistant or substitute. 
Suppleoneyit 1. — No reference has been made to the 'missionaries, 
,„ . . who constitute a distinct class in the theological order. 

Missions in . . . . ^ .... 

Theological The increasingly scientific method with which mission- 
Encyciopaedia. ^^^ affairs are administered in recent times, renders it 
more and more imperative that Theological Encyclopaedia should 
make room for the science of missions in its organism. 

2. The officers of the apostolic age (apostles, prophets, evangel- 
ists, pastors, and teachers, Eph. iv, 11 ; comp. 1 Cor. xii, 28) have 
in recent times been regarded by members of the Catholic Apos- 
tolic Church, better known as Irvingites, as obligatory for the 
future also, but without sufficient exegetical or historical authority. 
The fact that the lists of officers in the two passages do not corre- 
spond, is of itself sufficient to suggest a more independent view. 
Neither passage, moreover, refers to the office of angels, which is 
taken from the Apocalypse, nor to that of deacons, which occurs in 

Acts vi. 



The Protestant student belongs to the theological school during 
the period of his academical studies, and derives his culture from 

* The reason for this is found in the history of Protestantism. The teaching and 
pastoral oflBce, which certainly demands the most various gifts, was exalted, in oppo- 
sition to the mechanical duties of the " mass-priest." The true liturgist, however, 
deserves to be termed a priest (with Harms), in so far as he represents the priestly 
character of the entire congregation in the liturgical act — but in this case only, and in 
this point of view. 

" Other, provincial, designations {e. g.^ domine among the Dutch), or such as relate 
to the government of the Church, or to special ofl&cial stations (bishop, abbot, super- 
intendent, antistes, provost, dean, archdeacon, deacon, etc.), do not come under review 
in this place. 


that source, rather than immediately from the Church. The latter 
is entitled, however, to demand from persons who seek a place 
among its teachers such evidence of theological acquirements and 
Christian disposition as may be necessary. 

The Church itself prepared its servants in the earliest "period. 
The apostles trained their assistants, and the latter trans- sketch of the 
mitted to others, in a purely practical way, what they fgteS^^rain- 
had received. Science was as yet in the possession of ing. 
the ancient (heathen) world, and Christians were in the habit of 
attending the schools of heathen philosophers and rhetoricians, and 
of appropriating to their own uses whatever of good they could 
thus obtain.^ Specifically Christian training-schools were soon in- 
troduced, however, as that for catechumens at Alexandria (in the 
third century), and the schools at Antioch, Csesarea, Edessa, Nisi- 
bis, etc. The monasteries, also, afforded training-schools, and during 
the Middle Ages the episcopal and convent schools, founded by 
Charlemagne and his successors, in which the trivium and quadrlv- 
ium — grammar, logic, rhetoric, and arithmetic, geometry, astron- 
omy, and music, the seven liberal sciences — were taught, were 
especially valuable for the purposes of ecclesiastical education. 

The rise of universities (studia generalia) in the twelfth century 
introduces a new era in the history of the sciences. At The rise of uni- 
the first, certain universities were managed more par- ^^ersities. 
ticularly in the interests of a single faculty, the schools at Paris, 
Oxford, Cologne, and Louvain, being especially prominent for 
theology. In these scholjjsticism set up its throne. New uni- 
versities, whose beginnings were due, to some extent, to the con- 
flicts of the hour, were founded in or about the time of the Refor- 
mation, and generally became the exponents of some theological 
tendency (Wittenberg, Jena, Halle, Helmstedt). This exclusive 
character was gradually laid aside, and in more recent times the 
superiority of a university training over that received in institutions 
devoted to a specialty came to be properly recognized," more 
particularly as manifested by the wide culture, the mutual 
exchange and free intercourse of different forms of thought, and 
the unrestrained liberty of teaching and study, which it involves. 
Against this, however, it has been remarked that a wise limitation 
with regard to the matter of instruction, and a more definite ideal 
governing the methods of instruction, would in no wise impair the 
object for which universities exist. 

* Comp. Augustine, De doctr. Chr., ii, 40. 

' See Schleiermacher, Ueber Universitaten, p. 52. 




♦Schlelerraacher, Ueber Unlversitaten in deutschen Sinne, Berlin, 1808; H. Steffens, Idee der 
IJniversitaten, Berlin, 1809; Id. Ueber Deutschlands prot. Unlversitaten, Berlin, 1820; F. C. v. 
Savigny, Wesen u. Werth d. deutschen Unlversitaten, In Ranke's Histor.-polit. Zeitschrift, Ham- 
burpr, 1832 ; L. F. Froriep, Ueber das Eigrenthiimlicbe der deutschen Unlversitaten, Weimar, 1834 ; 
G. 0. Marbach, Unlversitaten u. Hochschulen in dem auf Intelligeuz sich griindenden Staate, 
Leipslc, 1834 ; (Fr. Theremin, Ueber d. deutschen Unlversitaten, Berlin, 1836 ; A. Diesterweg, 
Beitr. zur Losung d. Lebensfrage der Civilisation, Essen, 1836, 1838) ; Fr. Thiersch, Ueber d. 
neuesten Augrlffe auf d. deutsch. Unlversitaten, Stuttgart, 1837 ; J. E. Erdmann, D. Universitiit 
u. ihre Stellung zur Kirche, in his Vermischte Aufsatze, I, Leipslc, 1846 ; V. A, Huber, Ueber 
akad. Convicte, zur innern Mission auf d. Unlversitaten, Berlin. 18o2; Henry P. Tappan, Uni- 
versity Education, New York, originally an article m the Bib. Repository for July, 1850 ; 
Noah Porter, American Colleges and the American Public, New Haven, 1870, from the New 
Euglander for 1869 : also Index to Bib. Sacra., pp. 242-244, title Universities. 

The period of academical study is the time spent in the college 
or university. Usage has limited it to a brief term of years, which 
would seem to be scarcely sufficient, in view of the present state of 
science. Much has been said for or against the exclusive adoption 
The university of the lecture system in university training.^ Scientific 
lecture system, instruction can evidently be conveyed only in connected, 
uninterrupted discourse, and the mind of the hearer is stimulated 
to higher energy by quietly receiving and inwardly digesting what 
it hears, than by hastily interrupting and throwing in replies. It is 
by this very feature that the academical lecture is to be distin- 
guished from that employed in the seminaries (gymnasia) and 
grammar-schools. A lecture of this kind ^ should of course be ex- 
tempore and fresh, carrying the hearers along with the current of 
thought ; not declamatory or pathetic, but strictly methodical, dig- 
nified, and earnest, and accomplishing its purpose by clearness and 
depth of thought instead of foreign ornamentation. It should even 
be edifying, not, however, in the manner of a moving pulpit dis- 
course, but through the silent power of the truth. As it is not 

^ Theremin demands a more conversational method of instruction. Diesterweg goes 
still further, and traces much of the existing corruption to the present character of 
the universities. Comp. also C. F. Fritzsche, De ratione docendi Socratica in institu- 
tione academica, in the Opuse. academ. (Tur., 1846), p. 361, sqq., and more recent 
treatises on the same subject. 

"^ Comp. especially Schleiermacher, p. 62, sqq. ; L. Thilo, Grundsatze des akad. Vor- 
trags, 1809; Scheidler, p. 103, sqq. "What Pyrrhus says to his Epirots, 'Ye are my 
pinions ! ' is felt by the zealous teacher toward his hearers, whom he loves, and whose 
entire soul is interested in his discourse. His investigations are not facilitated merely 
by the desire to be clear, and not to present any thing as the truth that could be at 
all doubtful ; but much more by the view of his audience, to whom he sustains per- 
sonal relations that awaken a thousand thoughts even as he speaks." (Niebuhr, in 
Preface to the second edition of his Roman history. Eng. edition (Hare & Thlrlwall's), 
pp. xi, xii. (-ompare also his letter to a young philologist, published by K. G. Jacob. Leip- 
slc, 1839, p. 38. 


designed for immediate effect, but to excite thought and mental 
activity on the part of hearers who think and act for themselves, it 
is desirable that these latter should seek to retain the mental imQ,ge 
brought before them in the lecture by sketching it on paper, or re- 
producing it in its main outlines. College sketches of this kind, the 
work of the student's personal power of independent mental repro- 
duction, and accompanied with marginal notes of inquiry, doubt, 
etc., form the most valuable journal of the years of academical 
preparation, whose direct relation to the writer forbids that any 
printed book should ever take its place. The mere attendance on 

lectures and listenins: to them, without subsequent writ- „ ^ 

» ' 1 The true meth- 

ing, is often simply intellectual sloth, or, at best, awk- od of profiting 
wardness, which, however, not unfrequently conceals ^ ®^ "'^" 
itself behind a screen of easy indifference. The sort of copying 
to be commended, by which we mean the independent recording 
of thought from the mind of another person, is, of course, very 
different from a thoughtless writing of dictated matter. Formal 
dictation can only become necessary through the force of circum- 
stances, and with regard to a few leading postulates (for want of a 
printed guide). In other respects the teacher is no more to be de- 
graded into an instrument of dictation than the student is to become 
a copying-machine.^ While, however, the lecture should not be 
displaced by any other method of instruction, it is certainly bene- 
ficial to combine with it other methods. Teaching by question and 
answer seems adapted to primary scholars, and involves a painful 
element ; but semi-annual examinations, following a completed 
course, have their beneficial side. Especially stimulating, however, 
are disputatiojis under the guidance of the teacher; and independ- 
ent societies for practice among the students, or presided over by a 
teacher, are likewise of value (comp. § 20). 

Public instruction should be supplemented by private Private indus- 
industry, whose efforts are not to be limited to careful j^ent o/puwic 
preparation for the expected lecture, and to a subse- instruction. 
quent exact recapitulation of its matter; it must also approve itself 
by independent inquiry and exercises. 

* It should never be forgotten that some things can be better conveyed through tlie 
eye, and others through the ear. Nanaes, figures, the titles of books, etc., should be 
before the hearer in printed form, as also the necessary documents. Against dictation, 
see Schleiermacher ut supra, p. 65. It is remarkable that the Jesuits in the sixteenth 
century were the chief originators and promoters of dictation, although the Jesuit Posse- 
vin clearly points out its disadvantages. See his Bibl. selecta, i, 26. The Pietistic school 
(Lange) of Halle likewise opposed the practice, while the Wolfians favoured it greatly. 


Attendance on too many lectures at once works injury and con- 
fusion. In this regard the study of encyclopaedia and methodology 
helps to produce system and rule. But private industry is not to 
prevail at the expense of public instruction, else the sojourn at the 

Preparation university will be without an object. Preparation and 
^o bemadded to I'^petition (repetitio mater studiorum) constitute the 
the lecture. bonds of union between private industry and the objects 
sought in the hearing of the lecture. The one, preparation, sharp- 
ens the vision to perceive the objects that may be presented; the 
other, repetition, impresses them more deeply on the mind. In 
one department of study, however, more of preparation will be 
needed, in another more of recapitulation. The former is especial- 
ly necessary with studies that present philological and other diffi- 
culties which must be overcome at the outset; the latter applies 
here also, and likewise in the historical and systematic departments. 
But inasmuch as the mere appropriation of knowledge is of less 
importance than its digestion, the recapitulation will increasingly 
utility of oral t^xpand into a "volvere et revolvere in animo," while dis- 
discussion. cussion with f ellow-students will provide the intellectual 
gymnastics by which the faculties are strengthened and made trust- 
worthy. Care must be taken, however, to prevent the spirit of 
disputation in religious matters from degenerating into a petulance 
which eats out the heart, and attacks the root of the deeper life. 

The most approved antidote against disorderly disputes and a scep- 
tical temper is found in severe mental labour; and to this evfery 
student should subject himself during one or more periods of his 
course, by engaging in the thorough investigation of some specialty j 
this, too, if his aim is to prepare for the simplest duties in the 
Church, rather than for the work of theological scholarship. They 
who have themselves untied knots are alone capable of appreciating 
the labours of others, and they only who possess the patience and the 
courage to go to the bottom of what is individual and special can 
attain the power to comprehend the universal. It may be added that 
only such persons can possess the ability to derive profit from inter- 
course with scientific men, or deserve their notice. The chatterer 
will be avoided. Much, and especially discursive, reading is to be 
avoided; let "non multa, sed multum" be the rule in this regard.' 

^Plin,, Epp., vii, 9; Quinet., Inst, orat., x, 1, 59; Senec. Ep., 45; Non refert, quam 
multos, sed quara bones habeas (libros). Lectio certa prodest, varia delectat ; Her 
der's Briefe, No. 49 ; Niebuhr, Brief an einen jungen Philologen, p. 145 : " Give up 
tlie miscellaneous reading, even of ancient authors ; there are very many worthless 
ones even here. Eolus allowed only the single wind to blow that should bring Ulysses 
to his goal, and bound the others ; when loosened and sweeping through each other, 
they prepared him endless wanderings." 


Writing, whether of compilations^ or original article8/ is far more 
profitable and improving. 



While attaching all importance to thorough scientific culture, it 
should be a principle never lost sierht of, that the char- , 

^ , . ^ . '^ ' Importance of 

acter of a religious teacher is not only determined by character in 
the measure of his knowledge, but also by the measure tue theologian, 
of his religious and moral convictions, and the thoroughness of his 
spiritual culture, and, consequently, that the formation of a theolog- 
ical character upon the basis of previous Christian training is as im- 
portant an object as the acquii'ing of knowledge and the develop- 
ment of skill. 

No theological teacher who has comprehended his duty should 

avoid enterinec into intimate relations with earnest stu- „ , ,. 

o . , Relations of the 

dents. We must certainly requii'e that he shall per- teacher to the 
sonally illustrate a theological character that, with all ^*'^^®^^- 
its deficiencies, shall yet possess certain features which are the in- 
voluntary expression of spiritual achievements. The whole may be 

^The younger Pliny boasts (Epp., iii, 5) of his uncle: Nihil legit, quod non excer- 
peret ; dicere enim solebat, nullum esse librum tarn malum, ut non aliqua parte pro- 
desset. Comp. C, Meiners, Anweisung fiir Jiinglinge zum Lesen, Exeerpiren, und 
Schreiben, Hanover, Vl^\ ; Scheidler, Hodegetik. Herder (Sophron., p. 153) calls 
excerpts the cells which bee-like industry constructs, the hives in which it prepares 
its honey. 

- Herder, I.e.: " Nulla dies sine linea, not a day should pass in which a young per- 
son does not write something for himself, whether he record what might otherwise be 
forgotten, or notes and answers his doubts. The pencil, which for us means the pen, 
sharpens the judgment, corrects the language, develops ideas, and excites the soul to 
activity in a wonderfully pleasant manner. Nulla dies sine linea." Much writing 
with the object of teaching before having learned, or a conceit of authorship, may, 
however, involve its own dangers. Niebuhr — rather strong and almost extreme — ex- 
presses a contrary opinion (Brief, etc., p. 134 sq^\ "To learn, my friend, to learn 
conscientiously, and always to test and increase our knowledge, this is our theoretical 
life-calling, and it is especially so for youth, which has the good fortune to be able to 
expose itself without restraint to the charm of the new intellectual world revealed in 
books. The writer of a treatise assumes to teach whatever he may say ; and teaching 
is impossible without some degree of wisdom, which, if pursued, is given by God to 
replace the evanescent bliss of youth. A wise youth is a monster." (Accordingly, 
Niebuhr counsels only fragmentary writing, without any attempt at completeness and 
finish [?] ), He continues : " Well is it with the young tree that has been planted in 
a good soil and is surrounded by favourable conditions, whose erect growth is pre- 
served by careful hands,'and that forms a solid heart ! Should excessive moisture 
accelerate its growth, should it be soft and weak, exposed to the storm-wind's blast 
without protection and support, the result will be that its wood is spongy, and its 
growth deformed throughout the entire period of its life." 


comprehended in the language of one of the most esteemed theo- 
logians:^ "Decision without exclusiveness and repulsive boldness, 
independence freed from all vain self-sufficiency, dignity without 
unkindness, firmness without harshness and passion, and all these 
resting on the basis of a Christian spirit, together with wealth of 
intellect and of knowledge — these are the elements that constitute 
the theological character." 

The student of theology who is in earnest will speedily discover 
that this ideal cannot be realized by the way of study alone, how- 
ever indispensable this may be ; the causes that so often dampen 
the courage and intensify the struggle are more deeply rooted in 
the moral nature. If newly-gained conceptions excite alarm and 
fears arise that faith may become unsettled, while the desire to 
avoid the conflict suggests that it would be better to leave things 
as they are, it is wise to inquire whether indolence has not be- 
gotten the desire, and cowardice the unwillingness to sustain the 
fight. When novelties impress us, and we feel ourselves driven 
into opposition against the existing order, we may ask what share 

^^ , .in our condition is due to vmiity. dogmatical or quarrel- 

The temper in o • 

which doubt sotne dispositions/' In this way the student has oppor- 
shouid be met. ^^^^^j ^^ constantly apply to himself that beneficial dis- 
cijDline of spirit, to which all were obliged to submit who attained 
to eminence in theological character. In this way, too, the maxim 
of the ancients, " Oratio, meditatio, tentatio, faciunt theologum," 
receives its meaning and confirmation. The practice of quiet and 
frequent self-communion, even though it may oblige him to read 
some pages less, meditatio,^ the trustful look and elevation of the 
soul to God, the Living One, in prayer, oratio,*" courage, and endur- 

^Ullmann, Theol. Aphorismen, in Studd. u. Kritt., 1844, No. 4, p. 448. 

^ " We can battle for nothing nobler than the truth ; and it is worth battling for 
when the mode of conflict leaves love and liberty unharmed. But to quarrel, hate, 
and become alienated about opinions or the authority of councils, synods, faculties, 
journals, or human decisions and forms of doctrine in general, is the most miserable 
business under the sun for men to follow." — Menken, Leben u. Wirken, ii, p. 108. 

^ It was an early custom at commencements to open a book and close it again, in 
order to suggest reflection upon the instructions now brought to a close. But inces- 
sant reading deprives our generation of the opportunity for thinking. 

^"Dimidium studii, rite precatus habet," said the Fathers, and Herder recommends 
prayer and reading of the Bible in the morning and the evening as a daily food 
(1. c, p. 174). In like manner, a Swiss theologian of recent times remarks : "I there- 
fore hold that no person is suited to the sacred oflBce of proclaiming the word, who 
does not come before God with prayer and pleading and sighs day by day, and who, 
with every new hour in which he is to learn some lesson, does not beseech the Lord 
anew in his heart, and so secretly as to escape observation, that he would bless him 
in that hour, so that he may be able to learn the grace and mercy of God, and the 


ance in the conflict against doubt, and against the influences of 
sloth and pride, hypocrisy and passion, bitterness and discourage- 
ment, tentatio — these are the methods by which the theologian is 
developed into a man of God ; and such he must become if he 
would be a divine in the favour of God.^ A theologia irregeni- 
torum is, when carefully examined, a contradictio in adjecto. 

true welfare of man, from the study upon which he is now to enter." — Zyro, Die 
evang. ref. Kirche, p. 12, sq.^ 

^It is usual to demand physical qualifications, also, of the future servant of the 
Church, and not without propriety. The Old Testament was prescriptive in this as 
well as other regards. Lev. xxi, 17, ^qq. In the Koman Church, too, the authoritative 
Canon law recognizes the principle, sacerdos ne sit deformis. The greater liberality 
of Protestantism appears in this respect also, since it prescribes no formal rule. A 
sound, physical constitution is, however, a fundamental condition of ministerial effect- 
iveness. Good lungs ai-e a manifest necessity for the preacher. Much may be ac- 
complished in this direction by dieting, and imperfections of the vocal organs may be 
modified by continued exercise of the parts (Demosthenes). Reading aloud, and also 
singviff, are to be particularly recommended, and no less outdoor exercise. Even study 
may be carried to excess, and a walk in the open air is as important for the mind and 
feelings, no less than the body, as a few hours spent beside the student's lamp. 
Lord Bacon read much, but never to weariness and satiety. The beneficial change 
of a walk, a ride, or a daily game of ball, always succeeded the time devoted to study 
(see Rawley in Yauzelles, Hist, de Bacon, ii, p. 197). There has been a narrow age 
which condemned physical exercises like gymnastics, as not suitable for a theologian 
to practice (through a perversion of 1 Tim. iv, 8). We had supposed that such opin- 
ions were no longer held, until an article in Hengstenberg's Kirchenzeitung for 1863 
endeavoured to show the incompatibility of gymnastics with a Christian disposition ; 
it, however, received an answer, to which we assent, in the columns of the same 
journal. On the advantages of gymnastic exercises for students, comp. Scheidler 
Hodegetik). The great importance of social intercourse for the cultivation of man- 
ners is admitted, and it is greatly to be desired that students associate together in a 
cheerful, joyous way ; nor should they isolate themselves from other society, lest they 
fall into unbridled license. Schleiermacher, Ueber Univers. p. 126, sq. 





Theology is a positive or applied science (Schleiermaclier, § 1), 
and its scientific character is consequently not determined by any 
thing within itself, as is the case with a pure science, but from with- 
out by an existent and historically-conditioned fact, namely, the 
Christian Church and its manifestation in time. 

The word positive is sometimes employed in a more limited sense, 
so as to denote, not simply what is conditioned in the circumstances 
of outward life, but also what is at the same time commanded by 
outward authority — positive law in distinction from natural. The 

^. ^ propjress of our discussion will show, when treating: of 

Sense m which ^ ^ , . ° 

theology is a the relation between reason and revelation, that theol- 
positive science. ^^^ ^^ ^ positive science in this sense also — which is 
likewise true of jurisprudence, but not of medicine. But the three 
sciences referred to may be termed *' positive " without referring 
to that question, if the word be interpreted to mean "a combi- 
nation of scientific elements whose collocation is not required be- 
cause they form a necessary constituent in the idea of science, 
but simply because they are needed for the solution of a practical 
problem" (Schleiermacher) . ^ In this view natural philosophy is a 
pure science, in so far as it investigates nature and its phenomena 
for their own sakes and without reference to the relation of nature 
to the practical necessities of the human race ; while medicine, 
although based on a knowledge of natural philosophy, is still a 
positive, or applied, science, because it selects and collocates simply 

' Similarly Pelt : " The whole of theology has reference primarily to an external phe- 
nomenon, whence its positive character is derived ; for we designate a science as pos- 
itive when it does not originate in a supreme principle developed by free investigation 
in harmony with its own peculiar laws, but when it relates to an organism having its 
beginning in time as an object, such as the ethical associations of the State or the 
Church." — EncykL, p. 15, sq. Comp, Harless, Encykl., p. 25. 


what concerns the relation of the human organism to the organ- 
ism of external nature; i. e., the relations of health and disease.^ 
If diseases should cease, medical science would come to an end. 
And similarly, in connexion with theology, Hellenistic Greek and 
Hebrew have a different significance for the philologist,*"^ and 
Church-history for the historian, than they have for the theologian; 
and the comprehension, e. g.y of exegesis. Church-history, etc., in a 
single course, can be understood only in view of the common ob- 
ject to which they relate. "These very sciences cease The guidance of 
to be theological, and take their places respectively the church the 

. , , - 1 • 1-11 11 1 object of theol- 

with the particular science to which tney belong by ogy and its Mu- 

reason of their contents, if they have been acquired dred sciences. 
and are held without reference to the life of the Church and its di- 
rection." " The great varieties of scientific knowledge stand related 
to the purpose of participating in the guidance of the Church, as 
does the body to the soul ; and without such purpose the unity of 
theology disappears, and its constituents fall into distinct elements." 
(Schleiermacher, § 6, V). This, however, is not universally admitted.^ 
While in former times empii'icism prevailed, and the mere 
thought of future practice frequently served to prevent dangers of the 
thoroughness in study, we now find dominant a scien- excess of the 
tific spirit that mocks at life, and, with cruel harshness, ^^^^^ ^^^"^ * 
drives from its presence the most crying demands of actual con- 
ditions. The example of Dr. Griffin (in the Memoires de Paris) 
affords a melancholy illustration of the manner in which the very 
hospitals are made to afford opportunities for scientific observa- 
tions on the part of medical men. In like manner, a certain theol- 
ogy claims the right to undertake its merciless vivisections on 

^ The anatomy of man, for instance, is simply a contribution to comparative anatomy 
with the natural philosopher, while with the medical man it forms the soil upon which 
his practical activity is based. To the botanist each plant is of equal value with any 
other ; while the physician has a distinct science of therapeutics (materia medica), etc. 

"^ A genius for language is generally regarded as at the same time a theolo^cal 
genius, and a certificate of philological talent passes for the best assurance of the- 
ological fitness ; but real philologists (by profession) have themselves comprehended 
that the one does not necessarily involve the other. " The connexion of theology with 
philology is more properly an accidental one, arising from the fact that the principal 
documents of the former are written precisely in that language to which the latter 
ascribes the highest classical character." — Passow's Leben u. Brief e, pp. 38, 12. 

^Sartorius, Die Lehre von der heil. Liebe, Part I, 3d ed., Stuttgart, 1851 (new 
1 vol., ed. 1861) — in harmony with the Victorines and Middle Age mystics gener- 
ally — makes the sound observation: "Theology is a practical science, a knowledge 
that pervades the affections, and stands connected with the disposition." (The term 
" pectoral theology " has been invented for purposes of ridicule ; but the adage, " Pec- 
tus est, quod disertum facit," cannot be limited, in its application, to the orator alone.) 


the body of the Church, in order to observe the palpitating spasms 
of the heart which the anatomical knife has laid bare to the view. 
The recent times furnish terrible illustrations of this spirit. Are 
men determined not to comprehend that such inconsiderate asser- 
tion of the claims of science forces science itself to become unnat- 
ural, and that, whatever may be thought about the height to which 
such methods may seem to force it, they yet sever the root upon 
which the life of science depends, and thus ensure its death ? ^ Let 
it be observed, however, that the very organization of universities 
in faculties^ which has hitherto prevailed, is based on the distinction 
between the pure and the positive or applied sciences, which we 
have indicated.^ Philosophy, as a distinct university science, has 
to do with pure knowledge, and therefore deserves, not the last, 
but the first, place. ^ Medicine, jurisprudence, and theology are 
mternally allied with it, though in their external bearing they face 
toward actual life, and derive from life their peculiar character as 
determined by its conditions. 

When compared with law and medicine, the remaining positive 
Relations of sciences, theology is found to present numerous points 
law^Smd a^- ^^ contact with both, and even to manifest a closer re- 
cine. lationship with either than they bear to each other. It 

rests upon the foundation of historic fact, like jurisprudence, and 
presupposes the Church, as jurisprudence does the State. The 
courses and apparatus of study in law and theology present a sim- 
ilar appearance (exegesis, history, dogmatics, Bible, and Corpus 
Juris), and in their practical application each involves public dis- 
course and the functions of direction and administration. The two 
meet and interpenetrate each other in the department of ecclesi- 
astical law. But the regulative principle of theology is, never- 
theless, wholly unlike that of law; the latter has to do with firm 
and legally-determined forms, the former with a free development 
of life. A judicial theology is not what we could wish, for it 
would appear as a false positivism. (See the remarks on Law and 
Doctrine, § 7). Theology does not deal with an element of human 
life, such as the principle of right, in the abstract, but with the living 

* There is a papacy and hierarchy of learning and science, a fanatical tyranny exer- 
cised by the learned classes. Their motto is, "Fiat scientia et pereat mundus." — 
Liicke, p. 10. 

^ Schleiermacher, Ueber Universit., p. 73 sqq., p. 75 : " The three faculties (exclud- 
ing philosophy) do not derive their unity immediately from learning, but from an 
external employment, and they combine from different studies whatever is needed for 
that work," Comp. Herbart, Phil. Encykl., chap. 2. (On man in his delations to 
nature, the State and the Church, whence the author deduces the three faculties). 

^ Schleiermacher, 1. c, p. 78 ; Kant, Ueber den Streit der Facultaten. 


man in all his relations. Its work is not mandatory, but curative ; 
and this connects the theologian with the physician, particularly in 
the field of pastoral theology. 

The care of souls reaches over into the physical realm, in view 
of the intimate connexion between soul and body. The physician 
and the clergyman meet beside the sick bed, not only in outward 
form, but also in the profoundest depths of man's need of healing 
(medicina clerica). The moral and intellectual qualities required 
in the physician are also to be in many respects demanded of the 
clergyman, and vice versa. Humanity, apart from what is specific- 
ally Christian, forms here the connecting link. An individualizing 
method of treatment is even more apparent in the work of physicians 
and clergymen than in that of jurists; their personal contact with 
the subjects of their labours is more frequent, difficult to determine, 
and constant. The theologian is accordingly required The qualities 
to unite in himself qualities which are usually presumed ^e^„J^ted?nthe 
in both the jurist and the medical practitioner. He theologian. 
must possess the historic sense, the disposition to labour in a legiti- 
mate way in behalf of a historically-developed society, and the gift 
of oratory, in common with the lawyer; and with the physician he 
must possess the talent for giving direction to the life of individ- 
uals, and for noting the mysteries of the psychical life, an observing 
eye, keen discrimination in the treatment of different persons, and, 
finally, the desire to heal and to change diseased conditions into 
states of health. In former times theology embraced both the other 
sciences, and nourished them in its maternal womb; and their sub- 
sequent separation, though resulting in advantage to them all, does 
not warrant a disregard of their continued relations to each other. 
It forms one of the advantages of a university course (in contrast 
with the opportunities afforded by schools devoted to a specialty), 
that such relations become apparent and are partially actualized 
before its studies are completed. The theologian may gather in- 
, formation from the jurist and the physician, and each is able to aid 
the others in behalf of science and future usefulness from his own 



The relations arising from a positively determined field of activity 

not only demand a certain measure of intellectual ac- ^ ,. , ,.^ 
...*'.. . , Practical life 

quisitions, but likewise a high degree of practical abil- the object of 
ity; hence, theology is not to be onesidedly regarded *^®°^°^y- 
as a speculative or historical science, but also as a practical art or 


Pelt (Encykl., § 3) has properly called attention to this fact; 
for " the general interest of the thought does not predominate in 
theology as in philosophy; the object is not to gain a consciousness 
of the truth, without reference to its application;^ the leading idea 
is, rather, that by means of such consciousness the Church should 
be brought nearer to its consummation" (ibid. p. 34). The word 
art {rexvrj) is here taken in its most general meaning, as denoting 
free action in conformity to recognized principles. 



Zezschwitz, G., Der Entwicklungsgang der Theologle als Wissenschaft (particularly Its prac- 
tical development). Leips., 18G7. 

Christian theology, regarded as the aggregate of the various 
Christian theoi- methods and forms of positive knowledge which have 

ogyconditioned reference to the Christian religfion and Church, is whol- 

by the history of , , , o / ^ 

Christianity. ly conditioned by the existence of that religion and 
Church; and its scientific character can accordingly be understood 
only in connexion with the actual state of Christianity in the cor- 
responding period. 

Comp. Schleiermacher, § 4. The attempt to explain theology 
from the etymology of the word will surely lead to error. In its 
highest character it is unquestionably divinity, the doctrine of God 
and divine things ; and apart from this idea it becomes a dead 
aggregate of the most various learning. This learning, however, 
enters into the body of theology, however variously modified the 
latter may be by the conditions of each successive period. The 
man who should attempt to become a "theologian" in the way of 
simply speculating about God, would speedily find his expectations 
crumbling into ruin. The theologian is obliged, rather, to give 
attention to very human matters, as grammar, history, etc., the 
knowledge of which has become necessary through the progress of 
historical development. The incipient theologian, placed at the 
very center of the present, will be unable to appreciate the com- 
plexity of his science unless he has a preliminary knowledge of its 

The word theology passed over from heathen into Christian 
Origin of the ^sage. They who, among the ancients, were able to 
term theology, furnish information respecting the nature and history 
of the gods, were termed theologians; the word was so applied to 

* Ficlite, however, demanded that the university should not simply transmit knowl- 
edge to the students, but that it should become a school for teaching the art of scien- 
tifically employing the understanding. Comp. his life, by J. H. Ficbte, Pirt i, p. 522. 


Pherecydes of Syros (Olymp. 45-49; B. C. 600) and Epimenides of 

Crete (Olymp. 64-68), a contemporary of Pythagoras.^ In the 

earliest Christian age the word theology was understood to signify 

the doctrines of the divinity of the Logos, and of the Trinity; 

and, in accordance with this view, John the Apostle and Gregory 

Nazianzen were called theologians. The Middle Ages were the 

first to include in Christian Theolosjy the whole body ^^ , ., 

/. ^1 • • T • T / AT 1 IX The Middle A?e 

of Christian doctrine; and some [e. g., Abelard) con- sense of the 

tinued to employ the word preferably in connection ^^^ theology. 
with the doctrine of the Trinity even then. It was the leading 
characteristic of the scholastic theology that it was chiefly con- 
cerned with speculative representations of the Divine nature and its 
attributes. The mystics, on the other hand, whose modes of speech 
were adopted by Luther and also by Spener and Francke, understood 
by theology a courageous entering into the nature of religion itself, 
or the absorption of the mind in God — hence the title of the book, 
Theologia Germanica, and the maxim, *'Oratio, meditatio, tentatio 
faciunt theologum." The modern interpretation, by which theology 
denotes the aggregate of the knowledge which bears upon the life 
of the Church, could only originate after a more definite organiza- 
tion of its several sciences had taken place; but the thing itself 
was previously known under different designations. 

The scientific treatment of religion, or rather of its doctrines, was 
called deoAoytfCTj -ngayiiareia^ avvrayfia TTiareoyg, institutio divina, doc- 
trina Christiana (Augustine), etc.^ A distinction was made between 
niGTig and yvcdOLq {kmGTTjfiT}) , the latter denoting the Theological 

speculative apprehension of the doctrines of religion; science m the 
J J. T . . o ' early Chnstian 

and a further distinction existed between the true and church, 
the false gnosis.^ Theological schools were formed, the speculative 
tendency predominating in that of Alexandria and the grammat- 
ical in that of Antioch. Various considerations led to a scientific 
treatment of theology: 1) the needs of apologetics; it became 
necessary to resist the attacks of scholars and philosophers with 
similar weapons (Justin Martyr et al, Clement and Origen, Minu- 
cius Felix, Tertullian) ; 2) the interests of polemics, the various 
tendencies within the Church having resulted in doctrinal contro- 

^ Cicero, De nat. deor, iii, 21 ; Ernesti, Claris on that passage; Plutarch, De defectu^ 
oraculor., xiv, p. 323, ed. Hutten ; Plato, Polit., lib. ii ; Arist., Metaph., x, 6 ; Diodor. 
Sic, V, 80; Stephani Thesaur. lingua, gr. s. v. deoloync ; Pollux, Onomast., i, IP, 20. 
The priests of the ancients were called lepelg, veuKopoi, ^uKopoi.. trpoipTjTai, viroor/Tai, 
^i'Tai, Te?ieaTac, lepovpyot, Ka-^apraL fiuvretc, T^eofidvTetc, xPV^^I^V^oi, xP^^f^^^^7^h 
XPVf^/J'OSoTai. Trava-yeic, T^vpdopoc, VTTTjperni. ■&eovpyn^ i^v^ttoXo'. Ibid. 14. 

^Semler, Introd. to Baumgarten's Glaubenslehre, i, p. 110, sqq. 

^ See Smith's Hagenbach, Hist, of Doetr., § 26, vol. i. 


versies and. in the rise of heresies. The councils, beginning with 
Origin of form- ^^^ fourth century, settled the doctrines of the faith, 
ai Christian and. furnished, and prepared, the material out of which 
eo ogy. ^ later age constructed the edifice of church doctrines 

(Athanasius, Basil the Great, Gregory of Nyssa, and Gregory Nazi- 
anzen, among Orientals ; and Augustine in the ^^'^est). 

The contents of theology continued to be Christian; but the 
form of the various doctrines was influenced by the philosophies 
(Platonism and Aristotelianism) which had from the first been 
transplanted from heathen into Christian soil. Various intellectual 
tendencies made themselves felt even within the orthodox catholic 
Church; one of these attached more importance to what had come 
down from previous ages, and contented itself with a simple figura- 
tive phraseology, while the other combined the whole of the material 
so transmitted into a body of doctrine, (Isidore of Seville and John 
of Damascus, in the seventh and eighth centuries), and sought to 
penetrate it intellectually, by means of a speculative apprehension 
Early relations ^^^^ dialectic treatment of the several dogmas. The 

of philosophy effort to reconcile theology and philosophy, faith and 
and theology. , , , ^, ., ^-^ ^ ,^ f p 

knowledge, the prescribed and the results oi personal 

thought, revelation and reason, was especially apparent in scholas- 
ticism in various directions (Scotus Erigena in the ninth century, 
Abelard and Anselm in the eleventh). Philosophy, however, be- 
came more and more dependent on the established teaching of the 
Church, and filled, while deceiving itself with the appearance of 
independent action, a servant's place in the house of its mistress. 
But theology, the mistress, likewise failed to emancipate herself, 
and continued to bear the fetters of a dialecticism imposed upon it 
from without. Aristotle ruled the Bible. 

Exegetical and historical studies, formerly cultivated, were ne- 
Middie Ages glected in comparison with systematic inquiries in the 
dogmatic. twelfth and thirteenth centuries from Peter Lombard 
to Thomas Aquinas. Such studies finally degenerated into an in- 
tolerable rage for disputation, and dogmatism gave way to scepti- 
cism. The mystics, however, especially in the fourteenth century, 
Mysticism the Were inwardly preparing for a regeneration of the 
The^'^Reforma- Christian life and thought, when, in connexion with 
tion. the so-called humanism, philology, criticism, and his- 

tory again became prominent, and exegetical studies, immediately 
before the Reformation, resumed their flourishing condition. (Lau- 
rent. Valla, Reuchlin, and Erasmus.) Theology was obliged to 
renew its youth under the influence of the Protestantism of the 
sixteenth century (Luther, Zwingle, Calvin), which postulated the 


Scriptures as the only certain rule of faith, and based every thing 
upon them. The study of the Bible took a freer range and became 
more independent, and was made the broad substructure of the 
body of Protestant doctrine. This body of doctrine was devel- 
oped by the Lutheran and Reformed theologians of Development 

^ "^ , , ,, , • •,! ^4. of doctrine in 

the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries with great ^j^^ Protestant 

thoroui^hness, but not without retaining something of Churciies. 
the scholastic spirit and of polemical bitterness. 

The effort was finally made, from the stand-point of science 
(Calixtus), and especially from that of practical life (Spener and 
Pietism), to return to the simple faith of the Scriptures, and to di- 
rect attention to properly religious needs, in contrast with a dead 
orthodoxy. When Pietism began to lose its savor at the beginning 
of the eighteenth century, philosophy gave it polemical support. 

Wolfianism, havino^ been preceded by Descartes and influence of the 
^ ., . -■ ■• • .1 1 / xT- ^- n^ Wolflan philos- 

Leibnitz, brought into theology a new (mathematically ^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^^ 
demonstrative) formalism, and though still wearing an ogy. 
orthodox garb, prepared the way for rationalism, Avhich was still 
further supported by the critical tendencies of Semler and others 
in the second half of the eighteenth century. 

"Dogmatics" was confined within increasingly limited bounds 
and became more and m.ore undecided in its bearing, while exegetical 
beginning with Ernesti, and historical theology from the time of 
Mosheim, acquired a more independent position. Extraordinary 
changes in the other departments of life (e. g., the awakening of 
German literature in Lessing, modern pedagogics, philanthropism) 
exercised both an inciting and enlightening, a levelling and a secu- 
larizing influence upon the life of the Church. The Wolfenhuttel 
Fragments threatened injury not only to the doctrines The woifen- 
of the Church, but also to the historical basis of Chris- oS^^^isToricai 
tianity. " Apologetics " showed itself embarrassed, and Christianity. 
allowed outwork after outwork to be taken. At this juncture Kant 
appeared and marked out the limits of reason, within which a re- 
ligion that renounced all knowledge of the supersensual and con- 
fined itself to the morality qf the categorical imperative was 
obliged, with its practical ideas of God, liberty, and immortality, 
to content itself for the time. The speculative pressure of Ger- 
man philosophy, in Fichte, Schelling, and Hegel, soon again made 
that its real object, which others, like Jacobi, reserved for a 
faith based on the feelings. Schleiermacher was as earnestly en- 
gaged in the work of separating theology from the philosophy of 
the schools, as in penetrating all its branches with a philosophic 
glance and in pointing out the germs of their life. From that time 


it has been the task of modern theology, before all else, to compre- 
hend its own nature in the light of history, and to secure a clear 
idea of its relation to the present age. There is no lack of persons, 
however, who ignore the whole of the historical development of 
theology, and believe it necessary to reconstruct every thing anew 
from the beginning; while others still desire to conjure up the 
theology of the seventeenth century much rather than that of the 



Theology, like every other positive science, presumes a strictly 
scientific school-training, since it treats the pure sciences as in part 
preliminary to its work, and on the other hand continually employs 
them as auxiliaries. 

A distinction may be made with Bertholdt, between preliminary 
Distinction be- knowledge (propaedeutics) and auxiliary sciences (boe- 
tweon the pre- thetics). The former ogives to every person the neces- 

paratory and ,.^ . , . ,. i • n c 

the auxiUary sary qualiiication, and indicates nis ntness tor entering 

sciences. upon one of the university courses ; the latter are, in 

addition, special aids to the study of theology. A study is fre- 
quently at once preparatory and auxiliary, e. g., Latin, Greek, and 
history. The Hebrew language — even where it is taught in gym- 
nasia — is included among th^ ordinary branches of the school-cur- 
riculum solely for the sake of theology; we therefore reserve its 
consideration, in common with that of biblical philology in gen- 
eral, until the discussion of properly theological studies, where 
auxiliary sciences will receive attention. 



Among pure sciences the languages and history hold the first 
place with regard to their application to theology, and mathematics 

^ In this historical resume we have had reference primarily to German theology, and 
more particularly to that of Protestantism. Koman Catholic theology, wherever it 
was living, passed through the same phases, especially in Germany. All that in other 
lands (in either the Protestant or the Roman Catholic Church) has acquired reputation 
as theological science (which alone is here referred to, and not the practical church- 
life), is more or less closely connected with the course of development in Germany. In 
recent times a change has certainly taken place. The conflicts of German theology 
have been shared by other lands more and more fulty as time progressed, and the lib- 
eral tendency in particular, or even the negative, has found representatives in England, 
France, and Holland. With reference to England, comp., among others, Mackay. 
" The Tubingen School and its Antecedents of the History and Present Condition of 
Modern Theology." London, 1868. Also, the "Essays and Eeviews," Colenso, etc. 


and the natural sciences the second — and this both in a formal 
and a material aspect. We therefore observe, that a Theoio^cai 
liberal classical culture forms the only assured basis for Jf^T^cfassicai 
a sound, Protestant, Christian theology. i>asis. 

" Like him who leaves his country in his youth, so the departing 
student looks back over the course of studies pursued while in the 
school.'" Without taking philosophy into consideration for the 
present (comp. § 7), we may place the remaining mass of empiri- 
cal knowledge in two principal divisions, the one of which presents 
to us the world of bodies in space, and the other the jji^isiong of 
world of spirits, or the moral world as it is developed knowledge— 

JL , . , , , ^ , . . philosophy, na- 

in time, lo the former belong the natural sciences m t^re, and ms- 

their entire extent, together with mathematics, which ^^^y- 
constitutes their formal side; to the latter belong history and its 
formal medium and organ, language.^ While medicine, among the 
applied sciences, is based upon the conditions of nature, jurispru- 
dence and theology rest upon an ethical and historical basis (comp. 
§ 1). Without desiring to reconcile here the pedagogical dispute 
about humanism and realism,^ we may say, without hesitation, that 

* Herder, Anwendung dreier akad. Lehrjahre (Werke zur Rel. u. Theol., x, p. 164). 
Upon this entire section comp. vol. i of Noesselt's Anweisung (Niemeyer's ed., 1808, 
Svo), which, however, leaves much to be modified in accordance with the present con- 
dition of the science. 

^ The French apply the term sciences to the so-called exact sciences, but class phi- 
lology and history with "lettres," a distinction that is well-founded, although such 
designations are misleading, and rest upon too realistic an idea of science. It is, of 
course, understood that an absolute separation between the different sciences is im- 
possible, because they stand organically connected, and the transitions from one into 
the field of another are frequent. Thus geography (both physical and mathematical) 
must be classed with natural sciences, and is seen to be most intimately related to 
several of them, e. g.^ geology ; but it forms, at the same time, the basis of history, 
and is connected with ethnography and statistics. The conditions of nature are, sim- 
ilarly, also the first conditions of language ; and orthoepy may be connected with 
physiology. From this point of view J. Grimm called attention to the mysterious 
laws that control our organs of speech ; to demonstrate these laws is the office of nat- 
ural science. Comp. the preface to the Deutsches Worterbuch, p. iii. W. Wacker- 
nagel, in his preface to his work. Voces Yariae Animantium, a contribution to natural 
science and the history of language, 2d ed., Basle, 1869, likewise refers to this inti- 
mate connection of the sciences with each other. It may be added, too, that history 
has its mathematical side, in chronology, etc., and that its first beginnings (inquiries 
respecting the primeval world) are wholly lost in the investigations of natural history, 
e. g.^ concerning the lake-dwellings. Nor can even the most recent history be properly 
comprehended without duly estimating the revolutions in natural science, and their 
influence upon civilization. 

^ Comp. F. J. Niethammer, Der Streit des Philanthropismus u. Humanismus in der 
Theorie des Erziehungsunterrichts unserer Zeit, Jena, 1808 ; A. Rauchenstein, Bem- 
erkungen iiber den werth der Alterthumstudien, Aarau, 1825 ; F. Thiersch, Ueber ge- 


a classical, liberal culture,^ which is of advantage to the medi- 
cal scholar also, is yet of peculiar service to the jurist and the 

On a detailed review of the preparatory studies, the first rank 
Philology the will be occupied by philology, which possesses great im- 
paratory^*sfud- poi'tance for the cultivation of the mind, irrespective of 
ies. all inherent value. The whole work of instruction is 

based upon the power of the word; and for this reason the study 
of the mother-tongue alone is important. The power of language 
to cultivate the mind does not become manifest, however, until 
the ability to compare several languages with each other has been 
acquired. That especially the Greek and Latin, the (by way of 
eminence) so-called ancient languages, are adapted to perform this 
service, by reason of their wealth of forms and their definiteness, 
is conceded by scholars. The style of classical expression reacts 
upon the mother-tongue to purify and strengthen it;^ and it is 

lehrte Schulen, etc., Stuttgart, 1826, 2 vols. ; A. W. Rehberg, Sammtliche Schriften, 
Hanover, 1828, i, p. 238, sqq.; F. W. Klumpp, Die gelehrten Schulen nach den Grund- 
satzen des wahren Hmnanismus u. den Anforderungen der Zeit, Stuttgart, 1829 ; L. 
Usteri, Rede am Schulfeste 1829, Berne, 1830; Selections from German Literature, 
Edwards & Park, Andover, 1839. 

^ " The humanities, indeed, took a much wider range with ancient Roman writers, 
and included every kind of science that could contribute to human culture. See the 
passage in Gellii noctt. Att. xiii, 15, and J. A. Ernesti, Prol. de finibus humaniorum 
studiorum regendis, Lips., 1738, 4to. But since knowledge among the Romans was 
really acquired by the reading and through the influence of good authors, and in more 
modern times the whole of science was restored and started on its course by the same 
means, that view gave way to the more limited sense in which polite literature or the 
humanities is now taken." Noesselt, i, p. 106. 

^ Luther well illustrates the formal as well as the instrumental value of the ancient 
languages in the following : " Let us cling to the languages as earnestly as we love the 
Gospel. . . . And let it be remembered that without the languages we could not well 
receive the Gospel. The languages are the sheath in which this sword of the Spirit 
is contained. They are the casket in which this jewel is confined. Should it ever 
come to pass, which God forbid, that the languages should escape our careless grasp, 
we should not only lose the Gospel, but finally reach the condition of being able to 
speak and write in neither Latin nor German. Let us be admonished by the wretched, 
horrible example of the high schools and monasteries, in which not only has the Gos- 
pel been lost, but also the Latin and German tongues have been corrupted, so that 
the miserable people have been reduced almost to the level of brute beasts, unable to 
speak and write either German or Latin correctly, and almost deprived of natural 
reason itself." " Where the languages are cultivated there is animation and energy, 
the Scriptures are examined, and faith continually derives new inspiration from other 
and still other words and works." See the address, An die Rathsherren aller Stadte 
Deutschlands, dass sie christliche Schulen aufrichten und halten sollen. Werke, 
Walch's ed., x, p. 538, sqq. Similar passages occur in Zwingle ; see Werke, IJsteri 
and Vogeli's ed., Zurich, 1819, 1820, ii, pp. 255, sqq., 268, sqq. 


therefore necessary that the talent for philology should be devel- 
oped and the intellect be strengthened by the study of ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ 
the classical models themselves rather than by that, for ancient ciasbic 
instance, of later ecclesiastical writers. Nothing but ^^'^s^^s^s- 
narrow-mindedness can discover danger to Christianity in this/ 
Besides a formal value for the cultivation of the mind, however, 
the theologian finds the languages, and particularly the ancient lan- 
guages, to be of practical utility, a point upon which but little need 
be said, as it is self-evident. 

The study of the ancient languages will of itself lead to the study 
of history, for which reason modern philology combines The study of 
in itself both linguistics and historical inquiry.^ It be- ^^^^^ pMioi- 
comes absolutely necessary for the theologian to attain ogy. 
to a clear idea of the ancient world, if it were only to enable him 
to contrast it with Christianity.^ But, in addition, the habits of 

^ The Church-fathers already questioned how far the reading of heathen authors 
might be beneficial or injurious to Christians ; comp. the celebrated dream of Jerome 
(Ep. xxii, ad Eustochium), the oration of Basil, Wpog rovg vkovg, OTvog av ef e7Ji7]vLKuv 
tj(l)eXolv~o ?M-yc}v (published separately by Sturz, Gera, 1'791 ; in German, by F. G. Uhle- 
mann in Illgen's Hist, theol. Zeitschr., part ii, p. 88, ffqg.., and by F. A. Nueszlin, Mann- 
heim, 1830). The monks in the time of the Reformation branded all Greek learning as 
heretical ; but their opponents likeAvise doubted whether heathen antiquity could sup- 
ply the Christian theologian with the most healthful food ; comp. the letter of Felix 
Myconius to Zwingle (0pp. Aii, 1, p. 258). In modern times the value of classical 
studies has also been abundantly debated. Comp. E. Eyth, Classiker u. Bibel in den 
niedern Gelehi'tenschulen, Basle, 1838, 8vo. Fer contra, K. Hirzel, Die Classiker in 
den niedern Gelehrtenschulen, Stuttgart, 1838. With more direct reference to theol- 
ogy: C. H. Stirm, De Classicis, quos dicunt, scriptoribus in usum theol. christ. legendis, 
in den Studien der Wiirtemb. Geistlichkeit, Stuttgart, 1838, vol. x, 'No. 2; L. Baur, Die 
Classiker u. deren Einfluss auf den Geistlichen, ibid, ii, 1, p. 127, sqq. ; J. G. Krabinger, 
Die Class. Studien u. ihre Gegner, Munich, 1853 ; K. L. Hundeshagen, Die Natur u. 
geschichtl. Entwickelung der Humanitatsidee, in ihrem Yerhaltniss zu Kirche u. Staat, 
an oration, Berlin, 1853; J. E. Erdmann, Das Heidnische im Christenthum, Berlin, 
1854; S. Hirsch, Humanitat als Religion, etc., Treves, 1854; J. G. Miiller, Yerhaltniss 
der Classiker zum Heidenthum, in Gelzer's Prot. Monatsbl, 1856 ; E. Yoigtherr, Der 
Humanismus, a synodal oration, Glogau, 1857; F. C. Kirchhoff, Die Christliche Hu- 
manitat, an oration, Altona, 1859; G. Yoigt, Die Wiederbelebung des Class. Alter- 
thums, od. das erste Jahrhundert des Humanismus, Berlin, 1859; A. Boden, Yer- 
theidigung deutscher Classiker gegen neue Angriffe, Erlangen, 1869. 

2 Schiller, What Means and For What Purpose do we Study Universal History ? 
Works, vol. ii., pp. 346-352, Phila., 1861 ; J. G. Muller, Briefe lib. das Studiumd. 
wissenschaften, besonders der Geschichte, Zurich, 1817; E. B. Riihs, Entwurf einer 
Propaedeutik des hist. Studiums, Berlin, 1811 ; W. Humboldt, Die Aufgabe des 
Geschichtschreibers, in werke, 1841, 1; Gervinus, Introduction to History of Nine- 
teenth Century, Lond., 1866 ; Droysen, Grundziige der Historik, Leips., 1868. 

^ Christianity is assuredly appointed to overcome the world, including the heathen 
world, and therefore what remains in us of pre-Christian culture. This subjugation, how- 


thought presented in the Bible and Christianity, so contrary to 
those of heathenism, can only be appreciated by him who has 
come to understand the spirit of antiquity. It is necessary to hai'e 
regard, not only to the history of the Greeks and Komans, but 
also to the history of Oriental peoples in its relation to the 
Bible ; and likewise to that of the Middle Ages and more recent 
times, without which Church history cannot be understood. But 
history and the attention given to it are not only of material value, 
as making us acquainted with matters of fact ; there is also a for- 
mal, fashioning element, the quickening of the historic sense, which 
must not be overlooked. History should not, therefore, be consid- 
ered simply as dealing with nations and states, but, in the spirit 
of Iselin and Herder, as comprehending in its province the entire 
human race. In harmony with this conception, the history of man's 
spiritual culture should be made prominent as its subjective feature. 
While the study of languages and history thus forms the real 
Uses of mathe- basis for theological study, mathematics and the natural 
maticai toowi- gdences are not without value to its prosecution. The 
theologian. formative value of mathematics is unquestioned; it af- 
fords the test of the mind's demonstrative power,^ and is some- 
times called a practical logic, like the science of language. Its 
philosophical value has, however, been overrated. Mathematical 
modes of thought are as unsatisfactory in theology as juridical. 
Mathematics has to do with mensurable and calculable quantities 
(form and numbers), while the immeasurable nature of ideas cannot 
be forced into circles and equations. The wonderful blending of 
spiritual and intellectual life, the numerous and various shades of 
thought, which often elude the grasp of the most flexible and skil- 
ful language, cannot possibly be compressed into an expression like 
a-\-b. Not unfrequently that which, when broadly considered, is 
entirely true, becomes an untruth when the attempt is made to fix 
it and to grasp it with an unimaginative and ideal-less understand- 
ing. Many misconceptions have arisen in this way. ^ A notion that 

ever, is not to be an expulsion, as if of demoniac powers which must be cast out to make 
way for the Divine Spirit. If we have recognized the connection running through the 
different stages of development in the human history of the past, we can regard as the 
ultimate task nothing else than the reconciliation in us of the contrast between the two 
spiritual powers which may be termed the leading factors in the history of civilization, 
viz.^ Hellenism and Christianity." Curtius, in Gelzer's Monatsbl., August, 1858, p. 85. 

^" Hence," says Herder (Sophron., p. 89), "that Avhich Pythagoras inscribed upon 
a hall of learning, ' Without geometry let none enter here,' might properly be wiitten 
on the doors of the higher classes in gymnasia." 

^ Goethe i-emarks (Farbenl, ii, p. 158), "A great portion of what is commonly called 
superstition has its origin in an erroneous application of mathematics." Let memory 


meets with special favor among cultivated laymen, is that astron- 
omy sustains a near relation to theology, because each is a science 
of heaven. But the astronomical heaven is not that of Astronomy not 
theology, nor does " the sublimity we seek " in the world JSed ?o"tLot 
of morality and religion, dwell even in infinite space; ogy. 
for not all the evidences of the stars are able to lead to the star 
of Bethlehem. This was acknowledged by Lalande when he had 
measured the entire heavens without finding God. The knowledge 
of the starry heavens will, nevertheless, adorn the theologian as 
well as other cultivated persons, and the two sciences, however 
they may diverge in other respects, may meet in a poetical trans- 
figuration in the symbol of Urania. The natural sciences in their 
whole extent lie nearer to the theologian than does astronomy as a 
distinct science. 

These sciences were formerly considered from a theological point 
of view as supports to theology; while, in recent times. Acquaintance 
they are often compelled to do duty as sign-boards of ^^^j sciences 
infidelity, as though their progress could no longer important. 
harmonize with the theistic belief in God and immortality, nor yet 
with the more distinctively Christian faith in the truths of Revela- 
tion. It will be found that they whose understanding of the sub- 
ject is least perfect appeal most frequently to such progress, while 
many who are ignorant are afraid of ghosts. ^ With regard to the 
Bible it is necessary first of all to comprehend its relation to the 
natural sciences (which belongs to apologetics), and afterward to 
secure a thorough understanding of the matter in question, partic- 

recall, for instance, the mathematical figures -with which Gerbert (Sylvester ii) sought 
to demonstrate the doctrine of transubstantiation in the eucharist. Similar attempts 
were made in ancient times in connection with the trinity. Franz Baader, and even 
Hegel, toiled mightily for a time, to apply triangles and squares to the doctrine of the 
trinity ; comp. Kosenkranz in life of Hegel, pp. 101, 102. " Mathematics," says 
Bengel, " affords useful aid in certain directions, but it dethrones the imderstanding 
in relation to. truths that are wholly foreign to its forum. The desire for only definite 
conceptions is fatal to living ones. There are different organs for different concep- 
tions ; the eyes will not serve for hearing, nor the ears for seeing," etc. Burk, Leben 
Bengels, p. 71- Comp, also the passage from Melanchthon, infra^ § 81> note 10. 

^ A single word of Goethe's : " Let intellectual culture continue its progress, let the 
natural sciences increase more and more in extent and depth, and the human intellect 
expand to the utmost of its desire — they will never pass beyond the sublimity and 
moral culture of Christianity, as it appears in the Gospel." Eckermann, Conversa- 
tions with Goethe, p. 568. Fr. Fabri, Briefe gegen den Materialismus, Stuttgart, 1856 ; 
Bohner, Naturforschung und culturleben in ihren neuesten Ergebnissen, etc., Hanover, 
1859. A pecuUar attempt to illustrate the Bible by the book of nature, and to inter- 
pret the latter by the former, is made by Zockler, in Entwurf einer system, Natur- 
theol. vom offenbarungsglaubigen Standpunkte aus, Frankfort, 1859. 


ularly with reference to the primeval world and its relation to the 
Mosaic history of creation/ 



An artistic preparation, the halbit of regarding life in its ideal 
aspects, and of engaging in original efforts, particularly in the field 
of language is required in addition to the preliminary scientific 
training ; a Christian culture resulting from religious instruction 
previously imparted, is presupposed. 

This artistic preparation is still too greatly neglected. More at- 
usesofsesthet- tention should be given to stimulating the sense of the 
ic culture. beautiful in early youth, for an imagination nourished 
by poetry is as necessary a condition for the theologian as is an 
understanding practised in history, language, and mathematics.'* 
Early practice in written as well as oral expression, and also in free 
discourse, will especially be of inestimable value to the future 

^ Comp. William Buckland, Geology and Mineralogy Considered with Reference to 
Natural Theology, London, IBS'/, 2 eds,, 2 vols. ; Philadelphia, 1 vol. 12mo, and in 
Bohn's Library, 12mo; Fr. Pfaff, Die Schopfungsgeschichte, Frankf. on the Main, 1855; 
Bohner, Die freiforschende Bibeltheologie u. ihre Gegner, Zurich, 1859 ; the review by 
P. Kind (in the Swiss Ministerial Association, 1863, and the subsequent discussions); 
Reusch, Bibel u. Natur, etc., Freiburg, 18^70; Zollman, Bibelu. Natur in der Harmonie 
ihrer Offenbarungen, 3 ed., Homburg, 18'7l ; Jos. Huber, Die Lehre Darwin's, kritisch 
betrachtet, Munich, 1871 ; and the English and American reviews of Darwinism. 

The theological works of Paley, Sander, Bonnet, Reimarus, Brougham, and the 
Bridgewater Treatises, nevertheless contain much that is stimulating ; but far supe- 
rior to these is Humboldt's Costnos. Bengel, /. c, observes : " It is not right that the 
study of physics is so neglected, and that such a parade should be made of a sublime, 
metaphysical comprehension of the universe. But it was likewise true of the an- 
cients that the general ideas of philosophers were made a cloak to conceal their igno- 
rance." In our day the neglect of certain theologians to acquaint themselves with 
natural science is especially inexcusable. In the face of the ignorance that results, 
unbelief will be able to appeal more shamelessly and defiantly to the progress of 
those sciences. To close the eyes against facts, and, Bible in hand, to fight against 
infidelity, or to meddle in a desultory way with a science which is but superficially 
understood, can only serve to make theology ridiculous in the eyes of specialists ; and 
if the attempt result from a well-meant apologetic purpose it will produce more harm 
than good. 

^ It may be boldly asserted that a lack of poetic apprehension, for which precocious 
speculation is no substitute, has led to thousands of orthodox and heterodox absurdi- 
ties. The secret of Herder's theology and its refreshing influence lies in this poetic 
vein, which the most learned minds so often miss. On the pedagogical value of the 
fine arts comp. Herder, Sophron, pp. 32, sqq., 80, sgq. ; concerning the improvement 
of the vernacular, ibid., p. 197, sqq. How unjust is the charge of Staudenmaier that 
Herder pursued theology in the spirit simply of an gesthetical coquetry ! (Comp. his 
Dogmatik, vol. i). He was simply no scholastic. 


theologian. Rhetoric and poetry in the field of art are j^arallel with 
philology and history in that of science. A practical acquaintance 
with the plastic arts may not be required of the theologian, but his 
mind should not be indifferent to painting, sculpture, and archi- 
tecture, more than it should be closed to the charms of nature. 
The great importance of art will become apparent in connection 
with liturgies. Architecture holds the same relation to the theo- 
logian in the domain of art that astronomy does in that of science, 
without regard to the historical relations sustained by art toward 
the history of saints and the Church. Music, especially, which 
stands midway between the oratorical and the formative arts and 
is closely allied to poetry, is truly theological, and was cultivated 
by Luther.' The skilful fingering of an instrument is not the 
principal object to be desired, but much more the cultivation of 
singing and of acquaintance with the nature of music. Without 
the latter knowledge the theologian will be debarred from entering 
on an essential department of Christian worship. Inasmuch, how- 
ever, as all theology stands related to religion^ and can school and 
only be comprehended through that relation, it will be of ™?e]igious^^ 
necessary that the incipient theologian should not only feeling, 
possess religious feeling in a general way, but that he should have 
acquired religious culture in the preparatory schools. Much, in this 
connexion, depends of course upon the character of the religious in- 
struction imparted in such schools, which, though not designed for 
future theologians alone, may nevertheless be very stimulating and 
adapted to their needs. ^ To these must be added, moreover, the 
influence of the Christian home, and the impression of Christian fel- 
lowship which is produced by the worship of the sanctuary. How 
many an excellent theologian, especially among the older men, was 
first imj^elled to consecrate himself to this calling by beholding the 
shining example of some distinguished preacher. The first guiding 
impulse came from thence, not from the school, which can only for- 
ward the development. 

^Luther judged "that next to the word of God nothing is so deserving of esteem 
and praise as music, for the reason that it is a queen over the heart, able and mighty 
to control its every movement, though such emotions often rule and control man as if 
they were his master. ... I therefore desire that this art be commended to all per- 
sons, and especially the young, and that they be admonished to love and cherish this 
precious, useful, and joyous creature of God." Werke, Walch's ed., part xiv, p. 407. 
" Music is a beautiful, glorious gift from God, and near to theology " (in Table Talk). 

^ Comp. Hagenbach, Bedeutung des Keligionsunterrichts auf hohern Lehranstalten, 
Ziirich, 1846. 




F. E. Schulz, Selbststandigkeit und Abhangigkelt, Oder Philosophie und Theologie in ihrem 
gegenseitigen Verhaltnlss betrachtet, Giessen, 1823 ; K. Ph. Fischer, iiber den Begriff der Phi- 
losophie, Tiibingen, 1830, 8 ; Heinr. Schmid, iiber das Verhaltniss der Theologie zur Philosophie, 
in der Opposiiionsschrift, edited by Schmid, Friess, u. Schroter, vol. i, 1 ; J. H. Fichte, iiber 
Gegensatz, Wendepunct und Ziel heutiger Philosophie, Heidelberg, 1836 ; A. Gengder, iiber das 
"Verhaltniss der Theologie zur Philosophie, Landshut, 1826 ; G. A. Gabler, de Vera Philosophiae 
erga Religionem Christianam Pietate, Berl., 1836; K. Steffensen, das Menschliche Herz und die 
Philosophie (in Gelzer's Protest. Monatsblattern), 1854, p. 285, sqq. ; L. P. Hickock, Theology 
and Philosophy in Conflict, American Presb. Review, vol. xii, 204 ; E. Hitchcock, The Philoso- 
pher and the Theologian, Bib. Sacra., vol. x, 1C6. 

Philosophy should be the constant companion of theology, but 

_,- ., , ., each is to retain, without interchansfe or confusion, its 

Philosophy the ^ ' . 

companion of own peculiar field. Its work does not consist in the 
eo ogy. merely logical process of connecting thoughts together 

(arrangement), nor in the exercise of an occasional criticism (rea- 
soning) ; but rather in combining the great variety of matter 
into a higher unity for the consciousness. This can only be 
done after the material has been furnished from without, by ex- 
perience and history. Philosophy can neither invent the needed 
material in the exercise of its own authority, nor destroy or make 
it other than it is through a pretended transformation or idealizing 

We purposely designate philosophy as the companion of theol- 
ogy, in opposition to the view that the study of philosophy may 
be finished before that of theology begins, which aifords the surest 
way to disgust the theologian with philosophy. The application 
of philosophy to theology has been the subject of controversy 
from the beginning. A warning against false philosophy occurs 
Relations of as early as Col. ii, 8. Irenseus and Tertullian opposed 
fheoiwraced ^^^ Gnostic, speculative tendency in theology, while 
historically. other Church fathers, the Apologists, Alexandrians, 
and especially Origen made use of it. The quarrel between the 
schoolmen and the positive theologians, Roscelin, Abelard, with 
Bernard of Clairvaux, turned especially upon the relations of phi- 
losophy to theology, and the philosophical dispute (realism and 
nominalism) between the schoolmen themselves likewise reacted on 

The perversion of philosophy by the scholastics, and the mistaken 
habit of relying on authorities, which served to poison philosophy 
in its inmost nature, gradually led from dogmatism to scepticism. 
A point was reached where it appeared necessary to distinguish 
between philosophy and theology in such a way as to admit of 


truth in either science becoming untruth in the other. It is not 
surprising that, as the result, philosophy again declined in favour, 
and that empiricism was opposed to it as being the only trust- 
worthy method of reasoning (Roger Bacon). Philosophy was still 
in its decline when the Reformation came, and the Reformation 
did not at all favour what then passed for philosophy; for its 
own origin was not due to the desire for a better philosophic sys- 
tem, but to the longing to possess the true sources of salvation 

which were found in the Scriptures. Luther employed , ,^ , 

^ , . Luther s oppo- 

even violent language to oppose the philosophy of Aris- sitiontopwios- 
totle and "old Madam Weathercock, the reason;" but °^^^^* 
not so Zwingle, who made use of philosophy in a peculiar manner 
(his relation to Picus of Mirandola). The dogmatical works of 
Calvin and Melanchthon give evidence that they, too, were not un- 
acquainted with philosophic thought ; but in the Lutheran Church 
many, nevertheless, accepted Luther's opinions in opposition to 

In the Roman Catholic Church the Jansenists opposed and the 
Jesuits favored philosophy; but which one was the Jesuitical phi- 
losophy? After the Reformation Aristotle was more Philosophy in 

favorably regarded in the Protestant Church, and at ^^^ Church aft- 
y _ & ' er the Refor- 

the beginning of the seventeenth century Martini, in mation. 
his " Yernunf tspiegel," defended the use of philosophy against the 
Magdeburg centuriators.^ When Descartes (1569-1650) appeared, 
powerful voices were raised against him in the Church, and disputes 
about this matter took place in the Netherlands. The populace 
applied the name of " Globenichts " (believe nothing) to the great 
Leibnitz, and the zealous clergy gave their approval. Sj^inoza stood 
alone, identified with no ecclesiastical communion. 

When, at the beginning of the eighteenth century. Wolf lectured 
on a modified Leibnitzian philosophy in his strictly demonstrative 
method, he was opposed in Halle by the Pietists and expelled (in 
1723), but afterwards recalled (in 1740). Philosophy now received 
recognition, at least in its formal aspects, and its proofs were re- 
garded as supports to orthodoxy, until Kant (1724-1804) de- 

^ Bugenhagen, too, was accustomed to write in family albums : " Si Christum 
discis, eatis est, si cetera nescis ;" but he added, " Hoc non est philosophiam et 
artes liberales ecclesia? et scholis necessarias contenmere, sed sine Christo nihil pro- 

^ Vernunftspiegel, i. e., a statement of what Keason, together with its product Phi- 
losophy, is, its extent, and especially its use in religious matters, in opposition to all 
assailants of Reason and slanderers of Philosophy, but especially in opposition to 
some uncouth libels which have gone out of Magdeburg these two years. Wittenb. 
1618. 4. 


stroyed these supports. The progress of philosophy could not 
Influence of l^eiiceforth be ignored by theology, without degradation 
Kant on phi- to its own Scientific character. The one-sided influence 
osop y. ^£ ^^^ Kantian philosophy upon theology was clearly 

apprehended by men like Herder; but the age, nevertheless, be- 
came rationalistic, possessed neither of a speculative nor of the 
more profound religious spirit. It was reserved for Fichte's ideal- 
ism, Schelling's doctrine of the absolute, and Hegel's doctrine 
of the immanent spirit, to exalt the profound life-issues of Christ- 
ianity, which Kant imagined he had disposed of by the introduc- 
tion of a one-sided morality, into speculative questions of philos- 
ophy. Others, as F. Jacobi, Fries, etc, who laid stress upon the 
distinction between faith and knowledge, assigned to subjective 
feeling what the philosophers already named (particularly Hegel) 
sought to elevate into demonstration through the energetic action 
of thought; while Herbert and his followers assumed indifference 
hiei r h toward theology. Schleiermacher, who was by no means 
er's aim as to averse to really profound speculation, and who was the 
p 1 osop y. most skilful dialectician of his day, yet desired that 
philosophy and theology should remain distinct, though he aj^plied 
philosophy to the treatment of theological questions. His simple 
object was that theology should no more be lost in speculation, than 
religion, which he regarded as an affair of the feelings, should be 

^. . . lost in thinkinaf. The Heo-elian school was divided into 

The divisions * ^ 

of the Hegeii- two wings after the master's death, one of which (the 
an School. right) took sides with Christianity, and the other against 
it, sinking even to the level of common freethinking (nihilism).^ 
The speculative tendency served, on the other hand, to stimulate 
certain parties to attempt an independent philosophy of Christianity 
and to seek its reconciliation with theology. A period of exhaust- 
ion and suspicion with reference to speculative thought was, how- 
ever, gradually introduced among theologians, which, in the end, 
resulted in the serious alienation of the two connected sciences 
from each other, if not in placing a gulf between them. Under 
the influence of the natural sciences a systematic scepticism was 
developed, which, on its religious side, passed over into Buddhism 
(Arthur Schopenhauer). 

In England, the Deism which appeared in the time of Charles I., 
and was represented by a succession of writers until Hume 
(1776), profoundly affected the development of apologetic theology. 
Hobbes (1588-1679) resolved all politics into absolutism and relig- 
ion into statecraft. He held it to be the business of the king to 

^ Comp. J. W. Hanne, Der Moderne Nihilismus, Bielefeld, 1842. 


prescribe tlie religious faith of his subjects. His atheistic opinions 
were attacked by Cudworth (1617-1688), particularly his denial of 
free-will and the immutability of moral distinctions. Lord Herbert 
of Cherbury (1581-1648) attempted to fix the principles of univer- 
sal religion, which he made to be five, and denied all of Christianity 
not included under these. Locke's (16.S2-1'704) "Essay on the Hu- 
man Understanding " confirmed the disposition to apply the so-called 
principles of reason to the judgment of Christianity; he remained 
himself a devout believer. Toland (1669-1722) carried the devel- 
opment of rationalism still further in his " Christianity not Myste- 
rious." He denies that there is any mystery in Christianity. An- 
thony Collins (1676-1729) in his "Discourse on the Grounds and 
Reasons of the Christian Religion," is the first English writer to 
accept the title of Free-thinker. He examines the historic founda- 
tions of Christianity, and asserts, as Strauss has asserted in our 
day, that Christianity is only ideally true. Lord Shaftesbury (1671- 
1713) argued from his doctrine of innate ideas (in opposition to 
Locke) and the disinterestedness of virtuous conduct that a super- 
natural revelation is superfluous. Matthew Tindal (1657-1733) in 
his " Christianity as Old as the Creation; or. The Gospel a Republi- 
cation of the Religion of Nature," tried to show that natural relig- 
ion is complete in itself and has, therefore, no need of supernatural 
additions. Thomas Morgan (f 1743) in his "Moral Philosopher" 
makes moral law the test of religion, and finds reason therefrom 
for rejecting Christianity. These philosophers of the deistical 
school were thoroughly met by numerous Christian apologists. Dr. 
Samuel Clarke (1675-1729), besides his attempted a priori demon- 
stration of the being of God, wrote on the " Truth and Certainty 
of the Christian Revelation." Bishop Berkeley (1684-1753) used 
his system of philosophic idealism as a means of establishing the 
truth of the existence of God. Bishop Butler (1692-1752) 
summed up the replies of the Christian apologists to the deistical 
writers of his age in his immortal Analogy. This work still 
holds its place as one of the most complete defences of Christianity 
ever written. 

Hume (1711-1776) by his essay on "Miracles" and his "Dia- 
logues concerning Natural Religion " gave the sceptical philosophy a 
new impulse. His objections to miracles received more replies than 
can be here named; his objection to the idea of causality, as usually 
received by philosophers, awakened the mind of Kant, and led the 
latter to work out his " Critique of the Pure Reason." Philosophic 
thought, as applied to Christianity, in our time has been greatly in- 
fluenced by James Mills and Coleridge, the one a representative of 


the sensational, the other of the intuitional school. Each has had 
numerous successors. 

In America speculation received its first impulse from Jonathan 
Philosophic Edwards (1703-1758), who framed a theory of the 
speculation in human will as a philosophic basis for the Calvinistic 
menca. theolo.g^y. His principles were further developed by 

his son, Jonathan Edwards the younger (1745-1801), Samuel Hop- 
kins (1721-1803), Nathanael Emmons (1745-1840), and Timothy 
Dwight (1752-1817). Some of these followers pushed the opinions 
of their master to extreme conclusions. Among the opponents of 
Edwards's theory of the will may be named Henry P. Tappan 
(Review of Edwards' Inquiry into the Freedom of the Will), and 
D. D. Whedon (The Freedom of the Will). Dr. James M'Cosh 
has applied the inductive method to the examination of the divine 
government with a view to the reconciliation of nature and revela- 
tion (The Method of the Divine Government, Physical and Moral). 
Theodore Parker elaborated a^n absolute religion, intuitional in its 
character, but subversive of historical Christianity. The denial of 
Theism has been combated by various writers, among whom may 
be named Laurens P. Hickock (Creator and Creation), Asa Mahan 
(N'atural Theology), and Borden P. Bowne (The Philosophy of Her- 
bert Spencer; Theism). The denial of all philosophy by Comte has 
also received much attention from metaphysicians in the United 

Thus far the historical review. It shows that theology has never 
Fact demon- been able to separate itself from philosophy, but that, 
historfcaT re- ^^ ^^^^ Other hand, no lasting union between the two, or 
view. rather, between theology and any particular philosophy, 

has been practicable. To give no attention to philosophy would 
be the simplest expedient, but also the most objectionable, and 
impossible; for in this age no one can have the hardihood to pur- 
sue a theological (dogmatical) discussion without a preliminary 
training in philosophy, which, moreover, must not be confined to 
the ancient and wholly formal logic of the schools. The necessity 
of formal logic has always been understood, although its scien- 
tific value has been variously estimated ; but the conviction has 
been reached that the arrangement of a system and the line of evi- 
dence to be adopted, are themselves dependent on the intellectual 
point of view from whence fhe system is controlled. The main 
matter is to secure the point of view. The reliance upon so-called 
sound common sense, with which, no doubt, many seek to supply 
the lack of philosophical acquirements, is likewise misplaced in the 
field of science ; eclecticism is of little benefit to the student who 


is misinformed about the things among which he is to choose.^ It 
thus becomes absohitely necessary to undertake the study of phi- 
losophy ; and since it can rarely be reached in the j)reparatory 
schools, it is desirable that students of theology should begin phi- 
losophy in the first period of their course, in order to be nourished 
by it into strength, before they aj^proach dogmatics, the heart of 
theology.^ Philosophy is simply a clear recognition by the mind 
of its OAvn constitution, and all sound philosophy should take its 
rise in that recognition, or, in other words, in legitimate The object of 
thinking upon the ultimate grounds of all thought.^ It ^^ pMiosophy. 
should aid every student in attaining to a clear understanding of his 
own nature, and thus place him in a position to easily comprehend 
the organic connection of the different departments of knowledge, 
which is the objective goal of j)hilosophy.* Unfortunately, many 
students are more confused at the end of a course in philosophy than 
they were at its beginning ; like the pupil before Mephistopheles, 
they feel as if a mill-wheel were revolving in their heads. 

In view of this danger, the choice of a teacher and the method 
to be adopted are deserving of consideration. At this point the 

^ " Philosophy is most of all opposed to that intellectual barrenness, which general- 
ly ventures to assume the name of enlightenment. The elevation of the ordinary 
understanding to the position of arbiter in matters of the reason^ will, as its necessary 
consequence, bring about an ochlocracy in the domain of the sciences, and, sooner or 
later, the further consequence of a general revolt on the part of the rabble." Schelling, 
Methode des akadem. Studiums (comp. Anthologie aus Schelling's Werke, p. 112.) 

^ Schleiermacher (TJeber Universitaten, p. '78) held that all students, even the non- 
theological, should be engaged simply with philosophy during the first year of their 
university career. "What he exacts of all is demanded at least of theologians by 
Rosenkranz, Encykl., Pref., xx : " The student of medicine or law, if thorough in 
other matters pertaining to his specialty, may be pardoned for indifference or aversion 
to the study of philosophy ; but it is required of the theologian that, in addition to 
his special studies, he should pursue as thorough a course in philosophy as may be 
practicable." Similarly Schenkel, Christ!. Dogmatik, ii, p. 3 : "A thorough philo- 
sophical training is certainly essential to the theologian, and the punishment for its 
neglect Avill be the more bitter, as great effort becomes necessary to recover in later 
years what has been lightly regarded before." 

2 " The recognition of self," says the younger Fichte, " is the sole substance of all 
(philosophical) perception, and its highest perfection is accordingly the real goal of 
every philosophy that understands itself, and that has thereby attained to maturity." 
Idee d. Personhchkeit u. d. individ. Fortdauer, Elb., 1834, p. 42. 

* " Every person who aims to understand a particular science in its connexion with 
the whole of knowledge and in its ultimate grounds, is engaged in philosophical in- 
vestigation, whether he be called a student of nature or a theologian, or be employed 
more especially upon the works of man. Every question that proceeds beyond the 
presumptions postulated by the several sciences, leads him who pursues it into the 
domain of philosophy." Steffensen, p. 303. 


incomprehensible terminology, which can scarcely be avoided un- 
The hard terms der the existing methods of treating philosophy, should 
Souifnofbe neither dazzle nor alarm the beginner. The leading oh- 
feared. ject 171 the stuchj of philosophy is, not so much the acquisition 

of finished results, as of readiness in the art of philosophizing } The 
philosophical jargon which is especially patronized by persons who 
seek to cover the confusion of their minds with cheap fineries, 
should above all things be avoided.' Let the student endeavor to 
express in his own language what he has heard. It would be no 
unprofitable exercise to engage in philosophical disputations from 
which certain catch words {e. g. subject, object, etc.) should be 
banished at the outset. But let there be an equal unwillingness to 
stamp as nonsense whatever is incomprehensible by reason of the 
student's insufficient preparation or practice, or worse still, to repeat 
the childish dictum that men like Hegel failed to understand them- 
selves. Let philosophy not receive exclusive attention, without 
Philosophy providing real and positive food for the mind, espe- 
sued^^? coni ^^^^^3^ through the continuous pursuit of historical and 
nexion with linguistic Studies. The counsel given by Pelt,^ that 
other studies. ^^^ student should thoroughly examine some system of 
philosophy (Plato, Aristotle, Spinoza, Leibnitz, Kant, Hegel), if 
possible in its original sources, is likewise greatly to be commended. 
The mind should accustom itself to regard each system in its rela- 
tion to its own time, and the current tendency of that time, as well 
as in the relation of its parts to each other. Care should be taken 
from the first that the judgment be not biased by the influence of 
some one system, when matters of fact are under discussion, or 
when the exegetical or historical investigation of some fact is in 
progress, or when it is sought to comprehend some doctrine that 

^ This was Kant's desire, comp. Anthropologie, p. 16Y: "He insisted, again and 
again, in his lectures to his students, that they were not to learn philosophy of him, 
but how to philosophize." Kuno Fischer, Kant's Leben, p. 25. 

^ "It is childish to wear the ornamental rags and patches of others while we are 
able and expected to provide an entire garment of our own and fitted to our person. It 
is madness to destroy the eye or impair its vision for the purpose of learning to look 
through the glass of others." Herder, Sophron., p. 213, The Frenchman, Edgar 
Quinet, addresses a similar warning to his countrymen who are not in other respects 
unduly speculative : " Empechez une nouvelle scolastique de naitre. J'entends par la 
les emb aches de mots, dans les quels I'instinct de la vie reelle, de la verite politique 
est sacrifie a une logomachie puerile qui n'a que I'apparence et point de corps. Com- 
bien d'umes droites sont deja dupes de cette scolastique et s'y embarassent a plaisir ! 
Combien surtout d'ames serviles s'abritent aujourd'hui sous ce masque. (Kevolution 
religieuse au 19 siecle. 1857, p. 113). 

^ Encyclopadie, p. 40. 


has come down from former generations. Philosophy can invent 
nothing ; could it hear the grass grow, it would yet be Philosophy can- 
unable to produce a single blade. As natural philos- ^^''eoioScaiS 
ophy is incompetent to originate an order of plants or trine. 
a gas, so the philosophy of history is unable to necessarily deduce 
an historical fact.^ It is true that reason contains the general laws 
by which a substance surrounded by contingencies is freed from its 
accidental elements and raised into the category of the universal; 
but in this regard also care is needed, in order that the very pe- 
culiarity of the concrete phenomenon, and the fragrance resting 
upon it, be not destroyed in the process of generalization. 

Let an illustration suffice. A profound speculation seeks to 
apprehend the idea of the God-man as a necessary one, The inability of 
and as required for the completion of both the ideas oJiginate^dog^ 
God and man^ since God most effectively demonstrates ma iuustrated. 
his Divinity in man, and man attains his true manhood only in 
God; but the truth that the Divine life has been manifested and 
actualized in a human form, in the determinate person Jesus of 
Nazareth, is not derived from philosophy. It cannot prove that 
precisely this person was needed for the most perfect manifestation 
of God in human nature; nor can it employ authoritative dicta, 
such as that nature does not usually lavish all her gifts upon a single 
person, to destroy an historical fact which is necessary to explain 
the existence of the Church. In like manner philosophy may be 
permitted to show that the abstract idea of unity is not Another iiius- 
adequate for the more profound recognition of the na- tration. 
ture of God, and that only a God who knows himself as God in 
God, and is known by God as God (the Being that loves, the Being 
that is loved, and the love that forms the bond of union between 
them=God), can satisfy the religious consciousness.^ The Christ- 

' Luther called reason (philosophy) the old weather-maker ; it cannot, however, 
make, but only observe, or at the most, foretell the weather; and, even in this, it is 
often wrong. "The philosopher should know that without theology he can know 
nothing of the 'city of gold and precious stones,' and of the 'pure river of the water 
of life,' which St. John saw. A system of truths that must seem necessary to the nat- 
ural mind, can never wash away the fear of death from the heart or beget heavenly 
affections in the place of beastly lusts, more than it can remedy a nervous fever, or 
remove the smell of decaying matter from the atmosphere of a death-chamber." 
Steffensen. We also adduce the maxim of Picus of Mirandola, " Philosophia quaerit, 
theologia invenit, religio possidet veritatem." 

''Thus Augustine and all the more profound Christian thinkers. It is to be ques- 
tioned, however, whether the speculative development of the Trinity is the proper 
task of philosophy. " "We cannot, upon the whole," says J. H. Fichte (Idee d. Person- 
lichkeit, p. 86), "avoid the confession that the introduction into philosophy of this 
Christian dogma, which has become almost the favourite question of the day, particu- 
6 - 


ian doctrine of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, is not to be con- 
ceived as a mere actualizing of the speculative idea, but rather as 
the historical development of the Christian revelation, from which, 
in connexion with ideas previously extant in the world, the specu- 
lative conception was itself developed, and to which it now assumes 
a relation similar to that of the philosophy of art to an actual work 
of art, or of natural philosophy to one of the products of nature. 
This consideration will indicate the measure of truth in the state- 
ment that philosophy stands outside of or above religion (Schleier- 
macher, § 38). The above is not to signify superiority, but simply 
the objective character of its point of view.' 


The diversity of philosophical systems should not be permitted 
to mislead us. I'he truth is, that despite such diversity, every sys- 
tem of philosophy, which in any way permits a distinction between 
God and the world, spirit and matter, freedom and necessity, may 
be applied to theology. 

larly at this time, has produced no little confusion, not only by destroying the bound- 
aries between the mere a priori knowledge of God and a positive revelation, but even 
more by giving rise to the thoroughly inopportune appearance of a superficial coinci- 
dence of Christianity with the prevalent philosophy of any particular time." " To 
combine metaphysical and theological arguments with each other for the purpose of 
demonstrating that a religious tradition is metaphysical truth, or that speculative de- 
velopments have a Christian or orthodox character, is a deceitful process. In this way 
many now attempt to construct a metaphysical trinity out of three attributes of the 
Divine nature, and to substitute this arbitrary union of three such attributes for the 
original Christian doctrine of Father, Hon, and Spirit." Bunsen, Hippolytus, i, p. 281. 
' Lord Bacon expresses himself strongly against the confounding of philosophy and 
theology with each other, De augment, scientiae, ix, 487 : Quemadmodum enim theo- 
logiam in philosophia quaerere perinde est ac si vivos quaeras inter mortuos, ita e 
contra philosophiam in theologia quaerere non aliud est quam mortuos quaerere inter 
vivos. On the impropriety of subordinating either philosophy or theology to each 
other, and on the necessity for making them co-ordinates, see Eosenkranz, Encykl., 
p. 12. Comp. Fritze, Ideen zur Umgestalt. d. evang. Kirche, Magdeb., 1844, p. 11: 
"Theology is not the mistress of philosophy, nor ought it to become the servant of 
any particular philosophical system." Kym, Weltanschauungen, p. 33: "Although 
philosophy serves as the handmaid of a particular science, e. g. theology, it is not in 
the way of supporting the train of some gracious lady, but in the way of going before 
it to aiford a light that shall conduct the science home, to its origin." On the rela- 
tion of religion to philosophy and its several branches comp. Steffensen, in Gelzer, 1858, 
p. 109 : *' They who fancy that religion will ever prostrate itself before philosophy and 
transfer to it the keys of the kingdom of heaven, are certainly very silly. Nor would 
philosophy accept the office if it were offered. . . . But it is equally certain that the 
spectacle will not be seen in our age, of philosophers subordinating their thinking to 
authorities in whose behalf the pious people of different denominations demand faith." 


The objection to philosophy derived from the variety of systems 

is as shallow as an attempt to argue against revelation ^^ sound ob- 

on the ground of the number of positive religions/ jection to pui- 

, . losopliy from 

Nor do we mean that all philosophies are equally valu- the variety of 
able, so that one or another may be preferred at pleas- ^^® systems. 
Lire. Only a single one can be the true philosophy, and to it, the 
absolute truth, all should strive to attain; but the more genuine 
the desire to attain to the truth the less hasty will the mind be in 
coming to a conclusion. Inasmuch too, as any particular system 
can present only relative truth, it will always be necessary to com- 
bine the truths of different systems into a higher truth, and to 
avoid their errors. Such an undertaking is not, however, adapted 
to the powers of a single mind, and should therefore be entered 
upon in and with the school, rather than outside and irrespective of 
it. Until the student has become a master, he will attach himself 
with preference to some particular school. Which one he shall 
select is not without importance with respect to both philosophy 
and theology; but it is a less serious matter in its bear- Tt^eoiogy does 
ings upon the latter, for the reason that theology is not not stand or faii 
so dependent on any system of philosophy as to stand system of pM- 
or fall with it. A theologian of the Kantian school, for losophy. 
instance, might give evidence of more thorough theological acquire- 
ments, having grown beyond the limits of his system, than one 
belonging to the school of Hegel, for this, among other reasons, 
that the Christian consciousness, which is independent of all philo- 
sophical systems, is the principal qualification for a theologian. 

While, therefore, allowing freedom to speculation, we direct at- 
tention to the breakers, which threaten to shipwreck faith nnU^^s 
a competent hand is at the helm. It is self-evident that a philos- 
ophy which annihilates God, and denies the existence of spirit and 
moral freedom, a bald materialism, in short, (sensation- Both sensation- 
alism), must be excluded." But the spiritualistic philos- f^^^ unchris- 
ophy (idealism), which stands opposed to materialism, tian. 
which regards God and spirit as the only realities, and accordingly 
denies the existence of matter and the world, and which teaches 
an unbounded, absolute liberty by deifying the Ego, is likewise 

^ Thus, it is well known that Schiller would identify himself with no religion out of re- 
gard for religion, and with none of all the philosophies out of regard for philosophy; but 
the polemical point of an epigram cannot serve as the foundation of a solid edifice. 

^ In opposition to the materialism of modern times, against which theology is called 
to contend, and whose representatives are Moleschott, Karl Vogt, and Biichner, comp. 
the works of Jul. Schaller, F, W. Tittmann, J. Frohschammer, J. G. Fichte, and F. 
Fabri, the last named in Herzog., Encykl, ix, «. v., Materialismus. 


planted in an unthcological position. A god without a world is 
not the God of theology; a spirit without flesh to subjugate is 
not the Christian spirit; liberty that does not involve the feelhig 
of dependence is not the liberty of the children of God. The 
Bible everywhere presupposes a dualism, or rather parallelism, of 
God and the world, heaven and earth, spirit and flesh, etc., not 
as rigid and irremediable, but yet as an actual contrast to be 
overcome by the might of Christianity. In this way two other 
tendencies are obviated, the one of which regards such contrasts 
as rigidly immovable and out of all relation to each other, while 
the other, instead of reconciling them in thought, simply destroys 
them by an authoritative decision, while aiming to remove them. 
Deismandpan- The former tendency is deistic, the latter pantheistic. 
SstictoChrfst- ^^^^ former was the current adversary of an earlier age, 
ian theology, the latter is the antagonist of the theology of to-day. 

The term deism is applied to a conception of the world which 
not only distinguishes between it and God, but separates God from 
the world, holding that the only God who exists is an extra- and 
Bupramundane Being, who once created the world, but has now 
left it to the operation of its established laws. This God enters 
into no vital relations with man ; he stands over against him, in- 
deed, as lawgiver and judge, but does not enter into human na- 
ture, nor communicate himself thereto. The deistic conception of 
the relation between spirit and matter, as resembling that of two 
laths glued together,^ is in harmony with the separation of God 
from the world, and equally rigid. IsTature, too, is considered a 
lifeless mechanism; and the tendency of deistic morality is to make 
every thing promote the self-glorification of the reason. This phi- 
losophy denies the power of the inclinations, the profound influ- 
ences of natural conditions on the one hand, and the vital connexion 
of the spirit with God on the other; it is therefore unable to appre- 

^ . . hend the nature of sin or of redemption and grace, the 

Deism mcapa- _ ^ ^ ... 

bie of Christian mysteries of religious communion, or the significance 
of prayer, the sacraments, etc. Over against Deism 
stands the philosophy of identities^ which unites the contrasts in 
question. It has much that is attractive to the imagination and 
natural feeling, but is unable to aiford durable satisfaction;^ for 

^ Following an expression that is applied by the Formula Concordiae to the two na- 
tures in Christ, Carriere appropriately remarks that "spirit and matter should neither 
be separated nor identified, but distinguished and combined." 

^ Tzschirner's Briefe on the confessions of Reinhard (Leips., 1811), are instructive 
upon this point. Comp. p. 4Y sqq.^ where the author speaks of the impressions made 
pn himself by the then current nature-philosophy of Schelling. The hideous charac- 


inasmuch as it assumes the character of pantheism with reference 
to the relation of God to the world, it either loses God in the world 
and sinks into materialism, or it resolves the world into God and 

becomes idealism. In the same way spirit is reduced ^^ , . , ^ 

■^ ^ , Theological and 

to matter (emancipation of the flesh) or matter is con- moral outcome 
sumed by spirit (false asceticism), while moral freedom ° pantheism. 
becomes a mere phantom. Upon this teaching sin becomes a nat- 
ural necessity, and redemption a divinely contrived ingenious drama, 
while the deity attains to consciousness only through the evolutions 
of the human mind, and exhausts itself in time, through the endless 
process of the immanent development of thought. 

It follows that only that philosophy can make a league with the- 
ology which recognizes a living personal God,^ who is neither 

ter of pantheism is admirably described by Lamartine (Dernier chant du peleiinage 
d'Harold, p. 18):— 

Le Dieu, qu'adore Harold, est cet agent supreme, 
Ce Pan mysterieux, insoluble probleme, 
Grand, borne, bon, mauvais, que ce vaste univers 
Revele a ses regards sous mille aspects divers; 
Etre sans atributs, force sans providence, 
Exer^ant au hasard une aveugle puissance; 
Vrai Saturne, enfantant, devorant tour a tour, 
Faisant le mal sans haine et le bien sans amour; 
N'ayant pour dessein qu'un eternel caprice, 
Ni commandant ni foi, ni loi, iii sacrifice; 
Livrant le faible au fort et le juste au trepas, 
Et dont la raison dit: Est-il? ou n'est-il pas? 

With this comp. a poem by Schelling, published in the Zeitschrift fiir spec. Physik, 
1800, and continued in the Anthologie aus Schelling's Werke. (Berl., 1844), p. 98. 
Much, however, may seem to be pantheism from the stand-point of abstract deism, 
that is not so in reality. Bunsen remarks: "The immanence of God in the world is 
by no means equivalent to pantheism ; for the life of God and his continuance in it 
may be conceived without excluding the self-origination of God as the idea and will 
of the world, and the independence of the self-centred blessed Deity, as a necessary 
result." Gott in der Geschichte, p. 5. 

^ The word " personal " may, of course, be erroneously explained, so as to involve 
the nature of God in human limitations ; but it has become one of the tasks of modern 
philosophy to settle this very idea of personality. It is of primary importance that 
the distinction between the ideas permn and individual should be preserved. God is 
not an individual (though so eminent a thinker of former years as Hamann employed 
this designation) but person — not a person, but person in the eminent sense — absolute 
personality. The historical development of the doctrine of the Trinity in unity, illus- 
trates, though in hieroglyphics, the difficulty of the problem to be solved. An idea is 
not to be rejected as unthinkable, simply because it is involved in difficulties to our 
thought ; precisely the inexpressible demands the most energetic efforts of the noblest 
of our powers and thought. Comp. (in addition to the younger Fichte) the treatise of 


excluded from the world nor included in it, and who both transcends 

,^ _,.,. the world and is immanent in it: and which furthermore 

The conditions ^ ' 

of a Christian conceives of the human soul and body as organically 
p 1 osop y. related, refusing to make of spirit merely sublimated 
matter, or of matter the precipitate of spirit, and acknowledging 
both personal freedom and a free personality created for eternal 
•ends. We designate such a philosophy as thelstlc,^ in contrast with 
both the deistic and the pantheistic, and accordingly observe that 
the only system that may be applied to Christian theology is that 
The only pos- of pure t/ieism. Whether philosophy can of itself for- 
phiiosophy tiS J^^l^-te this theism, or, renouncing the attempt, whether 
istic. it shall devolve the task upon the practical reason with 

Kant and Herbart, or upon feeling with Jacobi, or upon faith 
and presentiment with Fries, is a matter of little consequence ; 
for we are not concerned to clearly demonstrate the idea of person- 
ality in a scientific light, which task may be proj^erly reserved for 
philosophy. But theology can never strike friendly hands with a 
philosophical conception of the world, which eliminates man's per- 
sonal relation to God and consequently destroys religion, the basis 
of all theology itself.^ Nor would we venture to assert, without a 
prelirtiinary understanding^ that the philosophy must be "Christ- 
ian." How is the word to be understood? If in a historical cense, 
The sense in it apj^ears that all modern philosophy, having come 
ophTmust^h^e ^^^^ being through the influence of Christian ideas, is 
Christian. Christian; and this is true of such philosophies as are 

unchristian in their results, in so far as they have passed through a 
Christian development. But if it be made to signify that the doc- 
trines of Christianity should constitute the subject-matter of the 
philosophy, that, for instance, it should undertake to develop the 
atonement or the person of Christ, the result is that a demand is 
made upon j^hilosophy for which its power is inadequate.^ Finally, 

Deinhardt, Begriff der Personlichkeit mit Riicksicht auf Strauss (in Beitra^e, p. 85 
8qq.) and Schenkel, Idee der Personlichkeit in ihrer Zeitbedeutung fiir d. theoi. Wis- 
senschaft, etc. Schaffh., 1850, and also id., Dogmatik, i, p. 29 s<qq. 

' It must be conceded that these terms are arbitrarily applied ; but they are em- 
ployed in harmony with the current usage. Comp. Deinhardt, Kategorie des clirist- 
lichen Theismus, in Beitrage, p. ^1 sqq. The word theism is still used, however, as 
synonymous Avith deism, by some authors (as Kym, I. c). 

^ Lotze somewhere makes the appropriate remark, that " the truly real, which is and 
is to be, is not matter and still less idea, but the living and personal Spirit of God and 
the world of personal spirits which he has created." Theology will doubtless be able 
to content itself with this philosophical result. 

^ Van Oosterzee presents the distinction between the material of philosophy and 
that of theology in a very satisfactory manner. This distinction once accepted, the 


if its ideas are to be derived from other sources, e. g., from the 
Bible (the thought has expression in talk about a Biblical philos- 
ophy), it must cease to be philosophy and lose itself in dogmatics. 
A different judgment must be formed of the so-called 2^hilosophy 
of Christianity, which does not attempt an a priori explanation of 
the Christian Revelation, but regards it as existing, and seeks to 
comprehend it in harmony with the fundamental principles of rea- 
son. It is accordingly a part of the general philosophy of religion, 
or also of the philosophy of history, and may as readily be under- 
taken from an unchristian as a Christian point of view.^ 



No single department of philosophical inquiry can be made at will 
to possess special prominence for the theologian, since philosophy is 
an organic whole; but the field of ethics — moral philosophy and the 
philosophy of religion — will more particularly come into relations 
with theology, in addition to the formal elements of philosophy 
(logic, dialectics) and its general bases (psychology, anthropology). 

In recent times the eiicydopcecUa of philosophy has been included 
among the subjects usually presented in academical Brauches of pw- 
lectures; and its study should be urged upon the the- ire^^^^mportan^ 
ologian, as of primary importance.^ Ordinary logic, as to theology. 
it was occasionally taught in preparatory schools or more generally 
in the first stages of the university course, had temporarily lost 
much of its significance for many students, in view of the entire 

confusion of philosophy and theology is readily avoided : " Theology is distinguished 
from speculative philosophy in this, that while the latter takes the pure human con- 
sciousness as its starting point, theology, on the contrary, must, above all, take ac- 
count with an historical fact, with the belief of the community in a divine revelation. 
It makes the subject and ground of this belief the material for its investigation, in 
order to purify the idea, to develop it, and when necessary to defend it. It is ' une 
philosophic, dont la base est donnee ' (Vinet), and thus, as a science, sustains a two- 
fold character. It proceeds from that which is given, not in order to leave it as it is 
given; it reasons and philosophizes, but not in the abstract. Its material is an his- 
torical product, but it must treat this in a Christian philosophical (really critical) 
method." (Christian Dogmatics, Amer. ed., v. i, p. 2). 

^ Comp., however, Pelt, Encykl., p. 541 sqq.^ and J. P. Lange, Phil. Dogmatik. 

'■^ Herbart, Troxler, and Hegel published philosophical encyclopaedias. Oppermann, 
Encykl. d. Philosophic, Hanover, 1844 ; F. C. Callisen, Propaedeutik d. Phil., Schleswig, 
1846 ; K. Ph. Fischer, Grundziige des Systems d. Philosophic u. Encykl. d. Phil. Wis- 
senschaften, Erlangen, 1848-52 and 55, 3 vols.; K. Rosenkranz, System d. Wissen- 
schaften, etc., Konigsberg, 1850; H. Ritter, Encykl. d. phil. Wissenschaften, 3 vols. 
Gottingen, 1862-64. Comp. L. Tobler, Phil. Propaedeutik auf Gymnasien in the 
Neue Schweiz. Museum of Ribbeck, Kochly and Fischer, 1861, No. 4. 


transformation of philosophy ; but as the paroxysm wore off, the 
reaction caused a more zealous return to logical sobriety, without 
which all philosophizing becomes simply a tumultuous confusion. 

Psychology, which for a period of considerable length had been 
moving in abstract categories, presenting the life of the soul apart 
from the conditions of physical life, was, after the return from this 
exclusive spiritualism, drawn more and more into the field of the 
physical sciences and brought into connexion with physiology — as- 
suredly an advantageous change for science. This change involved 
the danger, however, of losing the soul-life in that of the body, and 
Importance to of thereby passing from spiritualism into materialism. 
SunrwcSoi- ^ ^^"^ philosophy of religion will always be dependent 
ogy. on a thorough psychology, a genuine philosophical ex- 

position of the nature of the soul and its various manifestations 
(anthropology). An illustration is found in the relation between 
faith and knowledge, to determine which is the office of philosophy, 
but whose demonstration depends essentially upon psychological pos- 
tulates. The old, Socratic maxim, " Know thyself," forms the under- 
lying basis of all knowledge. A further question arises, however, 
concerning the extent to which even an objective apprehension of 
" the thing in itself " is possible to speculative philosophy — the great 
question to which various answers have continued to be returned 
since the days of Kant. This leads into fields which are often des- 
ignated by the names of ontology and metaphysics. The names have 
been exchanged for others, indeed ; but the departments to which 
they apply will constitute the field of so-called speculative philosophy. 

If we recur to the ancient Platonic and Aristotelian division of 
philosophy into physics, ethics, and dialectics, we obtain an ana- 
logue to the different branches of study treated of in § 5, which 
are also designated as philosophical studies in the broad sense. 
Logic (dialectics) will correspond to philology and mathematics, 
physics to the natural sciences, and ethics to history. If we apply 
the modern terminology, we have on the one hand a phenom- 
PMiosophy di- enology of nature, and on the other a phenomenology 

visible into that £ mind ; on the one hand natural philosophy, on the 
of nature and ' • j* t \ 

that of mind, other moral philosophy (the metaphysics of morality) 

and the philosophy of law (natural justice), of religion, and of his- 
tory. It must be left to philosophy itself to determine the relation 
sustained by the philosophy of nature to empirical natural science, 
or by the philosophy of religion to religion and its historical mani- 
festation in actual life. We likewise referred to the arts, in addi- 
tion to the sciences ; and we here find available a philosophy of the 
beautiful also — aesthetics the philosophy of art. 


The history of pMlosopliy is necessary to the study of philosoj^hy 
itself; but as an auxiliary to the history of religion, Church, and 
doctrine, its consideration is referred to another place. 



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Kasim. Conradi, Selbstbewusstsein und Offenbarung oder Entwicklung des rcligiosen 

Bewusstseins. Mainz, 1831. 

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J. H. Fichte, Religion und Philosophic in ihrem gegenseitigen Yerhaltuissc. Heidelb., 


iiber die Bedingungen eines speculativcn Theismus. Elberf., 1835. 

A. L. J. Ohlcrt, Religionsphilosophie in ihrer tJebereinstimmung mit Yernunft, Ge- 

schichte und Offenbarung. Lpz., 1835. 


C. II, Weisse, Grundziige der Metaphysik. Ilamb., 1835. 

J. H. Fichte, Satze der Vorschule und Theologie. Tiib., 1836. 

H. Ritter, iiber die Erkenntniss Gottes in der Welt, Hamb., 1836. 

J. G. F. Billroth, Vorlesungen liber Religionsphilosophie ; herausg. von Erdmann. 
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J. E. Erdmami, Vorlesungen iiber Glauben und Wissen, als Einleitung in die Dogmatik 
und Religion. Berl., 1837. 

K. Ph. Fischer, die Idee der Gottheit ; ein Yersuch, den Theismus speeulativ zu be- 
griinden und zu entwickeln. Stuttg., 1839. 

Ileinr. Steffens, christl. Religionsphilosophie. Bresl., 1839, 2 Bde. 

M. W. Drobisch, Grundlehren der Religionsphilosophie. Lpz., 1840. 

G. F. Taute, Religionsphilosophie. Voni Standpunkte der Philosophie Herbarts. El- 
bing, 1840, 2d ed. Lpz., 1852, 2 vols. 

K. F. E. Trahndoi-flf, wie kann der Supranaturalismus sein Recht gegen Hegels Relig- 
ionsphilosophie behaupten? Eine Lebens- und Gewissensfrage an uusere Zeit. 
Berl., 1840. 

E. Schmidt, Vernunftreligion und Glaube, oder der Gott der Philosophie und der Gott 

des Christenthums. Rostock, 1842. 

F. Feldmann, Religionsphilosophie. KirchUche Zeit- und Lebensfrage. Gottb,', 

A. E. Biedermann, die freie Theologie, oder Philosophie und Christenthum in Streit 

und Frieden. Tiib., 1844. 
L. Noack, der Religionsbegriff Hegels. Darmst., 1845. 
K. Sederholm, die ewigen Thatsachen. Grundziige einer durchgef iihrten Einigung des 

Christenthums und der Philosophie. Lpz., 1845 ; new ed., 1851. 
E. Rheinhold, das Wesen der Religion und sein Ausdruck im evang. Christenthum. 

Jena, 1846. 
J. Frauenstiidt, iiber das wahre Yerhtiltniss der Vernunft zur Offenbarung; Prolego- 
mena zu jeder kiinftigen Philosophie des Christenthums. Darmst,, 1848. 
E. A. V. Schaden, iiber den Gegensatz des theistischen und pantheistischen Stand- 

punktes, Sendschr. an L. Feuerbach. Erl., 1848. 
J. P. Romang, der neueste Pantheismus und die junghegel'sche Weltanschauung nach 

ihren theoretischen Grundlagen und praktischen Consequenzen. Berne, 1848. 
A. E. Biedermann, unsere junghegel'sche Weltanschauung oder der sog. Pantheismus, 

Ziirich, 1849. 
J. P. Lange, philos. Dogmatik (f. unten Dogmatik). 

Ludw. Fiirst Solms, zehn Gesprache iiber Philosophie und Religion. Hamb,, 1850. 
A. Gladisch, Religion und Philosophie in ihrer Stellung zu einander. Bresl., 1852. 
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* A. Carlblom, das Gefiihl in seiner Bedeutung fiir den Glauben, im Gegensatz zu dem 

Intellectualismus innerhalb der kirchlichen Theologie unserer Zeit. Berl., 1857. 
J. Stovesand, das Mysterium der Sprache Gottes im Menschen oder der Glaube in 

seiner Wahrheit. Gotha, 1857. 
Ch. C. J, Bunsen, Gott in der Geschichte oder der Fortschritt des Glaubeas an eine 

sittliche Weltordnung. 3 Thle. Lpz., 1857, 1858. 
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in ihrer Geschichte bis auf die neueste Zeit. Gott., 1858, 2 Bde. 


Ad. Biihler, Theokrisis, Ideen iiber Gott u. Welt. Zur Versohnung des Theismua 

uml Pantheismus, Berl., 1861. 
H. LTlriei, Gott in die Natur. Lpz., 1862; 2d ed., 1866. 
J. W". Hanne, die Idee der absoluten Personlichkeit, oder Gott und sein Verhaltniss 

zur Welt, insonderheit zur menschlicheii Personlichkeit; eine speculativtheolo- 

gische Untersuchung iiber Wesen, Entwicklung und Ziel des cliristl. Theismus, 

2d ed. Hanover, 1865, 2 vols. 

C. W. Opzoomei', die Religion, Aus d, Holland, von Fr. Mook. Elberfeld, 1868. 
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dem Volk. Heidelb., 1870. 

D. Pfleiderer, die deutsche Religionsphilosophie in ihrer Bedeutung fiir die Theol. 
der Gegenwart. Berl. 1875. 

— — Religionsphilosophie auf geschichtl. Grundlage. Berl., 1878. 
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A. Peip, Religionsphilosophie. Edited by Th. Hoppe. Giitersl. 1879. 

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Jena, 1798. 
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F. Schleiermacher, Grundlinien einer Kritik der bisherigen Sittenlehre. Berl., 1803 ; 

2d ed., 1834. 

C. A. V. Eschenmayer, System der Moralphilosophie. Stuttg., 1818. 
W. Tr. Krug, Tugendlehre. Konigsb., 1819. 

G. W. Gerlach, Grundriss der philosoph. Tugendlehre. Halle, 1820. 
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f Jac. Salat, Grundlinien der Moralphilosophie. Munich, 1827. 
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1, The Philosophy of Religion in its strict sense. 

Balfour, Arthur James. A Defence of Philosophic Doubt. Pp. 355. London, 1879. 

Caird, John. An Introduction to the Philosophy of Religion. 8vo, pp. xii, 358. 
New York, 1880. 

Clarke, James Freeman. Ten Great Religions. An essay in Comparative Theology. 
8th ed., 8vo, pp. 528. Boston, 1871. 

Gould, S. B. The Origin and Development of Religious Belief. New York, 1870. 
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Hardwicke, Charles. Christ and other Masters. The chief Parallelisms between 
Christianity and the Religious Systems of the Ancient World. London and Cam- 
bridge, 1868. 2 vols., pp. 383, 461. (A Contribution to Comparative Theology.) 
Also, 8vo, pp. xviii, 592. London, 1875. 

Hedge, Frederick Henry. Reason in Religion. Boston, 1875. (Makes all the argu- 
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Mansell, H. L. The Limits of Religious Thought. 12mo, pp. 364. Boston, New 
York, and Cincinnati, 1860. 

Moffatt, James C. A Comparative History of Religions. Parts I and II. 2 vols. 
12mo. New York, 1874. 

Morell, J. D. The Philosophy of Religion. 12mo, pp. 359. New York, 1849. 

Mulford, Elisha. The Republic of God. An Institute of Theology. 8vo, pp. viii, 
261 Boston, 1881. 

Miiller, F. Max Lectures on the Origin and Growth of Religion, as illustrated in the 
Religions of India. 12mo, pp. 382. New York, 1879. (Holds that religion is a 
natural growth.) 

Miiller, Max. Lectures on the Science of Religion. With a paper on Buddhist Nihil- 
ism. 12mo, pp. 300. New York, 1872. (Rejects revelation and finds the prim- 
itive religion in man's nature.) 

Chips from a German Workship. 4 vols. 12mo. New York, 1869. (The first 

vol. treats of the " Science of Religion.") 

Renouf, P. Le Page. The Origin and Growth of Religion, as illustrated by the Re- 
ligion of Ancient Egypt. Hibbert Lectures for 1879. (Holds that religion is a 
natural growth.) 12mo, pp. 270. New York, 1880. 

Smyth, Newman. The Religious Feeling. 12mo. New York, 1877, pp. vii, 191. 

Old Faiths in New Lights. 12mo. New York, 1880. 

Upham, Thos. C. Absolute Religion. A view based on Philosophical Principles and 
Doctrines of the Bible. 12mo, pp. 312. New York, 1873. 

Whedon, D. D. The Freedom of the Will as a basis of Human Responsibility and a 
Divine Government. 12mo, pp. 438. New York, 1869. (Argues that the "doc- 
trine of Necessity is incompatible with any valid theory of religion.") 

2. Theism — TJie Proof of the Being and Attrihites of God — Natural Theology. 

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ton, 1877. (Essay VI is a Critique of proofs of the Being of God.) 

Hickok, Laurens P. Creation and Creator. 12mo, pp. 360. Boston, 1872. (A 
Theistic Account of Creation.) 

Rational Cosmology ; or, the Eternal Principles and Necessary Laws of the 

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The Logic of Reason, Universal and Eternal. 8vo, pp. 192. Boston, 1874. 

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of the Methods of Reasoning in Natural Theology. Crown Svo. New York, 

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of Modern Sceptical objections. Pp. 139. Andover, 1877. 
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late James Hinton, edited by Caroline Haddon. 12mo, pp. xix, 288. London, 

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and Revealed Religion. 12mo, pp. 365 New York and Cincinnati, 1873. 
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and 398. New York, 1875. 
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preface by Robert Flint, of Edinburgh University. Svo, pp. 508. (A restatement 

of the teleological proof for the Being of God against modern Atheism.) Edin- 
burgh, 1879. 
Kant's Critique of Pure Reason. 12mo. New York, 1880. 
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Svo, pp. xvi, 332. New York, 1833. 
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Svo. Second edition. Boston, 1880. Vols. I and II, pp. xx, 330, and viii, 

Lee, Luther. Natural Theology. The Existence of God demonstrated by arguments 

drawn from the Phenomena of Nature. 24mo, pp. 186. Syracuse, 1866. 
Leitch, Alexander. Ethics of Theism. A Criticism and its Vindications. Svo. 

Edinburgh, 1868. 
Lewis, Tayler. Plato against the Atheists ; or, the Tenth Book of the Dialogues on 

Laws. With Critical Notes, etc. New York, 1859. 
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Theology and Apologetics. 12mo, pp. 369. New York, 1871. (A Reply to 

Spencer and Darwin.) 

Energy, Efficient and Final Cause. Pp. 55. New York, 1883. 

and Dickie, George. Typical Forms and Special Ends in Creation. (An 

argument for Theism, drawn from the evidences of design in Creation.) Svo, pp. 

viii, 539. New York, last ed., 1881. 


Mahan, Asa. The Science of Natural Theology ; or, God the Unconditioned Cause as 
revealed in Creation. Boston, 186*7. 12mo, pp. 399. 

Manning, J. M. Half Truths and the Truth. Lectures on the prevailing forms of 
Unbelief. 12mo, pp. 398. Boston, 1872. (Traces Modern Unbelief to Spinoza.) 

Martineau, James. Essays, Philosophical and Theological. 12mo, pp. 424. Boston, 

Masson, David. Recent British Philosophy. A Review with Criticisms. 12mo, pp. 335. 
New York, 1866. (The Criticism is Antitheistic.) 

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admits, with qualifications, the argument from design.) New York, 1874. 8vo, 
pp. xii, 302. 

Modern Scepticism, A Course of Lectures Delivered at the Request of the Christian 
Evidence Society. With an Explanatory Paper, by C. J. EUicott. r2mo. New 
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Murphy, Joseph J. The Scientific Basis of Faith. 8vo. London, 1873. 

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ism, 8vo, New York, 1872, 

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Physicus. A Candid Examination of Theism, Crown 8vo. Boston, 1880. 

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ligious, Moral, and Political Science. 12mo. Edinburgh, 1867. 

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Questions of Modern Thought ; or, Lectures on the Bible and Infidelity, by Drs. 
M'Cosh, Thompson, and others. 8vo. Philadelphia. 1871. 

Raby, William. Natural Theology. New York, 1824, and often. 

Rogers, Henry. The Eclipse of Faith; or, a Visit to a Religious Sceptic. 12mo. 
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A Defence of the Same. 12mo. Boston, 1854. 

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to the Study of Theological Science, 12mo. London, 1871. 

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Relationship to Man, 

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Treatise. Showing under a series of Heads that Freedom of Thought and of Dis- 
cussion may not only be granted with safety to Religion and the peace of the 
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Grounds of Natural and Revealed Religion. 2 vols. 8vo. Oxford, 1836. 

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Cause. 12mo. New York, 1851. 

Thompson, Robert A. Christian Theism, The Testimony of Reason and Revelation 
to the Existence and Character of the Supreme Being. 12rao, pp. xxii, 4'77. New 
York, 1855. 

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delphia and London, 1859. 12mo, pp. 395. (A discussion by a distinguished 

Wilson, A. Chapters on Evolution. With 259 Illustrations. 8vo, pp. 370. Lon- 
don, 1882. 

Wright, G. Frederic. The Logic of the Christian Evidences. (Second part discusses 
the Evidences of Theism.) Andover, 1880. 

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3. The Philosophy of the Christian Religion. 

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1877. (Treats modern philosophy both historically and analytically from the 

orthodox Christian point of view.) 
Bushnell, Horace. Nature and the Supernatural as Together Constituting the one 

System of God. New ed., 8vo, pp. 534. New York, 1867. 
Butler, Bishop. Analogy of Religion, Natural and Revealed, to the Constitution and 

Course of Nature, edited, with an analysis, by J. T. Champlin. 12mo, pp. 194. 

Boston, 1860. 
Delitzsch, Franz. A System of Biblical Psychology, revised by Robert Ernest Wallis. 

8vo, pp. 585. Edinburgh, 1867. (Aims to ^how the harmony of the psychology 

of the Bible with modern science and philosophy.) 
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Science, and as an Aid to Advanced Christian Philosophy. 8vo, London, 1872. 
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1865. (A philosophy of Christianity.) 
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New York, 1877. (The first essay is upon the reconciliation of philosophy with 

Christian faith. 
Shuttleworth, Philip W. The Consistency of Revelation with Itself and with Human 

Reason. 18mo, New York, 1856, 
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demption of Man. 12mo. Chicago, 1873. 





The estimate to be formed of the various theological tendencies 
and the choice of a position with regard to them, are naturally con- 
nected with the determination of the relation of philosophy to the- 
ology, though not dependent on it alone. A characterization of 
these tendencies becomes necessary at this point, because their in- 
fluence makes itself felt throughout the entire science; but this is 
by no means designed to lead to a definite conclusion, which is 
rather to be attained through the medium of theological study 

The history of the subject enables us to recognize in the early 

^^ , . ,, Church two tendencies which came into frequent con- 

Theological ten- n, ^ rr^i 

dencies in the flict with each Other (comp. § 3). I he one was more 

early Church. particularly inclined to hold fast to the legal, literal, 
traditional; the other, more independent, tended to pass beyond 
these limits. A Petrine and a Pauline tendency were manifest even 
among the primitive Christians. The earliest heresies took the 
form of Ebionitism on the one hand, and of Gnosticism on the 
other; but transitions from the one to the other (Clementines), or 
modifications of them (Montanism as a modification of Ebionitism?), 
took place even at this stage. The same contrast was repeated 
within the pale of the catholic orthodox Church, Justin, Irena)us, 
and Tertullian being on the one side, and Clement and Origen on 
the other. The succeeding controversies in the Church likewise 
presented the two opposing tendencies, though yet undeveloped 
and unconscious, in contrast with each other, until in a later day 
they assumed the forms of rationalism and supernaturalism. The 
strict Arians (Eunomius), for instance, insisted that Divine things 
could be comprehended, while the great defenders of orthodoxy in 
that age sought to guard their incomprehensible and mysterious 
character by the development of awe-inspiring formulas. In like 
manner, ISTestorius, and with him the school of Antioch, represented 
a sober, intelligently discriminating tendency, pervaded by the 
breath of a mild piety, while Cyril of Alexandria and his party 
comprehended religious ideas in compact forms of expression cal- 
culated to challenge contradiction on the part of reason, e. g., God 
has died, and similar expressions. The same contrast appears in 
the practical field, where Pelagius gave the first place to human 
liberty, while Augustine assigned the first place to the grace of God. 
In the domain of ethics, the former is an atomist, and the latter 


a dynamist. Farther on, in the Middle Ages, the sacramental con- 
troversy shows an inclination on the part of some (Ra- Theological 

tramnns, Bereno^arius) toward intelligent reflection, tendeucies in 
' ® .-r» T- \ 'theMiddle 

while others (Paschasius Kadbertus, Lanfranc) hold fast Ages. 

the transcendental and incomprehensible even in outward things, and 
endeavor to embody it to the senses. John Scotns Erigena, a phe- 
nomenal character, but isolated and unappreciated, combined in 
himself both rationalistic and mystical elements. Among scho- 
lastics, Abelard, Gilbert of Poitiers, and Roscelin, although not 
absolute rationalists, yet belong to the class of rational theologians, 
while Anselm emphasizes faith, at the same time, however, striving 
to apprehend it by the reason. Bernard of Clairvaux supported 
strictly the positive doctrines of the Church by the weight of his 
personal influence. The mystics sought to intensify and give dej^th 
to the doctrines of the Church, but in their hands the positive was 
often transformed into the ideal, and history, as in the case of 
Origen, became a symbol and an allegory. They were thus uncon- 
sciously borne in the direction of rationalism. It is worthy of note 
that in the last period of scholasticism the prevalent nominalism 
introduced a sceptical spirit, which was counterbalanced by a pure- 
ly external supernaturalism, based, however, on authority. The 
relation between faith and knowledge thus became unnatural, the 
renunciation of scientific apprehension on the part of faith resulting 
in blind credulity, while irreverent thought and speculation degen- 
erated into frivolous unbelief. 

The Refonnation cannot be regarded as exclusively the precursor 
of rationalism or the founder of supernaturalism. Least of all Was 
it the precursor of rationalism in its broad manifesta- theological 
tion and its immediate results. Luther was decidedly sririt of the 
opposed to all subtleties (comp. § 7). Erasmus mani- ^ o^^^ers. 
fested far more rationalistic tendencies. Many have attempted to 
class Zwingle with the founders of rationalism, but certainly with- 
out cause, if the language is employed in the absolute or even the 
popular sense. It cannot be denied, however, that Zwingle, who 
combined soberness of judgment, with all his impulsive energy, and 
sympathized with the classical humanism of the Erasmian school, 
stands, at first sight, more nearly related to rationalism, than the 
realistic and positive Calvin, with his leaning toward strict super- 
naturalism; but the latter was, at the same time, by no means in- 
ferior to his opponents in the critical spirit, nor even averse to the 
employment of such weapons as rationalism subsequently used in 
its conflict with the orthodoxy of the Church (comp. his dispute 
on the Lord's Supper with Westphal). The rationalistic principle 


was clearly manifested, on the other hand, by the antitrinitarians 
and their open and concealed friends, and it finally became settled, 
although as yet not fully developed, and combined with a formal 
supernaturalism, in Socinianism. Seb. Franck, Schwenkfeld, and 
Theobald Thamer, the latter especially, combined rationalistic ele- 
ments with their mystical and theosophic tendencies. 

In the Reformed Church Arminianism broke through the limits 
Theological of strict orthodoxy in the seventeenth century; and the 

tendencies of influence of Enoflish Deism soon after the beginning of 
the 17th cen- ^ cd <=> 

tury. the eighteenth, led Christian apologists to grant many 

concessions to the spirit of the age. A system of natural (rational) 
theology took root beside the revealed (positive, Scripturally eccle- 
siastical), while the demonstrative method (beginning with Wolf, 
comp. § 7). drew the meshes of rationalistic categories through the 
substance of orthodoxy. Pietism, which had formerly been at odds 
with orthodoxy, now entered into a league with it for the defence 
of Biblical supernaturalism, which was being shattered by the at- 
Theoiogyinthe tacks of criticism (Lessing, Semler). This continued 
18th century, until the appearance of Kant, who unravelled all that 
had hitherto been woven, discharged the pure reason from all par- 
ticipation in theology while assigning to the practical reason the in- 
herited doctrines of God and immortality, and assigned to morality 
the categorical imperative as its basis. The more definite use of 
the terms rationalism and supernaturalism dates form that period 
(more particularly from the issue of the work. Die Religion inner- 
halb der Grenzen der blossen Yernunft, 1793). Kant makes a 
sharp distinction between rationalism and naturalism, which should 
always be observed.' German rationalism, as it was developed 

^ . . . .. . throuo^h the tendencies of that aare, thoug:h not through 

Chief traits of f . . . 

modern ration- the direct influence of Kant, is, in its formal character, 
^ ''^' distinguished from supernaturalism chiefly in that it 

considers as identical with the demands of reason, what the latter 
conceives to be a supernatural revelation, and in that it consequent- 
ly endeavors to explain away by tricks of interpretation all that is 

' A distinction similar to that between radicalism and liberalism in the field of 
politics, although they often pass into each other. Comp. Kant, Kel. innerhalb d. 
Grenz. d. bloss. Yernunft, p. 216 sq. The designation "rationalist" is, however, of 
earlier date. The terms Rationistse and Ratiocinistae were employed as early as the 
beginning of the seventeenth century, during a controversy at Helmstedt between the 
orthodox and the humanists (comp. Henke, Georg Calixt, p. 248). A sect whose ad- 
herents denominated themselves "rationalists," existed in England in 1646; and 
Sucro, during a disputation in A. D. 1706, classed " Rationalistae, Naturalistae, Liber- 
tini, Sceptici, quin imo Athei " together. Comp. Lechler, Gesch. des englischen Deis- 
mus, p. 61, and Tholuck, Verm. Schriften, ii, p. 26. 


supernatural in the Scriptures, or else seeks to obviate its force as be- 
ing merely the opinion of the time and people in question. It holds 
fast chiefly to the ethics of Christianity. This formal difference nat- 
urally implies the material, with reference to the specifically Christian 
doctrines of the person of Christ, the Trinity, original sin, the merits 
of Christ, redemption, eschatology, etc. Frequent approximations of 
the two systems to each other became apparent, however. Approaches of 
at an early day. Biblical supernaturalism departed in nationalism and 
many respects from the ancient orthodox doctrine of to each other. 
the Church, and often agreed with Socinianism in simply retaining 
the merely formal idea of a revelation, so that the controversy turned 
not so much upon the contents of doctrine as upon the way by which 
it had been reached. Rationalism, on the other hand, sought to 
demonstrate its agreement with the Bible in essential points, and 
established itself as Biblical rationalism, in opposition to doctrines 
of the Church as developed beyond the Scriptures, as well as to the 
more recent speculations. Mutual concessions led to a rational 
supernaturalism and a supernatural rationalism. Meanwhile, the 
active intellect of theologians like Herder, had already j^^^ direction 
solved the contradiction in the last century, by regarding given to theoi- 
Revelation, not as an abstractly imparted doctrine from and scweier- 
God to men, but as a Divine and human fact, to which macher. 
the Bible gives a living testimony, without attempting to place 
in the hands of the systematic theologian a finished corpus doc- 
trince. Kleuker, too, insisted upon the recognition of the divine- 
ly given facts, while entertaining freer views respecting the inspir- 
ation of the Scriptures which had been identified with revelation 

But it was reserved for Schleiermacher, more than all others, 
to allay the conflict between rationalism and supernaturalism,'^ 
by making the historical manifestation of Christ, and acknowl- 
edgment of him as the Saviour of the world, the criterion by 
which to judge. The contrast between sin and grace, which had 
received a superficial treatment at the hands even of many Biblical 
supernaturalists, was again apprehended in its profound significance, 

^ Compare S. Ratjen, Johann Friedrich Kleuker und Briefe seiner Freunde, Gottin- 
gen, 1842. 

"^ " I, for my poor part," says Schleiermacher, " begin to feel uncomfortable as soon 
as I listen to the on-rush of the 'ra-, irra-, and supra-,' because to my mind this ter- 
minology simply serves to increase the tangle of the confusion," (Zugabe zu Schreiben 
an Herrn Ammon, Berlin, 1818, p. 14). Concerning the influence of Schleiermacher 
on the development of modern theology, comp. K. Schwarz Gesch. d. neuesten Theol- 
ogie, p. 29 sqq., 1st ed 


and the jDroper manifestation of God was seen to be his manifesta- 
tion in Christ for the redemption of the world. Subsequent specu- 
lation likewise rendered material aid to the introduction of a more 
spiritual conception of the idea of revelation, and the whole of 
recent theology — to whose development, in addition to 
tives of there- Schleiermacher, de Wette, Marheineke, Daub, Nitzsch, 
cent theology, rj^^^^^^^^ jj^^g^^ Ullmami, Jul. Muller, Dorner, Ah 

Schweizer, Schenkel, Liebner, Martensen, Rothe, and Lange con- 
tributed,, though occupying very different points of view — must be 
considered as having passed beyond the ancient controversy be- 
tween rationalism and supernaturalism. It does not follow, how- 
ever, that the antagonism has. been removed, but merely that it has 
entered on a new stage. For, 

1. The more modern tendency, generally speculatively mediat- 
Id trif ^^^> ^^ suspected by both the older rationalistic and the 

in its newer older supernaturalist schools of imposing a new sense 
forms. ^^ ^^^ ancient teachings of the Church, and of using 

words to conceal dishonest practices. At this point everything 
depends upon a correct apprehension of the relation of the undevel- 
oped to the developed, the immediate contents of the Scriptures to 
what has been historically and intellectually inferred, as also upon 
a proper distinction between the religious element and the ever- 
changing forms of scientific expression. 

2. It cannot be denied that the pantheistic spirit has often 
donned the garb of superior orthodoxy in an insulting compar- 
ison of itself with rationalism, although the latter honestly de- 
nied what it believed itself compelled to deny, while, at the same 
time, it decisively retained a belief in God and immortality ac- 
cording to the theistic view.^ The reproaches of j^antheism do 
not apply in every case, however; and, for itself, rationalism has 
often found it difficult while opposing pantheism, to deny the charge 
of sheer deism and naturalism. The vulgar rationalism, having 
fallen behind in the march of progress, is, with all its understand- 
ing and practical thoroughness, deficient in intellectual mobility 
when engaged upon details, and is deficient also in a profound ap- 

^ "It should be credited to the memory of rationalism, that it did not reject the 
idea of personality, nor teach an impersonal God, ah impersonal Christ, an impersonal 
hmnan soul, i. e., one incapable of existing after death. In its more noble representa- 
tives, at least, the disciples and successors of Kant, it displays the praiseworthy am- 
bition to secure dogmatic recognition for an absolutely perfect, personal God, who 
governs the world in the interests of moral ends, an ethically perfect Christ, who is 
educating the world for moral purposes, and a human personal soul, which is capable 
of endless moral perfection, and is being trained on earth by Chi'istianity for the here- 
after." Schenkel, Idee der Personlichkeit, p. 6. 


prehension of the nature of religion and Christianity, while, despite 
its praiseworthy morality, it also lacks the devout disposition in 
which all religious inspiration has its rise. This applies also, though 
in a different manner, to the older Biblical supernaturalism, which 
rests upon a more solid foundation, indeed, but without deriving an 
adequate benefit from this advantage. 

In the current conflict modern pietism has taken the place of the 
older supernaturalism. The earlier pietism ' contrasted 
with the orthodoxy of its time, in that it represented pteu^m iHhe 
the independent, active principle in the Church, and ^«^^^c*- 
the interests of practical Christianity (Spener, Francke). It as- 
sumed a weaker position after the days of the Wolfian philosophy, 
and often assailed science at improper points (the pietistic opposi- 
tion at Halle against Wolf). Pietism joins the older supernatural- 
ism in holding strongly to the Scriptures; but what was a dead 
form with the latter, has become a living body with the former. It 
regards the Bible as the word of life, and like the later theology, 
it attaches great importance to the contrast between sin and grace, 
with the difference that it rejects the speculative element and con- 
fines itself wholly to the practical. It is only too prone, however, 
to commit the error of confounding dogmatic Christianity with 
practical, in its zealous defense of the letter, or to be led astray, 
while striving to be piously intelligent, into insipidity and arbitrari- 
ness. To this must be added a fondness for dabbling with philos- 
ophy and natural science without honestly examining their claims, 
or, in case it renounces every pretence to scientific character, a dis- 
position to vaunt itself in pious phraseology, which naturally assumes 
the appearance of cant. 

^ The name, as is well known, came into cmTent use in the time of Spener and 
Francke. At that time the pietists (as liberals) stood opposed to the strictly orthodox. 
Their buoyant and pious spiritual life soon, however, gave way to ascetic formalism. 
This was pietism on its practical side (affected piety) ; our concern is with dogmatic 
pietism. The latter clings emphatically to the fundamental doctrines of 'Protestant- 
ism, both the formal, as involved in the principle of the authority of the Scriptures, 
and the material, of sin and justification, in which connexion it strongly emphasizes 
the natural corruption of man and his moral inability Avhen not aided by grace (comp. 
von Colin and Bretschneider in the passages cited below). In these respects it can- 
not be justly charged with sectarianism ; it has, on the contrary, always appealed to 
its orthodoxy, when brought into comparison with rationalism. But its devotion to 
the letter is not yet a proof of the Protestant spirit; and the words will apply here, 
"Duo cum faciunt idem, non est idem," and, "C'est le ton, qui fait la musique." 
Luther's energetic nature certainly wrought out the doctrine internally with different 
results, and gave to it a different outward bearing, from what a sickly languishing 
pietism is able to furnish. The entire life-conception of the Reformation was sound- 
ly pious, but far from being morbidly pietistic. 


Mysticism/ which has been improperly confounded with pietism, 
The mystic ten- P^'^sents a more attractive appearance. It is more an- 
dency in theoi- cient than pietism, being as old as the Church, and 
^^^' even older. It is really religion itself in the exact 

sense, as the latter appears when restricted to its immediate self 
and not aided by intelligent knowledge, or when, guided by the im- 
agination, it wanders off into the labyrinths of theosophy, while in 
the practical field it either gives way to the contemplative inactivity 
of quietism or manifests itself as enthusiasm. Mysticism is super- 
naturalism, inasmuch as it rests on the assumption of an immediate 
enlightening influence from above and of an actual communion of 
the Divine with the human; it can never, therefore, come to terms 
with the vulgar rationalism.'^ But it differs from the formal Bibli- 
cal supernaturalism in not limiting revelation entirely to the writ- 
ten word, listening rather to the internal word, and evincing a strong 
inclination to convert the positive features into allegory, and the 
historical facts into ideal vagaries. It has this tendency in com- 
mon with the idealistic rationalism, as may be seen, e. g.^ in Swe- 

Another new form of supernaturalism is the ecclesiastical posi- 
Ecciesiastieai tivism and confessionalism, which again asserts itself 
confessionaiism. ^j^j^ power. This tendency, not content with Bibli- 
cal orthodoxy, lays stress upon assent to the teachings of symbol- 
ical books as the necessary criterion of a correct belief, and aims 

^ The derivation is from yuvcj, fivarTjg, fivarrjpiov, hvotiko^. Tlie examination of 
what is mysterious involves neither praise nor blame, aside from other considerations. 
Inasmuch as religion is itself the mystery of godliness, it will involve a mystical char- 
acter to the apprehension of the average human understanding ; and it was not, there- 
fore, wholly an error, to distinguish between a true and a false mysticism, as some 
have done. The corruption of mysticism has been designated by many as fanaticism 
(from fanum, fanaticus) ; but there are fanatics of every kind, even rationalistic ones. 
The characteristic traits of a fanatic are a cold heart and a hot head. Enthusiasm is 
sometimes substituted for this term; but common usage attaches a more innocent 
idea to that word. The enthusiast is capable of martyrdom in the defense of his 
principles; the fanatic erects the stake. (Bretschneider describes fanaticism as the 
paroxysm of enthusiasm). Nitzsch remarks, in entire correspondence with our view, 
that " fanaticism is, in its inner nature, unqualifiedly cold ; every fanatic is, in his in- 
most being, a cold nature; Avhatever heat he has is superficial; a passionate bearing 
within the limits of the external and the empirical, is cultivated as a compensation 
for his coldness and indifference." Akadem. Vortrage iiber Christl. Glaubenslehre, 
p. 28. 

^ " In the meantime," says Hase (Theol. Streitschriften, No. 3, page 90), " it would 
not harm rationalism, if it were to receive into itself as much of mystical unction as 
it could contain without injury to its sound common sense ; and mysticism likewise 
would not necessarily suffer the loss of its vessel of grace, were it to receive on board 
a measure of good sense, as ballast, if not as a compass." 


in Germany to destroy the existing union between Protestant 

England in the latter part of the seventeenth century was pro- 
foundly stirred by the Trinitarian controversy, which began with 
the publication of tracts on the Unitarian side, by Thomas Firmin, 
a wealthy London merchant. Dr. John Wallis defended the Atha- 
nasian Creed, in his Letters on the Trinity (1690). In the same year 
Dean Sherlock contributed A Vindication of the Doctrine of the 
Holy and Ever-blessed Trinity, in which he approached tritheism, 
and was answered by Dr. South (1693) and Dr. Wallis. Bishop 
Bull's Defensio Fidei Isficeanae (1685), collected the testimonies 
of the Fathers to the pre-existence of Christ and his divinity. In 
1694 appeared his Judgment of the Catholic Church, in which he 
justified the anathema of the Nicene Creed. In Primitive Chris- 
tianity Revived (1711), and the Council of Nice Vindicated from 
the Athanasian Heresy (1713), Professor Whiston, of Cambridge, 
set forth semi-Arianism. Whitby's Disquisitions criticised Bishop 
Bull's argument from the ante-Nicene Fathers. Dr. Samuel Clarke 
followed in the same line of argument, although he refused to be 
called an Arian. These works elicited Waterland's Vindication of 
Christ's Divinity; Defence of the Divinity of Christ; Critical His- 
tory of the Athanasian Creed, etc. (1719-1724). After this contro- 
versy had run its course the attention of English theologians was 
directed to the Deistic controversy, already noticed (pp. 76, 77). 

A marked change in the tendencies of theological opinion in 
England may be dated from the middle of the eighteenth cen- 
tury. The Wesleyan revival led to .a concentration of rpj^^gowig^i 
thought upon the atonement, justification by faith, tendencies in 
and the work of the Holy Spirit in the heart of ^^^^^^d- 
man. The effects of the revival were felt throughout the Eng- 
lish Church in the rise of the evangelical party, and beyond 
the Church in the general diffusion of Wesleyan theological 
ideas. At the same time the attack upon the internal contents of 
Christianity passed on to its external evidences and called forth 
a corresponding apologetic literature. In this literature Lardner 
(1684-1768), Leland (1691-1766), Paley (1743-1805), and Lyttleton 
(1709-1773), became conspicuous. Towards the close of the cen- 
tury English Deism became infected with the French spirit, of 
which Gibbon, the historian, and Thomas Paine are striking exam- 
ples. The evangelical movement having relaxed church principles 
and prepared the way for political liberalism, awakened a counter 
movement, which announced itself in 1833 in the issue of the first 
" Tract for the Times." From this series, which was finished in 


1840, the movement has taken the name of Tractarian. It maintains 
the regenerative efficacy of the sacraments, and the absolute au- 
thority of the Church over the individual. At the same time the 
penetration of the English mind by German culture has produced 
a rationalism which has run parallel with that of Germany. Liter- 
ary Rationalism has found a brilliant representative in Thomas 
Carlyle, who, while urging his countrymen to give heed to the 
moral order of the universe, seems to deny the possibility of at- 
taining to distinct theological conceptions. The disciples of Cole- 
ridge have endeavored to adjust modern philosophical thought 
and the creed of the Church of England to each other, and have 
produced a Broad Church party. The critical rationalistic spirit in 
the State Church is represented in the " Essays and Reviews," and 
the attacks of Bishop Colenso on the Credibility of the Pentateuch 
and the Book of Joshua. Two of the theological tendencies of the 
age are well typified by the lives of the brothers, John Henry and 
Francis William Newman, one of whom passed from th6 evan- 
gelical school, through Tractarianism to Rome, and the other, from 
the same starting-point, through Unitarianism to a religious idealism 
which denies all historic Christianity. During the past few years a 
call has been made among the Non-conformists of England and 
Scotland for a revision of Church standards. 

In the United States the Wesleyan revival spread more widely 
than in England, and created a theological tendency corresponding 
with its distinctive religious ideas. The Unitarian movement, 
which dates from the time of Stoddard's proposal of a "half-way 
covenant," obtained fresh importance under the leadership of Will- 
iam Ellery Channing (1780-1842). Since the time of Channing it 
has shown both a conservative and a radical tendency, the radical- 
ism going to the length of wholly destructive criticism (Theodore 
Parker and O. B. Frothingham). The Tractarian movement has 
also been repeated in the United States, but without the vigor 
which has marked its progress in England. The Churches of the 
Reformed faith, under the leadership of the American Presbyte- 
rians, have formed an alliance, which has secured a collation of all 
the Reformed creeds. 

As one extreme, however, always calls forth the other, rational- 
The modern i^m, which was supposed to have been forever buried, 
rationalism. i^ag again arisen, but in a different form, and, in conse- 
quence, assumes the designation "modern." It is remarkable that 
the same philosophical school to which the defenders of modern 
supernaturalism belong, originated the speculative rationalism, which 
agrees with its older brother in denying the supernatural and the 


miraculous, but in other respects is materially different, inasmuch 
as it denies with emphasis the very doctrines which the earlier ra- 
tionalism energetically maintained, viz., the doctrines of a personal 
God and a personal immortality, to which it adds incessant effort 
to undermine the historical basis of Christianity. Although this 
rationalism considers spirit a reality only as it attains to conscious- 
ness in man, it has yet often been confounded — by both friend and 
foe, and not always without its own fault — with the other tendency 
which ends with wholly denying the existence of spirit, and passes 
over into bald materialism and nihilism, theories wliich manifestly 
constitute the negation of all theology. 


The pupil will find no scientific charm, by the use of wliich he 
may avoid these opposing influences, and escape the mental conflict 
they naturally excite. On the other hand, let none who are con- 
scious of being governed by upright intentions in the sight of God, 
permit mere theoretical doubts to frighten them from the study of 
theology. A pious disposition will be strengthened by rj.^^ jj.jj ^^ 
the continued study of the Holy Scriptures as con- wwch these 
nected with the Church and its history, by acquaint- dencies should 
ance with the great heroes who stood for the truth, i>emet. 
and who, in the midst of the most diverse complications, strove 
to secure the one thing needful, by sincere prayer to God. Love, 
which knows how to bear with divergent tendencies and how to ap- 
propriate to itself all that is good in any form, will increase with 
the growth of faith, and faith will hold fast the truth which has 
been secured; and wherever a living faith and love are found, hope 
in the full triumph of the truth will not be wanting. 

Many approach theology with false expectations; either they 
have retained an unthinking faith, or they are affected by doubts 
conceived in the course of their preliminary studies. The former 
are easily disturbed in this study, when its critical processes threat- 
en to destroy what they have hitherto cherished with devoted love. 
The latter become impatient when knotty doubts become still more 
involved, instead of giving way. Shall hard questions be concealed 
from sight, and the untenable be represented as admitting of de- 
fense? Shame on the science which would lend its aid ^^^ method 
to the attempt! Others advise, on the contrary, that of dealing with 
persons who cannot keep from doubting should leave 
the study of theology untouched. They urge that believing theo- 
logians are needed, particularly in this age. The latter is certain- 


ly true ; but we prefer a faith that has been tested in the conflict, 
to the dullness of spirit which is often confounded with a believing 
disposition. Accordingly, eminent theologians, possessing the most 
loyal faith, have always valued courage in youthful aspirants. So 
. Bengel,' who expresses the idea that "all doctrinal ten- 
great theoiogi- ets must needs pass through a conflict, and th^ir truth 
^°^* be won afresh." Harms, the man of robust faith, re- 

marked while standing by the grave of a rationalistic student, " He 
who doubts religiously, has the true religion." ^ Neander is said to 
have expressed an analogous sentiment, with reference to a young 
theologian who died before the age of youthful doubts had passed, 
to the effect that he died in his calling, and that to die thus is to 
die well. But let the questioning be in a religious spirit, and with 
a holy determination of heart which consents to part with every 
thing for the sake of securing a single pearl of truth. 

An earnestly religious character, even if it exists only in its most 
Sound theoioff- g^^^^'^l form, will assuredly become more positively 
icai study will Christian under the influence of a sound course of the- 

increase faith. i*i.t a'-t t,* £ r^\. • ^ 

ological study. A vivid apprehension oi Christ, even 

in his human nature alone, will, if joined with enthusiasm for the 
ideal, erelong beget in the heart faith in his Divine character, al- 
though the intellect may yet be struggling to find a satisfactory 
expression of its views. Such idealism^ is at all events, better than 
the dry prosaic disposition of a mind wholly given up to the influ- 
ence of ordinary outward realities, which, precisely because of un- 
belief, demands that every thing shall be signed and sealed and 
trebly hypothecated, and which prefers to confine its attention to 
what lies on the surface, to the end that its sleep may be undis- 

^ See Leben Bengel's, by Burk, p. IT, and comp. the Gottingen Memorial, TJeber die 
gegenwartige Krisis des kirchlichen Lebens (G5tt., 1854), p. 18: "As in the field of 
morals importance attaches not simply to what is done, but even more to the reasons, 
purposes, and motives of our action ; so in the religious field the great question is in 
no wise chiefly, wJio beheves, but more especially how and ^ohy he believes;" and 
page 20 : " Inasmuch as the spiritual office, however important its relation to the or- 
ganism of the Church may be, does not ask to be considered a talisman before whose 
very appearance the diseases of our age must fly, it follows, that theological faculties 
will be required still further to impress upon the future servants of the Church, en- 
trusted to their guidance and care, to the utmost of their ability, the necessity for in- 
Avard religious and moral culture rather than the mere memorizing of the tenets of the 
creed, in order that they may not merely attain to a correct belief, but also come to 
hold it in a correct manner, and that thus a clergy firmly established in the faith of 
our Church be perpetuated among us." 

'^See Rheinwald's Repertorium, xxx, p. 54. 

^ Comp. Kahler, Christl. Sittenlehre, p. 23, where genuine ideality is emphasized, as 
against a mere giddiness of ideas. 


turbed. Let, therefore, the picture of a living Christ, adapted to 
compel the attention of every human soul struggling after God be 
made the central feature of the theological school. It will then be- 
come speedily apparent that " to love Jesus is the true supernatur- 
alism, to comprehend Jesus the true rationalism, and to illustrate 
Jesus in personal character the true mysticism; and that these 
three constitute true Christianity." ^ 

Let the student remember, too, that the question of ration- 
alism is largely a question of method. He who has, through a 
Christian experience, attained a clear Christian consciousness, is 
iixed upon a rock, from which he cannot easily be moved. Anselm 
has taught us that we must believe in order to understand, and has 
also reminded us that we are negligent if, " after we are established 
in the faith, we do not seek to understand what we believe." ^ We 
may be rational and yet not rationalistic ; inquiring and yet thor- 
oughly believing; philosophical and yet not unchristian. In the 
spirit of Anselm Coleridge has pointed out that "in order to an 
efficient belief in Christianity, a man must have been a Christian ; 
that this is the seeming argumentum hi circulo incident to all 
spiritual truths, to every subject not presentable under the forms 
of time and space, as long as we attempt to master by the reflex 
acts of the understanding what we can only know by the act of 
becoming."^ Christ's words will furnish the student a sure clue 
through the tangled thicket of rationalism : " If any man will do 
his will, he shall know of the doctrine whether it be of God." 

Respecting the extent to which the theological school may con- 
tribute to the cultivation of a right disposition, comp. § 22. 


Compare K. G. Bretschneider, Systematische Entwicklung aller in der Dogmatik vorkommen- 
den Begriffe, etc. (vol. 4, Lpz., 1841, p. 189) ; and die Literatur fiber Religionsphllosophie, p. 75. 



J. F. Rohr, Brief e iiber den Rationalismus. Aachen (Zeitz.), 1813. 

J. Schulthess und J. K. v. Orelli, Rationalismus und Supranaturalismus ; Kanon, Tra- 
dition, und Scription. Zurich, 1822. 

J. r. Rohr, Grund- und Glaubenssatze, der evang. -protest. Kirche. 1832-34. (Vgl. 
Bretschn. a. a. 0. S. 194.) 3. Aufl. Neustadt a. d. 0. 1843. 

Ch. F. Fritzsche, de rationalismo commentat. II; in den opuscul. academ. (Tur,, 
1846) p. 85 ss. 

L. J. Riickert, der Rationalismus. Lpz,, 1859. 

* Kahler, i/iifra^ p. 334. "^ Cur Deus Homo? book i, chap. iL 

2 Biographia Literaria, chap, xxiv, p. 349, 


ExponenU of the Extreme Modem Rationalism : — 

Kradolfer, iiber Glauben und Unglauben. Bremen, 1868. 

Schwalb, der alte und neue Grlaube und Christus. Ebend. (In reply : Zahn, der alte 

und der neue Christus, oder Glaube und Unglaube. Sendschreiben an Schwalb. 

Bremen, 1868.) 
The best known organ of the older rationalistic tendency for a long time was Rohr's 
Predigerbibliothek (Neustadt a. d. Orla), 1820-1848, twenty-eight volumes and some 
pamphlets, continued by L. Lange until 1851 in nearly two volumes. Earlier still were 
Schulthess' Annalen, Paulus' Sophronizon, der Denkglaubige, and other periodicals ; 
also die Darmstadter Kirchenzeitung, under the editorship of Bretschneider. A 
product of the vulgar Rationalism (which is partly mixed with pantheistic young He- 
gelian ideas) is the so-called Deutsch-Katholicismus, and the Lichtfreundthum. Com- 
pare the writings of Ronge, Uhlich, Wislicenus, Konig, Rupp (Brun's Repertor. 1845, 
vol. iv, page 26). Organs of the same tendency are : Hoflerichter und Kampe : Fur 
freies religioses Leben, Breslau, 1848; Blatter fur christl. Erbauung, by R. Fischer 
and afterwards by Zille ; Lucifer, Fliegende Blatter fur Kirchen- und Schulreform by 
C. Schaffer. Much different from the above-named tendency is the Rationalism which, 
more or less connecting itself with the results of the Hegelian philosophy and Tu- 
bingen criticism, adopted as its highest standard "the modern consciousness." Its 
organs were the Zeitstimmen aus der ref. Kirche der Schweiz (from 1859), and the 
(Berne) Reformblatter (from 1866), both published since 1872 as Reform, Zeitstim- 
men aus der Schweizerischen Kirche. See also § 69. 


J. A. H. Tittman, iiber Supranatur., Rational., und Atheismus. Lpz., 1816. 

CI. Harms, Thesen Luthers mit andern 95 Satzen. Kiel, 1817. (For the controversy 

arising therefrom, see in Deegen's Jahrbuch der Litera., ii, p. 139, and iii, p. 73.) 

dass es mit der Vernunftreligion nichts ist. Kiel, 1819. 

Ch. T. Zollich, Briefe iiber den Supranaturalismus, eine gegenschrift zu den briefen 

iiber den Rational. Sondershausen, 1821. (In reply thereto Gebhard, die letzten 

Griinde des Rationalismus. Arnst., 1822.) 
T. F. Kleuker, iiber das Ja und Nein der bibl. -christl., und der reinen Yernunfttheol- 

ogie. Hamburg, 1819. (Compare also iiber die Altonaer Bibel, 1818.) 
H. Steffens, von der f alschen Theologie und dem wahren Glauben ; eine Stimme aus 

der Gemeinde. Breslau, 1831. 
E. Sartorius, die Religion ausserhalb der Grenzen der blossen Yernunft. Mai^burg, 

iiber die Unwissenschaftlichkeit und innere Yerwandtschaft des Rationalismus 

und Romanismus in den Erkenntnissprincipien und Heilslehren des Christenthums. 

(Beitrage zur Yertheidigung der evangelischen Rechtglaubigkeit. Heidelberg, 

A. Hahn, de rationalismi, qui dicitur, vera indole et qua cum naturalismo contineatur 

ratione. Lips., 1827. (Compare also the polemical treatises which were called 

forth by it from Hase, Krug, Richter, Clemen, and others. Bretschneider, Syst. 

Entw., p. 192.) 
iiber die Lage des Christenthums in unserer Zeit, und das Yerhaltniss des christ- 

lichen Theologie zur Wissenschaft, iiberhaupt. Lpz., 1832. 
T. A. Yoigtlander, der Rationalismus nach seinen philosophischen Hauptformen und 

in seiner historischen Gestalt. Lpz., 1830. 
W. Steiger, Kritik des Rationalismus in Wegscheiders Dogmatik. Berlin, 1830. 


With Sharp Antagonism to Uie Modern Teridencies : — 

Agenor de Gasparin, les ecoles du doute et I'ecole de la foi. Paris, 1853. 

Vilmar, die Theologie der Thatsachen wider die Theologie der Rhetorik. 4th edit. 
Marburg, 1876. 

Scheele, die trunkene Wissenschaft und ihr Erbe an die evangelisehe Kirche. Ber- 
lin, 1867. 

Periodical Organs of Supernaturalism : — 

Hengstenberg's Evangel. Kirchenzeitung (Berlin, 1827); since 1869 by L. 11. Tausch- 
er; earlier, Bengel's Archiv (continued by Steudel); Heidenreich's and Huffell's 
Zeitschrift ; Schwarz's Jahrbiicher ; Tholuck's Literar. Anzeiger. 

Organs of the Extreme Orthodox (Lutherans) : — 

The Erlanger Zeitschriften by Harless, Rudelbach, and Guericke (Guericke and De- 
litzsch to the end of 1878) ; by Dieckhoff (earlier, Meyer) and Kliefoth ; Luthardt's 
Allgem. evang. luth. K. Z. (Lpz., 1868). 

An organ of the extreme reformed tendency is, die Evang. Ref, Kirchenzeitung, by 
Thelemann (Detmold, 1851); in place of which has appeared lately the Elber- 
felder Reform. K. Z. As an organ of the now so-called " positive Union," the 
Neue evang. K. Z., by H. Messner and others (Berl., 1859), may be consulted. 


1. From the Standpoint of nationalism. 

H. G. Tzschirner, dass die Yerschiedenheit der dogmatischen Systeme kein Hinderniss 

des Zwecks der Kirche sei. (Ygl. Bretschneider S. 191.) 
Ch. F. Bohme, christl. Henotikon. Halle, 1827. 
K. G. Bretschneider, iiber die grundprincipien der evangel. Theologie. Altenburg, 

1832, (The same author's two letters to a statesman. Lpz., 1830.) 

C. G. W. Theile, Christus und die Yernunft. Lpz., 1830. 

Aphorismen zur Yerstandigung iiber den sogenannten alten und neuen Glauben. 

Lpz., 1839. 

D. G. K. V. Colin and Dav. Schulz, iiber theologische Lehrfreiheit auf. den evangel- 
ischen Universitaten. Breslau, 1830. 

2. From the Standpoint of Supernaturalism. 

E. L. Mtzsch, iiber das Heil der Theologie durch Unterscheidung der Offenbarung und 

Religion als Mittel und Zweck. Wittenb., 1830. 
L. Hiiffell, Friedensvorschlage zur Beendigung des Streits zwischen bibl. christlichen 

Theologen und Rationalisten (Zeitschrift fiir Predigerwissenschaften, vol. II). 
K. Ruthenus, der formale Supernaturalismus oder der einzig mogliche weg zu einer 

Ausgleichung der streitenden theol. Parteien. Lpz., 1834. 
von der Goltz, die Grenzen der Lehrfreiheit in Theol. u. Kirche. Bonn, 1873. 

3. From the Speculative Standpoint. 

de Wette, Religion und Theologie. Berl, 1817; 2. 1821. 

liber den Yerfall der protestantischen Kirche in Deutschland und die Mittel, ihr 

wieder aufzuhelfen (Reformationsalm. 1817. Pp. 296 fif.). 
Theodor oder des Zweiflers Weihe. Berlin, 1822, 28. 2 Bde. 

L. A. Kahler, Supernaturalismus und Rationalismus in ihrem gemeinschaftl. Ur- 
sprunge, ihrer Zwietracht und hohern Einheit. Lpz., 1818. 

K. Ullmann, theolog. Bedenken, auf Yeranlassung des Angriffs der evang. Kirchen- 
zeitung auf den Hallischen Rationalismus. Halle, 1830. 


Alex. Schweizer, Kritik des Gegensatzes zwischen Kationalismus und Supranaturalis- 

mus. Zurich, 1833. 

Nach Rechts und nach Links. Lpz., 18'76. 

K. Hase, theolog. Streitschriften. Lpz., 1834-37. 3 vols,' 

Jul. Wiggers, kirchlicher oder rein biblischer Supernaturalismus ? Lpz., 1842. 

K. R. Hagenbach, liber die sog. Vermittlungstheologie, zur Abvvehr und Verstand- 

igung. ^iir., 1858. 

liber Glauben und Unglauben ; two lectures delivered at Basel. Berne, 1872. 

* R. Rothe, zur Dogmatik. Gotha, 1863. 2. ed., 1869. 

A. E. Krauss, die Lehre von der Offenbarung. Gotha, 1868. 

Dan. Schenkel, Christenthum und Kirche im Einklang mit der Culturentwicklung. 

Wiesbaden, 1867. 
J. W. Hanne, der Geist des Christenthums, seine Entwickelung und sein Verhaltniss 

zu Kirche und Cultur der Gegenwart. Elberf., 1867. 

Periodical Organs of the Mediating Theology : — 

Theolog. Studien und Kritiken, by Ullmann and Umbreit, with the co-operation of Gies- 
eler, Liicke, and Nitzsch, now conducted by Riehm, Kostlin, and Beyschlag (Ham- 
burg, now Gotha); also the Deutsche Zeitschrift fiir christl. "Wissenschaft und 
christl. Leben, conducted by K. T, Th. Schneider, with the co-operation of Jul. 
Miiller, Aug. Neander, K. I. Nitzsch, later by W. Hollenberg. Other organs are : 
die Jahrbiicher fiir deutsche Theologie, by Liebner and others (1858 until the end 
of 1878); die Jahrbiicher fiir protest. Theologie (Lpz,, 1875), by Hase, Lipsius, 
Pfleiderer, and Schrader ; Hilgenfeld's Zeitschrift fiir wissensch. Theologie (Lpz., 

An organ of the freest critical tendency is the famous Tijdschrift of Leyden by A, 
Kuenen and others (1867); on the other hand there are the alike famous Tijd- 
schrift of Groeningen (1875); also Kalkar's Danish Tidskrift (Copenhagen, 1871), 
belonging more to the mediating tendency. 

The more practical tendencies are represented by the Allg. Kirchl. Zeitschrift, by 
Schenkel and others (1860-72), and lately as the Protest. K. Z., the chief organ of 
the Protestant Union. The Protest. Kirchenzeitung fiir das evang. Deutschland, 
was founded in 1854 by Jonas, Sydom, Krause, Pischon, and others. It opposed 
reactionary tendencies, but held fast to the results won since Schleiermacher (yet 
disposed more to the left than to the right). A mediating position was held also 
by the Kirchenblatt fiir die ref, Schweiz, which ceased at the end of 1868 ; com- 
pare among others the treatise Zur Orientirung iiber die gegenwartigen theol. Par- 
teien. (Jahrg., 1859. Nos. 22-25.) Holding the same position, yet still more 
popular, is, at Berne, the Volksblatt fiir die ref. Kirche der Schweiz (since 1872). 

Historical : — 

E. F. Staudlin, Geschichte des Rationalismus und Supranaturalismus. Gott,, 1826, 
Amand Saintes, krit. Geschichte des Rationalismus in Deutschland, Lpz., 1845-47. 
In English, London, 1849. Schenkel, die religiosen Zeitkampfe. Hamb., 1847. 
Tholuck, Gesch. des Rationalismus. Gotha, 1865. J. F, Hurst, History of Ra- 
tionalism, New York, 1865; London, 1867. G. Frank, Gesch. des Ration, und 
seiner Gegensatze. Lpz,, 1875. 


J. Spalding, iiber den Werth der Gefiihle im Christenthume. Lpz., 1764 u. 6. 
J. L. Ewald, Briefe lib. die alte Mystik u. den neueren Mysticismus. Lpz., 1822. 


E. A. Borger, disputatio de mysticismo. Hague, 1820. From the Latin by Stange, 

with preface by Gurlitt. Altona, 1826. 
Dn. von Colin, histor. Beitrage zur Erlauterung und Berichtigung der Begriflfe Pietis- 

mus, Mysticismus und Fanaticismus. Halberst., 1830. 
G. Chr. R. Matthai, der Mysticismus nach seinem Begriffe, Ursprung und Unwerth. 

Gott., 1832. 
Mad. de Stael, de la mysticite. Ed. ster. Paris, 1815. In her work on«Germany, 

vol. iii, p. 290. 
A. Liebner, Hugo von St. Victor. Lpz., 1832. Pp. 222. 
K. G. Bretschneider, die Grundlage des evang. Pietismus. Lpz., 1833. 
J. H. V. Wessenberg, iiber Schwarmerei. Heilbronn, 1834. 2. ed., 1848. 
G. Binder, der Pietismus und die moderne Bildung. Stuttg., 1838. 
Chr. Merklin, Darstellung und Kritik des modernen Pietismus. Stuttg., 1839. 
J. A. Dorner, der Pietismus, insbes. in Wiirtemb., und seine speculativen Gegner, 

Binder, und Marklin. Hamb., 1846. 
L. Hiiffell, der Pietismus, geschichtl. und kirchl. beleuchtet. Heidelb., 1846. 
K Ullmann, das Wesen des Christenthums und die Mystik (against Gasparin) ; theol. 

Stud. u. Krit., 1852. Heft 3. Pp. 535-614. 
J. P. Romang, iiber Unglauben, Pietismus, u. Wissenschaft. Bern u. Ziirich, 1859. 
H. Schmid, Geschichte des Pietismus. Nordlingen, 1863. 
H. L. J. Heppe, Gesch. der quietistischen Mystik in der kath Kirche. Berlin, 181 o. 

F. Nippold, zur geschichtl. Wiirdigung des Quietismus (Jahrb. f. protest. Theologie. 

1877, 2). 
A. Ritschl, Prolegomena zu einer Gesch. des Pietismus (Zeitschr. f. Kirchengesch., 
1877, 1). 

e;n^glish and American liteeature. 
1. On the side of Rationalism. 

Arnold, Matthew. Literature and Dogma. An Essay toward a better appreciation 

of the Bible. 12mo. New York, 1874. 
God and the Bible. Review of objections to Literature and Dogma. 12mo. 

New York, 1875. 
Bellows, Henry W. Restatements of Christian Doctrine. In Twenty-five Sermons. 

12mo, pp. 434. Boston, 1882. 
Channing, W. E. Works. 3 vols. Boston, 1874. 
Clarke, James Freeman. Orthodoxy: Its Truths and Errors. 12mo, pp. xi, 512. 

Boston, 1866. 

Common Sense in Religion. A Series of Essays. 12mo. Boston, 1880 

Essentials and Non-Essentials in Religion. Boston, 1878. 

Colenso, John William. The Pentateuch and Book of Joshua, Critically .examined. 

12mo, pp. 229. New York, 1863. (For answers to Colenso, see (2.) and also 

Hurst's History of Rationalism, pp. 599, 602.) 
Dewey, Orville. Discourses in Defence of Unitarianism. Works. 3 vols. New 

York, 1876. 

Why I am a Unitarian. In Pitts St. Chapel Lectures. 12mo, pp. 866. Boston, 


Eliot, Wm. G. Doctrines of Christianity. 12mo, pp. 168. Boston, 1882. 

Farley, Frederick A. Unitarianism Defined. The Scripture Doctrine of the Father, 

Son, and Holy Ghost. 12mo, pp. 272. Boston, 1882. 
Froude, John Anthony. Short Studies on Great Subjects. 12mo, pp. 534. New 

York, 1868. (Takes the rationalistic view of the authenticity of the gospels.) 


Furness, W. H. Jesus and his Biographers. Boston, 1838. 

Greg, W. R. Enigmas of Life. 12mo, pp. xix, 332. Boston, 1873. 

The Creed of Christendom. Its Foundation Contrasted with its Superstructure. 

2 vols., 8vo. Boston. 

Hedge, Frederick Henry. Reason in Religion. 12mo, pp. 458. Boston, 1865. 

and Associates. Unitarian Affirmations : Seven Discourses given in Wash- 
ington^ by Unitarian Ministers. 12mo, pp. I'ZS. Boston, 1879. 

Lamson, Alvan. The Church of the First Three Centuries ; or, Notices of the 
Lives and Opinions of some of the Early Fathers, with special reference to the 
Doctrine of the Trinity. Svo, pp. 352. Boston, 1860. 

Martineau, James. Rationale of Religious Inquiry. 12mo. London, 1839. And 
8vo. 1845. 

Lectures : part of a series in answer to Lectures against Unitarianism by thir- 
teen Clergymen of the Church of England. 8vo. London. 

Metcalf, Richard. Letter and Spirit. Winchester Lectures, 16mo, pp. 198. Bos- 
ton, 1882. 

Miller, John. Questions awakened by the Bible. I. Are Souls Immortal ? II. Was 
Christ in Adam? III. Is God a Trinity? Philadelphia, 1877. 

Newman, Francis Wm. Phases of Faith; or. Passages from the History of my 
Creed. 12mo, pp. 234. London, 1850. 

The Soul: Her Sorrows and Aspirations. An Essay towards the Natural His- 
tory of the Soul, as the basis of Theology. 12mo. London. 

Norton, Prof. Andrews. Statement of Reasons for not Believing the Doctrines of 
Trinitarians Concerning the Nature of God and the Person of Christ. 12mo, 
pp. 550. Boston, 1882. 

Parker, Theodore. Discourses of Matters pertaining to Religion. 12mo. Boston, 

Sermons on Theism, Atheism, and Popular Theology. 12mo. Boston, 1853. 

' Speeches, Addresses, and Occasional Sermons, 3 vols. 12mo. Boston. 

Powell, Baden. The Order of Nature Considered in Reference to the Claims of 
Revelation, Svo. London, 1860. 

Smith, G. Vance. The Bible and Popular Theology. A Restatement of Truths and 
Principles, with special Reference to recent works of Dr. Liddon, Lord Hatherly, 
the Right Hon. W. E. Gladstone, and others. 12mo, pp. 340. Boston, 1882. 

Strauss, David Friedrich. The Old Faith and the New Faith. A Confession, From 
the German. 12mo. New York, 1874. 

Temple, Frederick, and Associates. Recent Inquiries in Theology: being Essays 
and Reviews. 2d Am. ed., with Introduction by F. H. Hedge. 12mo, pp. xiv, 
498. Boston, 1861. 

Ware, Henry. Letters to Unitarians and Calvinists. 12mo. Cambridge, 1820. 

Wilson, John. Unitarian Principles Confirmed by Trinitarian Testimonies. 12mo, 
pp. 520. Boston, 1882. 

Worcester, Noah. Bible News ; or, Sacred Truths relating to the living God, His 
Only Son and Holy Spirit. 12mo. Concord, 1810. 1812, and 1825. 

2. Against Rationalism. 

Auberlen, Carl August. The Divine Revelation. An Essay in Defence of the 
Faith. From the German. 8vo, pp.441. Edinburgh, 1867. 

Bushnell, Horace. God in Christ. Three Discourses delivered at New Haven, Cam- 
bridge, and Andover. (Properly a mediating work ; the second essay offers 
SaDeiHanism as a ground of union between Unitarianism and Trinitarianism.) 


Bushnell, Horace. Nature and the Supernatural as together constituting the one 

system of God. 12mo, pp. 528. New York, 1864. 
Cairns, John. Romanism and Rationalism, as opposed to Pure Christianity. 12mo.- 

London, 1866. 
Christlieb, Theodore. Modern Doubt and Christian Belief. A Series of Apologetic 

Lectures. From the German. 8vo, pp. 549. New York, 1874. 
Dorchester, Daniel. Concessions of Liberalists to Orthodoxy. 16mo, pp. 843. 

Boston, 1878. 
Fisher, Geo. P. Faith and Rationalism, with short supplementary essays on related 

topics. 12mo, pp. 188. New York, 18Y9. 
The Supernatural Origin of Christianity etc. 8vo, pp. 586. New York, 

Hare, Edward. The Principal Doctrines of Christianity defended against the Errors 

of Socinianism. 12mo, pp. 396. New York, 1837. 
Maurice, F. D., and Associates. Tracts for Priests and People. By Various Writers. 

12mo, pp. 372. Am. ed. Boston, 1862. (A Broad-School Reply to Essays and 

Oxford, the Lord Bishop, Editor. Replies to Essays and Reviews, with a Pref- 
ace by the Lord Bishop of Oxford. Am. ed. 12mo, pp. 443. New York, 

Parkinson, Richard. Rationalism and Revelation ; or, the Testimony of Moral 

Philosophy, the System of Nature, and the Constitution of Man to the Ti-uth of 

the Doctrine of Scripture. Hulsean Lectures for 1837. 8vo, pp. 223. London, 

Scott, W. A. The Christ of the Apostle's Creed : the Voice of the Church against 

Arianism, Strauss and Renan, with an Appendix. 12mo, pp. 432. New York, 

Thompson, William, Editor. Aids to Faith. A Series of Theological Essays by sev- 
eral writers, being a reply to Essays and Reviews. Am. ed. 12rao, pp. 538. 

New York, 1862. 
Ulrici, Herman. Strauss as a Philosophical Thinker. A RevieAv of "the Old 

Faith and the New Faith." From the German. 16mo, pp. 167. Philadelphia, 

Woods, Leonard. Letters to Unitarians, occasioned by the Sermon of Rev. W. E. 

Channing, etc. 8vo. Andover, 1820, 1822. 
Worcester, Samuel. Letters to the Rev. W. E. Channing, on Unitarianism. 8vo. 

Boston, 1815. 

Although Strauss, in his life of Jesus, jfirst demolishes the rationalistic interpre- 
tation of the gospels in order to prepare the way for his mythical theory, he has 
yet been the occasion of the writing of lives of Christ in which the supernatural 
view of the person and work of our Lord is maintained, and which are therefore 
directed against rationalism. Among these are : 

Alexander, Wm. Lindsay. Christ and Christianity. A Vindication of the Chris- 
tian Religion, founded on the historical events of the life of Christ. 12mo, pp. 
314. New York, 1854. 

Bayne, Peter. The Testimony of Christ to Christianity. 12mo, pp. 195. Boston, 

Neander, Angustus. The Life of Jesus Christ in its historical connexion and histor- 
ical development. From the German by John M'Clintock, and Chas. E. Blumen- 
thal. 8vo, pp. 450. New York, 1848. 


Pressense, E. D. Jesus Christ: His Times, Life, and Work. From the French. 

12mo, pp. 496. New York, 1868. (The first chapter discusses the objections to 

the supernatural in the gospels.) 
Schaff, Philip. The Person of Christ: The Miracle of History: with a reply to 

Strauss and Penan, and a collection of testimonies of Unbelievers. 16mo, pp. 

375. New York, 1816. 
Tulloch, John. The Christ of the Gospels and the Christ of Modern Criticism. 

16mo, pp. 266. Cincinnati, 1865. (See for other titles, p. 282.) 

Some replies to Colenso : 
Benisch, A. Bishop Colenso's Objections to the Pentateuch and Book of Joshua 

critically examined. London, 1863. 
Briggs, F. W. The Two Testimonies. Being a reply to Bishop Colenso's Pentateuch 

and Book of Joshua. London, 1863. 
Fowler, C. H. Fallacies of Colenso Reviewed. Cincinnati. 
Green, Wm. Henry. The Pentateuch Vindicated from the Aspersions of Bishop 

Colenso. 12mo, pp. 195. New York, 1863. 
Mahan, M. Spiritual Point of View ; or, the Glass Reversed. Answer to Bishop 

Colenso. New York. See also Hurst's History of Rationalism. Pp. 599, 602. 

See Harman's Introduction to the Study of Holy Scripture. Pp. 215-219. 

3. Mysticism. 

Tulloch, John. Henry More. Christian Theosophy and Mysticism : Chap. Y of 
Rational Theology and Christian Philosophy in England, in the Seventeenth 
Century. Yol. II, 8vo. London, 1872. (See also Poole's Index to Periodical 
Literature, p. 890, for review articles on several branches of the subject.) 

Vaughn, Robert Alfred. Hours with the Mystics. A Contribution to the History 
of Religious Opinion. 2 vols., 12mo, pp. 372, 383. London. 

4. History of Rationalism,. 

Allen, Joseph Henry. Our Liberal Movement in Theology, chiefly as shown in 
Recollections of the History of TJnitarianism in New England. 16mo, pp. 220. 
Boston, 1882. 

Cairns, John. Unbelief in the Eighteenth Century as Contrasted with its earlier and 
later history. (Lect. V treats of Rationalism in Germany.) 12mo, pp. 216. 
New York, 1881. 

Ellis, Geo. E. Half-Century of the Unitarian Controversy, with particular refer- 
ence to its Origin, etc., 8vo, pp. 536. Boston, 1857. 

Farrar, "Adam Storey. A Critical History of Free Thought in Reference to the 
Christian Religion. Bampton Lectures for 1862. 12mo, pp. 487. New York, 1863. 

Hagenbach, K. R, German Rationalism. Its Rise, Progi^ess, and Decline. From 
the German. 8vo, pp. 405. Edinburgh, 1865. 

Hurst, John F, History of Rationalism. Embracing the Present State of Prot- 
estant Theology. 8vo, pp. 643. New York, 1865. 

Lecky, W. E. H. History of the Rise and Influence of the Spirit of Rationalism in 
Europe. 8vo, 2 vols. New York, 1873. 

Leland, John. A View of the Principal Deistical "Writers that have appeared in 
England in the Last and Present Century. 8vo. London, 1836. 

Saintes, Amand. A Critical History of Rationalism in Germany, from its Origin to 
the Present Time* 8vo, pp. x, 379. London, 1849. 

Saisset, Emile. Manual of Modern Pantheism. Essay on Religious Philosophy. 
2 vols., 8vo, pp. vi, 310, 273. Edinburgh, 1862. 


Tulloch, John. Rational Theology and Christian Philosophy in England in the 
Seventeenth Century. 2 vols., 8vo, pp. 463, 500. Vol, I. Liberal Churchmen. 
Vol. II. The Cambridge Platonists. Edinburgh and London, 1872. 

For an account of the Dodwell Controversy on the Natural Immortality of the Human 
Soul, and also the Literature of the Controversy, see Dr. Noah Porter's Appen- 
dix to Ueberweg's History of Philosophy. Vol. II, pp. SYl-SVS, See also Dr. 
Ezra Abbott's Literature of the Doctrine of a Future Life, Titles 2114-2129 in- 

For the Bibliography of the Unitarian Controversy in New England, see the Appendix 
to H. M. Dexter's Congregationalism as seen in its Literature. The list of the 
titles extends to the year 1879. Chap. VI of 0. B. Frothingham's Transcen- 
dentalism in New England conteins a brief account of the rise of New England 
Unitarianism, See also " Historical Introduction " in Sprague's Annals of the 
Unitarian Pulpit, and, for review articles on both sides, Poole's Index, pp. 
1340, 1341. 

On the Trinitarian Controversy in England during the last years of the Seventeenth 
Century, and the first years of the Eighteenth, see Hunt's History of Religious 
Thought in England from the Reformation etc, VoL II, pp. 200-221, and 
Vol. Ill, pp. 20-23. 





F. Zyro, Revision der christL-theologiscti. Encycklopadik, in Stud. u. Krit., 1837, No. 3, p. 689, 
and Hagenbach's art. in Herzog, Eucykl., vol. Iv. 

The encyclopaedia of a science as a whole can only come into 
being after the science has been rounded into a kvkXo^ ; and Theo- 
logical Encyclopaedia, accordingly, could not originate before the- 
ology had been an organism of various departments. The begin- 
nings of this science were apparent in the Church, however, at quite 
an early period, though rather in connexion with other branches of 
theological study, than as a distinct subject of inquiry. Their most 
natural expression Avas found in connexion with practical theology. 
The installation of a clergyman in his office, would involve, in ad- 
dition to remarks relating to its particular duties, the necessity of 
pointing out the kinds of knowledge and ability required. Chry- 
Beginnings of sostom (Trepi leQCjavvrjg) already furnishes hints as to 
theoiogica^ en^ ^j^^^ would be proper qualifications for the servant of 
Chrysostom. God, in the matter of scientific acquirements, as well as 
with respect to his religious and moral character, adding many 
beautiful reflections on the manifold gifts required for a worthy 
administration of the spiritual office (Books v and vi).^ Augustine 
likewise (De doctrina Christiana) indicates the scientific acquire- 
ments needed for the exposition of the Scriptures and the duties 
Qualifications of the pulpit, among which he already places a knowl- 
^^, ording^^^*^to ^^E^ ^^ ^^® languages in which the Bible was originally 
Augustine. written; and he recommends, as helps, the use of the 
Septuagint and the old Latin (Itala) versions. He also insists that 
natural sciences, e. g., natural history, botany, etc., should be ad- 
mitted into the course of study, but only so far as they can aid in ex- 

^ The passage in v, 5, is remarkable, as already distinguishing between the empiric 
and the cultivated minister, and between the diiferent degrees of obligation devolving 
on them, "^gte toTc ao<po)Tspoi^ fidXTiov tj rolg o.fia'&eaTFpoig /uei^cov 6 irhvog. Ovdi yap 
VTzep Tuv avTuv rj l^rjjiia a/ieXovGL Tovroig kukeLvoi^, d/lAd tooovtov avrrj 7r?.ei(ov, onov 
Kol TJjc KTTjaecj^ kKarepac to fieaov. KaKsivoic fiev ovS' uv kytcaXeaeu nq, prj6ev u^inv 
Inyov Tcapexovcjiv ovtol 6'e el jirj (leL^ova tt]^ ^o^VC, VC aTravrec exovai nepl avTuv, an 
npndepoiev, iro'X'ka Tzapa izavruv eKSTai to, syKX^^fxara, (ed. Tauchn., p. 66). Comp. 
Neander, Der heil. Chrysost., i, 5Y, sq^. 


plaining the Scriptures. The writings of the Greeks and Romans 
should receive judicious attention, and dialectics should be mas- 
tered. Rhetoric, and its employment in sacred eloquence are con- 
sidered in Book iv, which may be regarded as an essay on Christian 
homiletics. The work of Ambrose (De Officiis Ministrorum), is, on 
the contrary, rather morally edifying than scientific. 

The work, De Disciplina Scholarium, which is attributed to 
Boethius (the pupil of Augustine, f 525), belongs to a later age; 
but the De Institutione Divinarum Literarum of M. Aurelius Cas- 
siodorus, which follows the precedent of Augustine in urging the 
study of the Scriptures, and indicating a method for that work, is 
deserving of attention (0pp., ed. Garet, Rouen, 1679, and Venice, 
1729, 2 vols, fol., p. 537, sqq.). It also recommends the study of 
the Church Fathers, the decisions of oecumenical councils, and Jo- 
sephus and Eusebius, and attaches importance to a knowledge of 
natural science. 

A sort of general (real) encyclopaedia, in which a place was as- 
signed to theoloa:y, was undertaken by Isidore of Seville ^^ ^ 

y ^•" ... *^ The Encyclo- 

(sixth and seventh centuries), in the work, Originum paedia of isi- 

sive Etymologiarum libri xx. He also wrote instruc- ^^^^' 
tions for monks and clergymen, which, however, are, like those of 
Ambrose, of a more practical than scientific character. More, 
though still a very moderate, stress, is laid upon the scientific ele- 
ment, by Rabanus (Hrabanus) Maurus, the abbot of Fulda, in his 
work, De Clericorum Institutione, (in the first half of the ninth 
century); but even he was far in advance of his age.^ In the third 
book he urges the study of the Scriptures, and especially of their 
hidden meaning, and also familiarity with the liberal arts and with 
preaching, generally in harmony with Augustine. In the Middle 
Ages the mystic and schoolman, Hugo of St. Victor, (f 1141), 
published the Didascalion (Eruditio didascalica), a work ^^^ cidasca- 
which obtained for him the honourable epithet of Did- lionofHugost. 
ascalus. The work was designed to embrace an outline 
of the whole circle of studies preparatory to the higher theology, 
and fell into two principal parts, the first of which (books i-iii) 
contained a methodology of the secular sciences (propaedeutics), and 
the second (iv-vi) an historical introduction to the books of the 
Bible and the ecclesiastical writings, besides a methodology of 
Scripture study.^ The Dominican sub-prior, Vincent of Beauvais, 
(Bellovacensis, f about 1264), did meritorious work for encyclo- 

^ Comp. the biography by Kunstmann (Mayence, 1841), p. 55, sqq. 0pp., ed. Col- 
venerius, 6 vols., fol, Cologne, 1627. 

^ See Liebner, Hugo von St. Victor, p. 96, sqq. 


paedia and methodology as a whole, in his Speculum Doctrinale, and 
added useful hints for the study of theology, generally agreeing 
with Augustine and the school of St. Victor.^ Toward the close of 
the Middle Ages John Gerson (De Reformatione Theologiae)^ and 
Nicholas of Clemange (De Studio Theologico) ^ furnished practical 
hints on the study of theology. 

While encyclopaedia thus connected itself with practical theol- 
ogy, it could readily combine with the Introduction to the Study 
of the Bible. When, therefore, the latter regained in the time 
of the Reformation the independence of which the influence of 
scholasticism had long deprived it, the opportunity was given 
for discussing the new culture needed to adapt theologians to 
the character of the age. It was improved by Erasmus, in con- 
nexion with the publication of his New Testament. He pref- 
Erasmus's pref- aced the second edition of 1519 with his Ratio seu 
tionofthfeNew ^ethodus Compendio perveniendi ad veram Theolo- 
Testameut. giam, an essay which was soon after (1522, Basle) given 
to the public, in a somewhat enlarged form, as an independent 
work,* and which after subsequent republications and revisions,^ be- 
came the basis of similar undertakings. Erasmus determines the 
proper aim of theological study to be that the learning acquired in 
a pious spirit and with prayer should exercise influence upon the 
student's personal experience, and, so to speak, be moulded and 
transformed into life, hence, that the Christian and moral cul- 
ture should keep pace in all respects with the scientific. He speci- 
fies as particularly important the study of the Latin, Greek, and 
Hebrew, the latter of which had seemed necessary even to Augus- 
tine, though he was not personally well acquainted with it. Dia- 
lectics, rhetoric, arithmetic, and music are considered useful to the 
theologian; but also, for interpreting the Scriptures, natural phi- 
losophy, cosmography, and astronomy. On the other hand, he cen- 
sures an excessive regard for Aristotle and scholastic philosophy, 
however useful such studies might be for preparatory practice. 

With reference to dogmatic studies, he recommends that the 
student should personally make a collection of passages from the 

^ Comp. Schlosser, Yincenz von Beauvais, Frankfort, 1819, vol. ii, p. 240. The 
teachings of Yincent esp., p. 257, sqq. 

^ 0pp., T. I., with which comp. Epp. diiae ad Studentes Collegii Navarrae, etc. 

^ In d'Acherii Spic, i, 473, sq. (Staudlin, Gesch. der theol. Wissenschaften, i, pp. 

* See vol. V of his collected works, Basle, 1540. 

^ By Halbauer (1724) and Semler (1782). The work of Jacob Latorniis of Lieven 
(De trium linguarum et studii theologici ratione, 1519), written against Erasmus, ex. 
perienced no such revivifications. 


Scriptures and the Fathers, and arrange them into a definite sys- 
tem. The theologian should be thoroughly familiar with the Scrip- 
tures, so as even to be able to repeat them from memory; but this 
result will not be attained by a parrot-like rehearsing of passages; 
a living acquaintance with the Word and a profound penetration of 
its mysteries are necessary to this end. Many correct and sensible 
thoughts are added, relating to the method of study, the use of 
commentaries and other books, etc. He gives the first place among 
the Christian Fathers to Origen. The love of fruitless disputation 
is to be avoided ; for it is " not merely from the syllogism, but 
rather from the life, that the theologian receives his attestation." 
The work of Erasmus, however, is no longer adequate to the 
demands made upon encyclopaedia in the present age, 
beautiful and appropriate as much of its matter is work of Eras- 
found to be. It is impossible that it should be adequate, °^"^' 
for the theology of which it furnishes a sketch, was itself only be- 
ginning to emerge from chaos and assume a definite shape. Under 
such circumstances the scholarly author named much that is no 
longer included in encyclopaedia, being relegated to the history of 
the canon, to patristics, to the life of Christ, to exegesis, dogmatics, 
or ethics. But despite this fact, the little book may still be read 
with profit. 

Among the reformers the learned Melanchthon would naturally be 
the first to feel moved by his own inclinations and the obligations of 
his station, to direct the adherents of the new school into the right 
course of study. His Brevis ratio discendae theologiae, 
limited to three folio pages, ^ breathes the Protestant of Meianch- 
spirit in recommending an intimate acquaintance with the ^^' 
Bible as of primary importance. With an almost undue preference 
Melanchthon places the Epistle to the Romans at the head of the list 
of exegetical studies, assigning to it the service of introducing the 
theologian to the body of St. Paul's teaching, which, in turn, is to 
conduct the learner back to the teachings of our Lord. The Gospel 
by St. John is to close the cycle as the Epistle to the Romans be- 
gins it, so that the doctrines of faith and justification may constitute 
the beginning and the end of the scriptural theology of Christianity. 
The 'New Testament is to be completed and its loci communes to be 
systematized, in order to throw light upon the contents of the Old 
Testament, the study of which is to follow. Melanchthon also 
recommends the study of the Fathers with that of the Bible, but 
assigns to Origen, whose allegorical mode of interpretation he con- 
demns, a much lower place than is allowed him by Erasmus, while 
* In the Basle ed. of his works (1541), vol. iii. pp. 287-89. 


he exalts Augustine with a certain degree of favoritism. He de- 
mands, however, and with entire propriety, that practice shall be 
added to study, and makes the cultivation of style obligatory on the 
religious teacher, to which end the study of the classics is above all 
recommended. Nor should philosophy be slighted, as is customary 
with many who are ignorant of its character ; but care is to be 
taken that worldly wisdom be not substituted for the teachings of 
Christ, or the ethics of society (politics) for the ethics of Chris- 

Although the outward form of such guides gave them but little 
claim to the name of scientific encyclopaedias, they yet contained 
indications of a newly awakened scientific spirit, and involved the 
elements of an encyclopaedia which should be adequate for its needs. 
Accordingly, a pupil of Melanchthon, Theobald Thamer, who subse- 
quently separated from the evangelical Church, published an Adhor- 
A^v, * tatio ad theolosiae studium in academia Marbure^ensi, 

The Adhorta- & ^ ' 

tio of Theobald 1543, in which he welcomes the theology of Protestant- 
amer. ^^^ ^^ ^ glorious product of tlfe times, in contrast with 

the earlier fiaratoPioyla, and particularly recommends the study of 
the Bible, of Hebrew, Greek, and Latin, and of the vernacular as 
well, the latter for the sake of preaching. To these he adds natural 
science, in order that the Bible may be correctly understood and 
applied, when it treats of the works of God in nature ; and eth- 
ics, rhetoric, dialectics, and history. He characterizes the study 
of theology as difficult, but encourages students not to be repelled 
from it on that account, but rather to make greater effort. (Com- 
pare A. Neander, Theobald Thamer, der Reprasentant und Yor- 
ganger moderner Geistesrichtung in dem Reformationszeitalter. 
Berlin, 1842.) 

The age immediately following the Reformation contented it- 
self with mechanically recapitulating, and constructing far-fetched 
expositions of, what its predecessor had provided, or with reviv- 
ing the former scholasticism, instead of seeking to rear an organic 
intellectual edifice upon the given basis and out of the existing 

David Chytrseus at Rostock,^ a disciple of Melanchthon, and 
Jerome Weller,^ a pupil of Luther and inmate of his home, pub- 
lished instructions closely harmonizing with those of their great 

^ Orat. de studio theol. recte inchoando, (1557,) and Regulae studiorum seu de 
ratione discendi in. pvaecipuis artibus recte instituenda. Lips., 1565. Comp. Schuetzii 
Vita Dav. Chytraei, (Hamb., 1720-28, 3 vols.,) lib. i, p. 171, sq. ; Pelt, Encykl, p. 51; 
Krabbe Chytraeus, pp. 50, 51. 

^ Consilium de theologiae studio recte constituendo, Norimb., 1565. 


masters. In the seventeenth century the great dogmatical Johann 
Gerhard published an encyclopaedia, entitled Methodus 
studii theologici publicis praelectionibus in acad. Je- paedia of John 
nensi a 1617 exposita, (1st ed., 1620, 2d ed., 1622, 3d ^^^^^^^• 
ed., posthumous, Jena, 1654.) He demands adequate preliminary 
studies in language and philosophy (Aristotle's especially), and af- 
terwards a theological course of five years, three of which should be 
devoted almost exclusively to the Holy Scriptures. In the third 
year attention should be directed to questions in controversy be- 
tween Koman Catholics and the Reformed, while the fourth should 
be divided between such studies and practice in preaching ; and not 
before the fifth (!) year were Church History and the writings of 
the fathers, the schoolmen, and Luther, to receive attention.^ 

In the Reformed Church,^ Bullinger (f 1575) wrote a Ratio 
studii theologici, which is distinguished by sound practical judg- 
ment, and affords admirable methodological hints, reaching to the 
minutest details — among other things, to the diet of the student. 
The naturalist and man of multifarious learning, Conrad Gessner, 
published a general encyclopaedia, the last book of which is devoted 
to theology.^ Andrew Gerhard, of Ypres (Hyperius), professor at 
Marburg, also wrote a Theologus seu de ratione studii ^^^ Theoio us 
theologici (libri iv).* The latter work affords the first of Andrew 
indications of a future division into departments, the ^^ ^^ ' 
book treating first of exegetical, next of systematic, and finally of 
practical theology, the last in connexion wil:h historical ; but no 
attempt is made to clearly distinguish the several branches from 
each other or give them suitable names, nor yet to apprehend and 
describe them in their relations to each other. The material already 

^ Pelt, Encykl., p. 52, Among Lutheran writers of the sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries the following deserve mention : J. Andreae, Oratt. de studio sacrarum lite- 
rarum, Lips., 1567 ; N. Selnekker, Notatio de studio theol. et ratione discendi doctrinam 
coelestem, Lips,, 1579, Abr. Calov, Isagoge ad s. theol., Vitemb., 1652, 85; Das 
gute Leben eines rechtschaffenen Dieners Gottes von J. V. Andreae, (copied as a 
poetical supplement in Herder's Briefe.) A closer examination of the above works is 
found in Pelt, p. 53, sq. 

2 Many elements are scattered through the works of Zwingle, (the very history of 
his life is a living encyclopaedia.) Conip. his work, Der Hirt, etc., 1524, (ed. Schul- 
thess and Schuler, vol. i, p. 631.) Respecting Bullinger, comp. his letters to his son 
Henry (on the study of theology) in Pestalozzi, Heinrich Bullinger, p. 594, sqq. 

3 Pandectarum universalium Conr. Gessneri liber ultimus de theologia, (Tiguri, 1549.) 
Comp. Hanhart, Conr. Gessner, (Winterthiir, 1824,) p. 160, sqq. 

4 Balse, 1572, 82. The first ed, (Basle, 1556) bears the title De recte formando 
theologiae studio. It should not be confounded with Methodus theologiae, etc., Basle, 
1567, the latter being a systematic theology and by no means a methodology, as the 
title would suggest. 


becomes unmanageable because of its abundance, the whole of bibli- 
cal and ecclesiastical dogmatics being discussed in the limited com- 
pass of the book, and likewise other matters, which belong more 
properly to criticism and hermeneutics. The work is, however, 
characterized by sound judgment, which looks upon learning as an 
aid to true piety, and directs attention to the connexion between 
theology and the Church. 

The dogmatist Joh. Heinr. Alsted, wrote a work in eight books 

mr- ,r xx. ^ cntitlcd, Mcthodus sacrosanctae theolo2:iae (Hanov., 

The Methodus ' , . . 

of John Henry 1623, 4) ; to this he prefixed Praecognita in two books, 
^ ® ' which afford a noteworthy review of the science, as 

wholly governed by a new scholasticism.^ The second book (De 
theologiae studio recte formando) alone demands notice in this 
connexion, as treating of the object of theological study, which 
is made to consist in the promotion of the glory of the triune 
God, and in the working out of man's salvation, together with the 
perfecting of his nature. A distinction is made between the the- 
ology of the schools and the practical theology of the Church, and 
the advice is given to students, " Scholasticam theologiam ex pro- 
fesso et semper evolves, et auctores, qui illam scriptis comprehend- 
erunt, tibi reddes quam familiarissimos." The period of study 
should be neither too extended nor too brief (although no limit is 
fixed), and special attention should be given to prayer, the study of 
the Scriptures, and a godly walk. Detailed prescriptions concern- 
ing this militia Christi are given. Among the requisite natural 
qualifications the author includes sound health, a clear and flexible 
voice, a well-organized brain, and a good bodily constitution, to 
which a good memory, etc., must be added. 

Among preparatory requisites he reckons acquaintance with the 
vernacular (" dicunt theologi nostri : a preacher should not make 
use of town-clerks' German") for the study of which he recom- 
mends, with assured judgment, Luther's version of the Bible ; and 
to the mother-tongue he adds Latin, Greek, and Hebrew. The re- 
lation between philosophy and theology is stated to be such that 
they can never reasonably come into conflict with each other. Logic 
is considered a prime necessity, and after it physics and mathemat- 
ics (which are included under philosophy), and also metaphysics and 
practical philosophy ; nor should the theologian be ignorant of ju- 

^ Mention is made, for instance, in the first book, in addition to the theologia falsa, 
of a theologia archetypa, (quae est sapientia indubitata rerum divinarum,) theologia 
ectypa, (in which the archetypa is actualized,) theologia unionis in Christo, theologia 
visionis in coelis, (which includes the theologia angelorum,) theoligia viatorum, (the 
theology of the present world,) etc. 


rispriidence and medical science. Upon this follow a guide to the 
study of the Scriptures and a tabular view of the contents of the 
several books, together with the entire dogmatic locus de scriptura 
sacra ; farther, a grammar of the Bible, hermeneutics, and rhetoric 
(on the figurative language of the Scriptures), the whole in a very 
prolix and artificial style ; also history of the canon and other mat- 
ters pertaining to the science of Introduction, biblical topography, 
archaeology, chronology, and mingled with typology, a brief char- 
acterization of the different books of Scripture, and, finally, a few 
additional words on dogmatics (loci communes) and practical the- 
ology (paedia theologica, declamatio, disputatio theologica, and ex- 
ercitatio ecclesiastica). 

An Encyclopaedia philosophise (Herborn, 1630, 2 vols, fol.) and 
an Encyclopaedia omnium scientiarum (ibid., 1630, and Lugd. Bat., 
1640, 4 vols, fol.) by the same author are in existence, in which 
vol. ii. p. 1555, sqq., is devoted to theological (real) encyclopaedia 
(theologia naturalis, catechetica, didactica polemica, theol. casuum, 
theol. prophetica, and moralis). 

The school of Saumur was distinguished in the Reformed Church 
by the mildness of its spirit and its unbiassed judgment 
in theological matters, as compared with the rigid dog- ans of saumur 
matism and formalism of which Alsted was a represent- 
ative.^ It produced the dissertations of Stephen Gaussen,^ in w^hich 
we occasionally observe an active, youthful disposition, joined to a 
manly energy sharpened by the salt of a biting wit ; mental quali- 
ties which render more enjoyable the heart-felt, childlike piety 
which is apparent. Much that is here laid down would still be ap- 
plicable in our day. 

The writings of the theologians J. L. Frei and Samuel Werenf els of 
Basle, in the end of the seventeenth and the beginning of the eight- 
eenth centuries, breathe a spirit kindred to that of the above work. 
The Meletemata de officio doctoris Christiani (1711-15, four disser- 
tations that deserve to be better known) by the former resolve the 
activity of the Christian teacher, both academical and parochial, 
into the three functions of interpreting the Scriptures, explaining 
the creed, and confuting opponents, thus dividing theological science 
into exegesis, dogmatics, and polemics. This work contains many 
correct ideas concerning the exposition of Scripture, the employ- 

* Comp. J. H. Heidegger, De ratione studiorum theol. Tur., 1690, 12mo,, a mere 
reprint of Bullinger and of works on Introduction by various authors. 

^ Stephan. Grausseni dissertationes : 1. De studii theologici ratione; 2. De natura 
theologiae ; 3. De ratione concionandi ; 4. De utilitate philosophiae in theologia ; 
6. De recto use clavium. Ultraj., 16'78; 6 ed. cur. J. J. Rambach, Hal. 1726. 


ment of reason on theological questions,^ the relation of dogmatics 

to ethics, etc. The Opuscula of Werenfels,^ though he did not 

write an encyclopaedia in the proper sense, likewise present much 

that is adapted to lead the young theologian into the right way. 

This is especially true of the sixteenth dissertation, De scopo doc- 

toris theologi, which contains many a golden counsel, not only for 

the future teacher of theological science, but also for ministers of 

the word. 

Within the bounds of the Lutheran Church a twofold opposition 

was brouffht to bear upon the scholastic spirit which 
Encyclopaedia ^ ^ i \ o 

in the Luther- had again become powerful — on the one hand irom the 

an Church. practically pious tendency of Spener, and on the other 
from the liberal scientific spirit whose representative was George Ca- 
lixtus. Both tendencies aided in introducing a new period for the- 
ological learning, and, accordingly, for theological encyclopaedia. 
In the Apparatus theologicus,^ which was designed to be a great 
theological dictionary covering the whole ground of the science, 
Calixtus leads theological study back to its exegetical and historical 
basis, from which it had again gradually removed, and endeavours 
to compose the quarrel of the humanists and the realists (gramma- 
rians and barbarians). Philip Jac. Spener wrote several works which 
come under our notice. The Pia desideria and the Theologische 
Bedenken frequently refer to the needs of the young theologian ; 
but his views upon this question are principally found in the preface 
to the tables compiled by him from Danhauer's Hodosophie, written 
in 1690, and published under the title De impedimentis studii 

Among preparatory sciences, philosophy is rated far lower by 
Spener's con- Spener than by other theologians, a prejudice that may 
tributions to be excused in view of the, spirit that pervaded the phi- 
cyciopgedia. losophy of the time. This prejudice subsequently be- 

^ Comp. Smith's Hagenbach : Hist. Doctrines, ii, p. 464. Pelt. Encykl., p. 53, calls 
attention to the fact that the Reformed theologians especially discussed the application 
of philosophy to theology, and in that connexion elucidated many questions of import- 
ance to theological encyclopaedia. Comp. also Al. Schweizer, Glaubenslehre der 
evang.-ref. Kirche, Zurich, 1844. 

^ Sam. Werenfelsii Opuscula theolog., philosoph. et philologica. Balse, 1728, 
2 vols., 4to. ; 1*782, 3 vols., 8vo. Also J. Ch. Beck (f 1785), who prefaces his Synop- 
sis institutionum universae Theologiae, Basle, 1765, with a brief encyclopedia and 

2 Helmst., 1628, and by his son, enlarged from the MS., 1661, 4. Comp. Henke, 
Georg Calixt, und seine Zeit, p. 420, sqq. 

^ Comp. Hossbach, Ph. J. Spener u. seine Zeit, i, p. 290, sqq. New ed. (Berlin, 1861), 
by Schweder, p. 211, sqq. 


came more apparent, in connexion with a pietistic empiricism, 
which falsely based itself on the authority of Spener. Philology, 
too, although its utility was recognized, was regarded by him from 
a too restricted point of view, in consequence of which he would 
not allow so wide and unrestrained a range to the study of so-called 
profane writers as was conceded by Erasmus and Melanchthon. Sa- 
cred philology alone, in its immediate bearing upon exegesis, 
received the recognition it deserved as an important auxiliary to 
theological science. He termed exegesis the "architect, who ar- 
ranges all the remaining parts, and from whom they derive 
nearly all their ground and material." Upon the basis of exegesis 
dogmatics should be reared ; but in harmony with his mild practi- 
cal tendency he was less partial to scholastic quibbling and harsh 
polemics. He did full justice to Church history, though he recom- 
mended the thorough examination of its sources only to such stu- 
dents as might intend to reach the higher grades of learning. 

Ethics, which he regarded as having the same importance as dog- 
matics, in this agreeing with Calixtus, should in like manner, he 
thought, be drawn from the holy Scriptures. Homiletics, on the 
other hand, whose deep foundations he suspected from the scriptural 
teaching, but which he was unable to clearly apprehend in a scien- 
tific way, seemed to him " one of the chief hindrances to theological 
study," while catechetics held a higher place in his estimation. At 
all events, to Spener belongs the inestimable honour of having not 
only restored to the science the union with the conditions of actual 
life, from which it had been separated, but also of hav- yai^e of spe- 
ing led the way to a new state of the science itself, ^^^'^ ^^^^• 
through his efforts to secure a connected course of exegetical study, 
which, contrary to the spirit of the Reformation, had again been ne- 
glected during an extended period.^ 

J. J. Breithaupt,'^ A. H. Francke,^ and Joachim Lange,^ followed 
in the footsteps of Spener. Of these, the first especially " combined 
genuine piety with elegant culture" (Pelt., p. 55), while the horta- 
tory element predominated with Francke, and a certain confusion 

' " Such exegetical lectures as were still sustained in the universities of that period, 
confined themselves simply to the philological or polemical treatment of the more dif- 
ficult or controverted passages." Hossbach, p. 304. 

"^ Exercitationes de studio theol. Hall., 1702. 

2 1. Definitio studii theologici, etc. Halle, 1708 ; 2. Idea studiosi theologiae oder 
Abbildung eines der Theologie Beflissenen, ibid., 1717; 3. Methodus studii theologici, 
ibid., 1723 ; Timotheus, zura Fiirbilde alien studiosis theologiae. Comp. Guericke, 
A. H. Francke (Halle, 1827), p. 290, sqq. 

* Institutiones studii theologici literariae. Hal., 1723, and De genuina studii theolog. 
praecipue thetici indole ac methodo, ibid. 1712, 4to. Comp. Staudlin ii, p. 309. 


of ideas is manifest in Lange. On the other hand the two able 
Encyclopaedia men, Christ. Matthias Pf aff, chancellor at Tubingen, and 
pfaff"^and Bud- *^^^* ^^^^^ Buddaeus, at Jena, occupied an intermediate 
daeus. position between Pietism and the learned theology of 

the schools, and their works present a more definite arrangement of 
the several branches, in their outward structure. Exegetical, dog- 
matic, historical and practical theology, and the subdivisions, polem- 
ical, thetical, patristic, etc., were distinguished by name, and their 
nature and relation to the whole of the science were described, 
though the order in which they are arranged is not the same with 
the two writers. Pfaff ' correctly assigns the first place to exeget- 
ical theology, while Buddaeus ' places immediately after the pre- 
paratory studies, dogmatics, symbolics, patristics, ethics, ecclesias- 
tical law. Church-history, and polemics, and introduces exegesis at 
the end. The feature is common to both, however, that they com- 
bine with encyclopaedia an extended history of the literature which 
is stated on the title-page of Pfaff, certainly a meritorious feature, 
since it provided for an existing want. But encyclopaedia itself was 
thereby exposed to the danger of becoming a mere bibliographical 
guide, or at least of being so largely bibliographic that its leading 
object could no longer be conveniently accomplished; this, too, at a 
time when encyclopaedia had scarcely attained to a measure of in- 
dependence, after dissolving its accidental connexion with other 
branches of learning. The excessive importance attached to the 
department of literary history manifested itself, as was to be ex- 
pected, in the Einleitung in die Theologischen Wissenschaften, by 
J. G. Walch (Jena, 1753), and evidences of its presence have not 
been wanting in several valuable works of more recent times. 

The history of science reveals certain highly endowed spirits, 
whose rays stream forth in different directions in order to throw 
light upon the fields that lie extended to the view. Such was the 
Contributions Chancellor Lorenz von Mosheim,^ who became eminent 
of Mosheimand in the development of ethics and homiletics, no less than 
cyclopaedia. ^^ Church history, though less so with regard to ency- 

^ Introductio in historiam theol. literariam, Tiibing., 1Y24, 3 vols., 4to. 

* Isagoge historico-theol. ad theologiam universam singulasque ejus partes, Lips., 
1727, 2 vols., 4to. Hossbach, p. 382, says that this work "is the product of profound 
and comprehensive learning, and of enlightened and tolerant theological views, and 
far superior to all former works of this character." Comp. also Danz, p. 129 ; 
Staudlin, p. 311. 

^ F. Liicke, Narratio de Jo. Laur. Moshemio, Gott., 1837, 4to. It is to be observed 
that Mosheim, with his sound historical judgment, was the first to draw the line of 
distinction between the work of the scientific theologian and that of the preacher, 
though he may have gone too far in demanding a separate training for the two (p. 29). 


clopaedia. The Kurze Anweisung, die Gottesgelalirtheit Yernunf- 
tig zii Erlernen (published by his son-in-law, Windheim, Helmst., 
1756, 63) illustrates the clear, benevolent, gentle mind of its author, 
but bears the marks of too great haste. In the arrangement of the 
several branches {e. g., in placing dogmatics at the head), it rests 
too little upon thoroughly comprehended principles, to possess great 
importance in comparison with such predecessors as have already 
been mentioned. The higher merit of having introduced a new ele- 
ment, the critical, into theological science, and of having thereby put 
new life into encyclopaedia, which might otherwise have become a 
mere dead aggregate of bibliographical knowledge, belongs to John 
Solomon Semler. His criticism frequently degenerated into h3'per- 
criticism, and his questioning spirit into scepticism; but it is certain- 
ly unjust to charge him with entertaining hostility to religion and 
Christianity. Theology is indebted to him for much of stimulating 
influence, if for but little of assured results. His works, encyclo- 
paedic and methodological, as Avell as others,^ failed to receive a cor- 
dial reception however, because of their involved descriptions, and 
the author's difficult and heavy style in the use of both German and 
Latin. The essence of Semler's writings should be extracted into 
a monograph, and thus a correct estimate of his merits might be 
brought into a convenient form, within the reach of a frequently 
ungrateful posterity. A similar want of arrangement is apparent 
in the work of the Reformed theologian, S. Mursinna (f 1795),- who 
first introduced the term "encyclopaedia" into theology, although 
it had been previously employed by jurists (Putter) and medical 
scholars (Boerhave) in connexion with their respective sciences. 

It was reserved, however, for the broadly cultured and versatile 
J. Gottfried Herder, to impress himself with incalculable (.^eat influence 
energy upon the theological youth and the earnest men of Herder upon 
of his own and future ages, by the exercise of an influ- ®° ^^^' 
ence which was stimulating in manifold directions, exciting to both in- 
tellect and feeling, every- where urging the attainment of the high- 
est ends, and as exalted above all meanness as it was free from the 
control of timid prejudice. A genuine supernaturalist and also 
rationalist, both orthodox and heterodox, or, if it be preferred, 

^ Versuch einer nahern Anleitung zu niitzlichem Fleisse in der ganzen Gottesgelehr- 
sarakeit, etc., Halle, 1837; Institutio brevier ad liberalem eruditionem tlieologicam, 
ibid., 1765, 2 vols.; Institutio ad doctrinam Christianam liberaliter discendara, ibid,, 
1774 (rather a systematic theology than an encyclopgedia) ; Yersuch einer freiern 
theologischen Lehrart, ibid., 1777. The title "Encyclopaedia and Methodology" came 
into currency at this time. It appears in an anonymous work (Leips., 1 778) cited by 
Danz, p. 134, and somewhat earlier in the works of Mursinna, Robert, Yogel ; eomp. ibid. 

^ Primae linese encyclopaediae theoL, Halle, 1784, ed. 2, 1708 ; comp. Pelt, p. 57. 


neither, versed in Oriental mysticism and likewise in the mysteries 
of human nature and of human history, grasping, with a magnifi- 
cent enthusiasm, every thing in which the genius of a pure human- 
ity is portrayed, and jDunishing with noble indignation all that is 
shameful, deceitful, vapid, or sickly — he was thoroughly fitted to 
aid the struggling and ambitious mind in reaching the path over 
which, with trusty staff in hand, it must pass. The remark has 
frequently been made that Herder's efforts were rather stimulating 
to others, than productive of assured gains which might be stored 
in everlasting garners. But this is precisely what was needed; and 
if much that, with too venturous courage, he sought to establish 
has been already overthrown, it is to be hoped that, God willing, 
the spirit of profound investigation, and the clear, independent 
habit of thought belonging to that more beautiful age — the flourish- 
ing period of " German manners and German art " — which he aided, 
in connexion with others, to introduce, shall nevermore be lost.^ 

It must be confessed that the Letters upon the Study of Theol- 
DefectsofHer- ogj (Weimar, 1V80 ; 2d ed., 1785, 4 vols.),' by no 
der's Briefe. means fulfil the scientific purpose of a theological en- 
cyclopaedia in the strict sense. They adopt the light tone of social 
intercourse and friendly conversation; and the author enters too 
largely into the discussion of the different subjects themselves (e. g., 
of his favorite theme, Hebrew poetry), to admit of a clear demon- 
stration of the formal inter-connexion of the various branches. All 
that he says, however, tends toward that connexion, and serves to 
illuminate with color the picture which a stricter method places be- 
fore us in bare outlines. The smaller work by Herder, Anwendung 
dreier akademischer Lehrjahre, has more of the form of a proper 
methodology and introduction; and with this should be connected 
his Theophron, and his Gutachten tiber die Vorbereitung junger 
Geistlichen, as also the Provinzialblatter.^ 

In 1791, soon after the first publicati-on of Herder's Letters (1785), 
No self Intro ^^ ^^^® ^^^ thorough work by the judicious J. A. Nos- 
ductiontoThe- selt appeared, which has been improved by A. H. Nie- 
o ogy. meyer, and put into the form of a text-book, that still 

* Comp. J. G. Muller, in the Herder Album (Weimar, 1845), and Bunsen, Hippoly- 
tus, i, p. 264: "Hei^der made the transition from Romanic negation to Germanic af- 
firmation, and began to build anew. Himself a theologian, he generalized Semitic 
tradition and inspiration into Japhetic science and philosophy. Religion and language 
are to him the original manifestations of the Divine life in man." Comp. also the 
work by Werner, adduced below (among the monographs). 

^ In the Sammtliche Werke zur Religion u. Theologie (original ed. by Cotta, Tiib., 
1808), vols, ix and x. 

^ The whole in vol. x of the Religion u. Theologie. 


renders useful service.' The Einleitung in die theologischen Wis- 
senschaften (Leips., 1794, 2 vols.), from the pen of the learned G. J. 
Planck, is likewise still esteemed, because of its historical matter 
and good judgment, although its methodological value is but small. '^ 
In like manner, the encyclopaedias which have since appeared in 
considerable number deserve notice, rather because of single obser- 
vations of value, or because of the soundness of view displayed in 
them, than because of a clear presentation of the edifice of theolog- 
ical science, or of the connexion existing between its parts. J. Fr. 
Kleuker, who was first inspired by Herder, but was afterwards alien- 
ated from him through a dislike of the rationalizing tendencies of 
the century, with which Herder was in sympathy, wrote a Grundriss 
einer Encyclopadie (Hamb., 1800, 1801, 2 vols.), in which he sought 
to promote the restoration of a theology possessed of vigorous 
faith. The strange forms of expression in which he often clothed 
his ideas (in other works as well as this) gave him widespread 
notoriety as a " foggy brain ; " but he must be credited with having 
energetically uttered many profound ideas which were subsequently 
brought to greater clearness by other minds. ^ 

•A higher and more ideal point of view from which to compre- 
hend theology and encyclopaedia, is occupied by K. Daub in an ar- 
ticle in the Studien, published by Kreuzer and himself.* To crude 
empiricism he opposes a holy enthusiasm for the things of God, 
and to mere learning a childlike, contemplative disposition, which 
alone is able to penetrate into the mysteries of religious faith. The 
writer, influenced by his speculative views, does not, however, 

^ Anweisung zur Bildung angehender Theologen, 3d ed., Halle, 1818, 19, 3 vols. 
Niemeyer has expressed his own views relating to theological studies and methods of 
instruction in the Anti-Wilibald (a memorial, issued in connexion with the jubilee of 
G. Ch. Knapp), Halle, 1825; in the Zuschrift an Theologie Studierende liber die Yor- 
bereitung des theol. Examens u, die Benutzung d. Candidaten-jahre, Halle, 1801 ; in 
Grundriss d. unmittelbaren Vorbereitungswissenschaften zur Fuhrung des Predigt- 
amtes, Halle, 1803; and in the Bibliothek fur Prediger, which he published in con- 
nexion with Wagnitz. 

"^ His smaller work, Grundriss der theol. Encyklopaedie, Gott., 1813, is (althougl- 
antiquated) better adapted to beginners. Among Encyclopaedias of this period comp 
L. Wachler, Grundriss einer Encykl. d. theol. Wissenschaften, Lemgo, 1795; J. F, A^ 
Thym, Theol. Encykl. u. Methodologie, Halle, 1797; J. A. H. Tittmann, Encykl. d. 
theol. Wissenschaften, Leips., 1798. With regard to these works comp. Pelt, p. 61. 
K. Ch. E. Schmidt, Grundriss, Jena, 1810 (Kantian); Sim. Erhardt, Vorlesungen tiber 
Theologie, Erlangen, 1810 (pervaded by Schelling's philosophy); J. E. Ch. Schmidt, 
Theol. Encykl., Giessen, 1811. 

^ Comp. H. Ratjen, J. H. Kleuker, Gott., 1 842, 8vo. 

* Theologie u. ihre Encykl. im Yerhaltniss zum akadem. Studium beider, etc., in 
Studien, vol. ii, pp. 1-69. 


regard faith simply as belief, but as an objective appreliension 
of matters that are too high for ordinary sense. With moral ear- 
nestness he combats both the clumsiness of obstinate bigotry and 
the fickleness of a trifling disposition, and draws with steady hand 
the portraiture of the true theologian; but he treats the necessity 
for a regeneration of theology by drawing prophetic outlines indic- 
ative of its future accomplishment, rather than by presenting an 
accurate survey of the actual state of the science. 

To perform this duty was the work of another mind. Friedrich 
Encyclopaedia Schleiermacher was the first to raise encyclopaedia to 
S^b ^"scWeier- ^^ independent position, and deliver it from the extra- 
macher. neous material, historical, and bibliographical elements 

in which it was involved, as well as to impress upon it the mark of 
the peculiar spirit which began to pervade theological science as a 
whole. This work was accomplished in the few pages of the Dar- 
stellung des theologischen Studiums (Berlin, 1811; Outline of the 
Study of Theology, Edinburgh, 1850). The purely formal charac- 
ter of the book attests an artistic spirit. It is a cartoon drawn by 
a steady hand, which only needs the pencil of a Herder to render it 
a grand and beautiful picture. While lacking this, it is matter for 
gratitude that the later and revised edition of 1830 contains hints, 
though few, for an easier understanding of a book which has the 
additional importance of having become the key to the entire sys- 
tem of Schleiermacher's theology, 

Encyclopsedia continued to be written in the iisua. ^^J, however, 
Encyclopaedia even after the Darstellung had appeared. Leonhard 
partlnheSth Bertholdt's Theologische Wissenschaftskunde, at any 
century. rate (Erlangen, 1821-22, 2 vols.), is no model of "archi- 

tectonic " procedure, however much importance the author may at- 
tach to that phrase, and however strongly he may urge the correct 
principle that " a science should be restricted to itself and not em- 
brace too much of foreign matter." Preliminary and auxiliary sci- 
ences occupy two thirds of the space in a work glutted with learned 
stuff, while its proper subject is discussed in the remaining third. 
The unfinished Encyclopaedia of G. S. Francke, (Altona, 1819,) gives 
evidence of greater regard for an organic arrangement of the dif- 
ferent branches of study ; but a " really scientific arrangement " 
seems to have been an undefined thought with the author, which 
was never clearly developed (Pelt, p. 65). K. F. Staudlin's Ency- 
klopaedia und Methodologie (Hanover, 1821) is combined with a his- 
tory of the dijBPerent theological sciences, and is more especially a 
work of historical reference. This is also true of the Encyklopsedia 
und Methodologie by J. T. L. Danz (Weimar, 1832), in which a 


new arrangement of the contents and new appellations give evidence 
of a reorganizing purpose, but nevertheless suggest the question, 
"Did the author understand his ground and object?" It might be 
difficult for a stranger to find his way through "the labyrinth of lit- 
erary wealth " ^ 

The author of the present work,'' incited thereto by Schleier- 
macher, sought in its first edition (Leips., 1833) to so The present 
develop the principles of Schleiermacher, with not unim- "^'^"^^^ s^weier" 
portant modifications, that a somewhat empirical mind macher. 
might comprehend them, though not as yet familiar with logical 
discriminations — which is the case with most persons who approach 
the study of theology. His object was to lead on a transition from 
the method of the past to that which should be followed in the 
future. He sought to combine the practical aim of stimulating and 
encouraging with the scientific spirit, in following out which plan 
the point and connexion of ideas were not infrequently sacrificed to 
perspicuity,^ and the entire book received a subjective colouring 
that can only be understood from the immediate surroundings of the 
author, and from the design with which he taught. He was more 
concerned to convey a knowledge of the science than to aid mate- 
rially toward its further development. But on the first appearance 
of his book he saw himself overtaken by the advance of a new 
period in the form of an Encyclopaedia of the Theological 
Sciences, by K. Rosenkranz, Halle, 1831. This work Theological 
indicated the fact, which subsequent history has illus- encyclopaedia 
trated, that the Hegelian tendency considered itself spirit of Hegei- 
entitled to the privilege enjoyed by that of Schleier- ianism. 
macher, of opening for itself a victorious way through the newly 
cultivated regions of theology, and also that speculative philosophy, 
which Schleiermacher had separated from theology, was inclined 
to involve the latter in the mighty transformation of its character. 
The formal work of encyclopaedia was of inferior importance to the 
purpose of Rosenkranz however. He was more particularly con- 
cerned with the contents of theology, especially its speculative con- 
tents; and these he discussed in the spirit of that school, with life 

* Other works are, L. S. Jaspis, Hodegetik, Dresden, 1881 ; R. Konig, Yersuch einer 
kurzen Anleitung zum Studium der Theologie, Berne, 1830; A. F. Unger, Reden an 
kiinstige Geistliche, Leips., 1834 ; G. K. P. Hessenmiiller, Theol. Propaedeutik, ibid., 
1838, etc. 

^ The original German work of Hagenbach. 

^ This probably explains the charge of " rhetorical indefiniteness " raised by Harless, 
p. 20, and that of "lack of system," by Pelt, p. 69; but it likewise explains the en- 
comium spoken by others, and emphasized by Pelt, that it is "a perfect book for 


and energy, so that he must be considered a skillful representative 
of the Hegelian tendency. In the second thoroughly revised edi- 
tion (Halle, 1845) Rosenkranz declares that "he has not hesitated 
to sacrifice even such developments of thought in the old edition, 
as had, by their novelty and also by the freshness of his youthful 
enthusiasm, secured no little favor for the book in its time." In the 
language of its author, the work "was written in the consciousness 
1) that the Christian religion, as being the religion of truth and lib- 
erty, is the absolute religion; 2) that Protestantism is not the dis- 
solving of religion into nihilism, but rather its develo23ment into 
an affirmative self -consciousness of its rational character; and 3) 
that the reconciliation of Christian theology with philosophy is 

Other tendencies also became gradually apparent, as, the strictly 
Encyclopedia orthodox on the basis of the confessions, in G. C. A. 
as treated by jjarless' Tlieoloscische Encyclopaedia und Methodoloo^ie, 

Harless, Lange, ^ j r ^ o ? 

and Pelt. etc. (Nilremburg, 1837, Lutheran), which contains many 

excellent ideas, but allows too much of its limited space to the his- 
torical element ; the contrary, rationalistic tendency, in Lobegott 
Lano:e's Anleituno^ zum Studium der christl. Theoloo^ie nach den 
Grundsatzen des biblischen (!) Rationalismus, Jena, 1841; and the 
mediating tendency, which found a worthy organ in A. F. L. Pelt's 
Theologische Encyclopaedia als System, im Zusammenhange mit der 
Geschichte der theolog. Wissenschaft und ihrer einzelnen Zweige, 
Hamb., 1843. A rich material, which has been judiciously selected 
and intelligently handled, a constant effort to combine the variety 
of matter into a systematic whole (to which, however, the dry de- 
velopment of the plan in the department of dogmatics, extending 
down to the Hebrew alphabet, would hardly seem to be an aid), a 
keen eye for the artistic element in the theological profession, a 
warm interest in Christianity, and a sound and liberal judgment, 
are advantages to the book that deserve recognition, though they 
would unquestionably be heightened by being forced into a nar- 
rower compass. 

While it must be acknowledged that the literature of German 
Protestantism is in advance of others, in this as in the other de- 

^^ , . , partments of theolos^y, it cannot be said that the 

Theological i_^ ^ -^ ' 

encyclopedia Protestant s of other lands, and even less the Roman 
France^^'swe- ^''^tholics of Germany, have fallen behind in the march 
d3n, and Eng- of recent progress. The Encyclopsediae theologicse epi- 
tome, by J. Clarisse of Holland (Lugd., Bat., 1832, 
1835), still bears the stamp of the age before Schleierraacher; but 
the Encyclopaedia of Hof stede de Groot, on the other hand, represents 


the more modern tendency of the so-called Groningen school.' An 
excellent preliminary work in French was published by H. G. Kien- 
len (a German) : Encyclopedie des Sciences de la Theologie Chre- 
tienne, Strasburg, 1842. It followed Schleiermacher in the main, 
and was afterward republished, with additions, in German, with the 
title, Encykl. der Wissenschaften der Protestantischen Theologie, 
Darmstadt, 1845. A Swedish Encyclopaedia by the provost 11. 
Reuterdahl of Lund (1837), likewise follows the principles of 

The English, however, have hitherto paid very little attention 
to theological encyclopaedia. So little has been done in this de- 
partment that M'Clintock and Strong's Cyclopaedia says Theological 

with truth that " No book professing to be called En- encyclopedia 

r^ n m England and 

cyclopaedia of Theology has appeared in English, and America. 
no book is more needed, as the English theological literature is al- 
most wholly neglected by the Germans." (Article Encyclopaedia.) 
Since this statement was made, however, a volume on Theological 
Encyclopaedia, compiled from the lectures of Dr. M'Clintock to his 
students, has been published (New York and Cincinnati, 1873). It 
is a posthumous work, and necessarily incomplete. Dr. Henry B. 
Smith also had begun, before his death, an Encyclopaedia and Meth- 
odology, but did not live to carry out his purpose. In English lit- 
erature instruction of this kind is usually found in treatises on 
pastoral theology. Thus handled encyclopaedia holds a very sub- 
ordinate position. In Bishop Marsh's Course of Lectures on Divin- 
ity (Cambridge, 1809; London, 1838) an encyclopaedic outline is 
given. Bickersteth's Christian Student (London, 1832, 4th edition, 
1844) is characterized by a devout spirit, but is unscientific in form.- 
Doddridge's Lectures on Preaching and the Ministerial Office (Lon- 
don, 1830, and Andover, 1833) are wholly practical. 

The earliest American work of this type was by Cotton Mather: 
The Student and Preacher; Manductio ad Ministerium, etc. (Pub- 
lished in London only; 2d ed., 1781.) Some of Tholuck's Lectures 
on Encyclopaedia and Methodology are translated by Professor 
E, A. Park, in the first volume of the Bibliotheca Sacra. Professor 
Shedd, of the Union Theological Seminary, New York, has pub- 
lished an essay on the Method and Influence of Theological Studies 
(New York, 2d ed., 1878). J. W. Alexander's Thoughts on Preach- 

^ Encyclopaedia Theologi christiani a Hofstede de Groot et L. G. Pareau, Groningae, 
1851, 3d ed. 

"^ Bickersteth conceived of theology as a Divine science. Page 20 : " Theology is, 
like the heavens, full of stars, which appear not to the careless spectator, but a dili- 
gent conteraplator, with suitable helps, will find new worlds of glory in every part." 


ing contain valuable suggestions upon the studies of the preacher 
(pp. 168-216), although nothing systematic is attempted (New York, 
1860). Professor Shedd's Homiletics and Pastoral Theology (New 
York, 1878), presents in chap, iii, of the second part, an excellent 
outline of a course of study suitable for a clergyman. James M. 
Hoppin, in The Office and Work of the Christian Ministry (New 
York, 1869), offers good suggestions for theological culture. Most 
of these works, however, treat the subject in an incidental way. 

A brief review of the progress of Roman Catholic encyclopaedia 
remains to be given. 

Protestant text-books on encyclopaedia generally have reference 
^ .^ to the academical course of instruction in universities : 

Roman Catho- , . . , ' 

lie encyciopae- but Roman Catholic authors give this only occasional 
^^' consideration. Much that they have written (espec- 

ially during the earlier part of the seventeenth century) was de- 
signed for use in the seminaries for priests and the institutions of 
the monastic orders. The historical development of modern Roman 
Catholicism affords positive proof that in this as well as other mat- 
ters the Jesuits hold the first place. The Italian Jesuit, Ant. Posse- 
vin, wrote a Bibliotheca selecta de ratione studiorum (Colon., 1607, 
fol.), whose arrangement opens a view into the methods of the 
order. First stands the cultura ingeniorum, which is favored by 
the current age (the sixteenth century) more than by any other, 
despite its excessively heretical character. Heresy really hinders 
true culture, and must be opposed in its very beginning. Special 
praise is lavished on the institutions of the order, particularly that 
of Salamanca. The second book treats of the Divine history, i. e., 
the holy Scriptures and their study, in connexion with which w© 
notice that the study of Hebrew is recommended. Jerome and 
Augustine should be the principal guides. With reference to the 
study of the Bible much that is excellent is said, upon the whole, and 
much that recalls to mind the similar works of Reformed theolo- 
gians in this period.^ The third book treats of the scholastic the- 
ology, whose leading representative is Thomas Aquinas ; and the 
same section includes the theologia practica sive de casibus con- 
scientiae docendis. Book four deals with Catechetics, sive de juvandis 
domesticis fidei. Book five discusses Roman Catholic military (?) 
sacerdotal and monastic schools (seminaries), and also treats of 
legends, the ritual, and whatever relates to discipline and asceticism. 
The sixth and seventh books point out the course to be pursued 
with schismatics (Greeks and Russians), and with heretics (Wal- 

* Possevin forms a remarkable parallel to Alsted in the Reformed Church, comp. 


denses, Hussites, and Protestants), and the eighth indicates the 
mode of combating atheism, that of the Socinians among the rest. 
The ninth book has to do with Jews, Mohammedans, and Pagans in 
general, while the tenth and eleventh deal with the Japanese and 
other Asiatic nations in particular. The twelfth book, which begins 
the second volume, brings us to philosophy and and its relation to 
religion and theology, ancient philosophy being derived from Moses. 
The philosophies of Plato and Aristotle are then considered, the 
latter especially in great detail. Jurisprudence and medicine, 
mathematics and history, poetry and painting, occupy the space of 
the remaining books, except the last, which finally becomes a letter 
writer. This may suffice to indicate the methodically unmethodical 
character of the work.^ 

The learned Benedictine, J. Mabillon, wrote his Traite des etudes 
monastiques (Paris, 1691,) in opposition to the ascetic tendency which 
the order of Trappists and its founder Armand Jean de Bouthillier 
de Ranee ^ sought to impress upon the entire system of monastic 
orders. The work by Lud. Ellies du Pin, Methode pour etudier la 
theologie (1716), which was translated into several languages, had 
a more general aim. The publisher of Sarpi, Pierre Francois de 
Courayer, Avrote, in an anti-Roman spirit, a criticism of the theolog- 
ical method followed by the schools, entitled Examen des defauts 
theologiques, oti Ton indique les moyens de les reformer. Amst., 
1744, 2 vols. The reform, however, proceeded from Germany, in 
this field also. A movement toward increased indepen- German cath- 
dence prevailed among German Roman Catholics during ?^^ T'^^^l ^^ 
the latter half of the eighteenth century, of which Denina cyciopsedia. 
(1758), Gerbert (1764), Braun (1777), Brandmayer (1783), and Rau- 
tenstrauch (1781) were representatives: while Fr. Oberthur, the 
learned editor of Josephus, wrote an Encyclo239edia et Methodologia, 
(vol. i, Solisb., 1786,) which was long afterward remodelled into 
a German text-book (Augsb., 1828, 2 vols.), and which gave him 
rank with Nosselt, Planck, and Niemeyer, in the Protestant Church. 
A meth'odology of the theological sciences, especially dogmatic, by 
his hand, followed the above work in the same year.^ NTor did the 
Roman Catholic Church in Germany seek to resist the influence of 

* They who are acquainted with Petri Annati Methodieus theologiae apparatus (IVVO) 
may determine whether it renders more efficient service in these respects. 

'Traite de la saintete et des devoirs de I'etat raonastique, 1683, Comp. the mono- 
graph by F. A. de Chateaubriand, Par., 1844. 

' Additional w^orks are by Gnieiner and Leutwein (1786), Wiesner (1788), Sartori 
1796), Dobmayer (1807), and Thamer 1809). The influence exerted by Mich. Sailer 
in his Beitrage zur Bildung der Geistlichen (1819) and other writings was chiefly 


Schleiermacher's method, as appears from the Kurze Einleitung in das 
Studium der Theologie, mit Rilcksicht auf d. wissenschaftl. Staiid- 
punkt u. d. kathol. System, by J. S. Drey (Tub., 1819 ; comp. Pelt., 
p. 66, sqq.). The philosophical ideas in H. Klee's Encyclopasdie 
(Mayence, 1832) are not thoroughly digested ; but F. A. Stauden- 
maier in his Encyk. der theol. Wissenschaften, etc. (Mayence, 1834, 
2d, 1840) displays a decided talent for speculation, together with 
an immoderate propensity to ramble. Staudenmaier resembles Ros- 
enkranz in regarding encyclopaedia as a philosophy of theology, and 
in disregarding the importance of the Methodological element.* 

Senarate con- Separate contributions to encyclopaedia were furnished by : — 

tributions to H. K. Sack, Werth u. Eeiz d. Theologie u. d. Geistlichen Standes, 

tlieological en- Berlin, 1814; Fr. Strauss, Glockentone: Erinnerunoren a. d. Leben 
cyclopaedia. . . ^, . ,. , J ^ , , t . -,... 

ernes jungen Geistlichen, 3 parts, 7th ed. Leips., 1840. 

W. M. L. de Wette, Theodor, oder des Zweifler's Weihe, Berlin, 1822, 28. 2 vols. 
(Theodore, or the Sceptics' Conversion. Boston.) 

E. W, Krummacher, Expectorationen iiber d. Studium der Theologie, etc. Essen., 

De Wette, Idee iiber das Studium der Theologie, edited by A. Sti.eren. Leips,, 

To these may be added the numerous idealistic romances on ministerial life, e. ff.:—' 

Hase, Des alten Pfarrer's Testament ; Erhards, Volkmar's Bekenntnisse ; Tobler, 
Gotthold; Planck, Erstes Amtsjahr, etc., which contain hints adapted to encyclopaedia. 

^ Recent Roman Catholic works : A. Genzler, Das Ideale der Wissenschaft, etc. 
(Bamb., 1834); A. L. Buchner, Encyklopaedie u. Methodologie (Sulzb., 183*7); and A. 
von Sieger, De natura fidei et methodo theol ogiae ad ecclesiae catholicae theologos 
(Monast. Westphal., 1838); concerning which see Pelt., p. 72. 




The study of positive theology is required by its nature to con- 
form to the four leading divisions of Exegetical, Historical, Sys- 
tematic, and Practical theology, and must be pursued in that order. 

As positive theology has for its source the fact of the institution 
of the Christian religion (revelation), its beginnings demrt- 

will coincide with that fact, and must be found in the ments of posi- 
documents relating to such institution or revelation. ^^^ eoogy. 
Starting thus from the beginning, it traces the progress of historical 
development down to our own time, and then combines into a 
mental picture of the present what history has furnished. It obtains 
by this process a clear idea of the connexion running through the 
whole, and deduces therefrom the necessary principles for convert- 
ing theory into practice.^ 

The division into four departments was generally adop4:ed by the 
earlier encyclopaedists, as Noesselt, Thym, Staudlin, Schmidt, and 
Planck, although the above order was not always observed ; but 
later writers have, for scientific reasons, and with but few excep- 

^ The above distribution may also be justified in the following nianner : The asser- 
tion is warranted that all knowledge is based either on personal (physical or mental) 
observation, or on report and tradition, and is, therefore, either theoretical (philosoph- 
ical) or historical in its nature. Historical knowledge, however, must be obtained 
by investigation, and for the latter acquaintance with languages and philological criti- 
cism is necessary ; while theoretical knowledge leads to its practical application. In 
like manner Christianity is, in its positive character, both a history and a doctrine ; 
but its history is based on the Bible, which must, first of all, be exegetically exam- 
ined ; and its doctrine is not pure knowledge, but practical. The truth of revelation 
is to be applied in the Church and the various departments of Church activity, to 
which practical theology has regard. The two departments of learning are thus con- 
fined between two fields of applied art, the exegetical at the beginning, and the prac- 
tical at the end. 


tions, departed from that arrangement, despite its advantages in a 
methodological and practical point of view. Schleiermacher pre- 
schieiermach- ferred to make three departments, and divided the 
er's division of ggjgj^QQ i^^Q philosophical, historical, and practical the- 
ogy. ology (root, trunk, and crown). The range of philo- 

sophical theology is limited by him to apologetics and polemics ; but 
he extends the domain of historical theology so as to include on the 
one hand exegesis, and on the other dogmatics and ethics — the lat- 
ter of which would seem more properly to belong to philosophical 
theology. Within that domain, however, separate places were 
assigned to exegetical and systematic theology, in order that the 
special field of historical theology proper might not be encroached 
Danz's division ^pon. Danz attempted still another division, by which 
of theology in- he separated the whole of theology into two classes of 

to a religious . . ,. . , , 

and a ctiurciiiy sciences, namely, such as pertam to religion and such 
science. ^^ relate to the Church. Religious learning is sub- 

divided into theoretical and practical, the former of which embraces 
heuristic (exegetical) and technical theology (systematic theol- 
ogy and the history of doctrines). Ecclesiastical science is like- 
wise either theoretical or practical, the former section including 
Church history. Church law, statistics, archaeology, etc., while the 
latter comprehends the " sciences of Church practice," or such as 
relate to the practical work of the Church, embracing polemics, 
irenics, liturgies, etc. This method may, at first sight, seem to pre- 
sent many advantages ; but the difiiculties it involves when reduced 
to practice appear to be equally numerous. The separation of the 
religious from the Churchly element is of itself fraught with serious 
evils, since in actual Christianity the two interj)enetrate each other. 
Christ founded both religion and the Church, and the Bible is as 
important to the Church as to religion. It follows that exegesis, 
for instance, is as much an ecclesiastical as a religious science. 

Still other objections arise when the method is applied to details. 
The history of doctrines and patristics is introduced before acquaint- 
ance with Church history has been made, though a knowledge of 
the latter is necessary to an understanding of the former ; both 
practical and historical theology are broken into fragmentary parts, 
and the relation between apologetics and polemics is destroyed. 
This may suffice to indicate the difficulties of this division in its 
practical applications ; and the author has, at all events, failed to 
Rosenkranz's indicate the reasons which governed his action. Rosen- 
ion of positive ki'^^z approximates more nearly to Schleiermacher, in 
theology. that he likewise divides the entire science into phil- 

osophical (which he calls speculative), historical, and practical 


theology, although his speculative theology substantially includes 
dogmatics, which term is further extended to embrace apolegetics 
and polemics ; but he conflicts with Schleiermacher in assigning the 
leading place to systematic, which evidently must grow out of his- 
torical theology, and thereby opens the way for speculation to dom- 
inate the whole in the Hegelian fashion. Staudenmaier, too, places 
speculative theology at the front, but, singularly enough, puts prac- 
tical theology in the centre, and makes historical bring up the 
rear ; and Zyro is also inclined to give the first place to speculative! 

Kienlen and Pelt have, on the other hand, restored the precedence 
to historical theology. They adopt the division into three parts — 
historical, including exegetical, systematic, and practical theology. 
It cannot be denied that in a broad sense exegetical theology may 
be properly included under historical, inasmuch as it is the work of 
exegesis to determine conditions essentially historical, Reasons why 
and even to elucidate the primitive history of Chris- exegetical the- 
tianity itself. But historical knowledge, considered in a separate de- 
itself, is not the only element that engages the attention partment. 
of exegetical theology. Exegesis in the proper sense is rather a 
certain readiness in the application of knowledge, as Schleiermacher 
himself confesses, which is based on scientific principles (hermeneu- 
tics) belonging, not to the historical, but to the philological, or, in 
the widest meaning of the term, philosophical, department. The 
historic value of the Scriptures themselves, is not, moreover, merely 
the same as that which attaches to other monuments of Christian 
and ecclesiastical antiquity. In their character, as documents of in- 
stitution or revelation, they engross our study in a very different 
manner from and to a far greater extent than do other historical 
sources. "Nocturna versate manu, versate diurna," applies to them 
with entire propriety. They rise, like the primeval mountains, 
above all the later formations of theological culture, and like the 
eternal granite rocks, they tower far above valley and hill. 

It may therefore be allowed that it is proper for Protestant 
theology, upon which devolves a special ministry of the w^ord, to 
establish a separate department of exegetical theology, and to 
assign to the study of the Bible a sufficient, unrestricted place within 
the domain of theological learning. The objection that the dis- 
tinction made between the original and the derived is only relative,'^ 
bears against every classification, for every thing, as we shall see, 
is relative. Or if it be said ^ that all science is either philosophical 

* Kritik der bisherigen Encyklopaedie, in Stud. u. Krit. 1837, No. 3. 
2 Pelt, p. 7G. 3 Kienlen, p. 13. 


or historical, and that every particular science must belong to one 
of these categories, we acknowledge that the statement is correct, 
Additional rea- ^^ ^^^^ broad meaning by which exegesis itself becomes a 
sons for mak- historical science ; but if practical theology is entitled 
separate de- to a place beside historical and systematic (thetical), al- 
partment. though its very name indicates that it is neither purely 

historical nor purely j)hilosophical, we may, with equal propriety, 
assert the right of exegetical theology to a similar privilege. The 
truth is that both exegetical and practical theology are mixed 
sciences, which stand related not only to learning, but also to prac- 
tical skill (rexvT]), not only to knowledge, but also to ability ; and 
the fact that these very sciences form the boundary lines of the 
study, its beginning and end, points to the practical nature of the- 
ology as a whole, by which it is distinguished from pure science. 
If it should become necessary for purposes of observation to disclose 
the organism of theological science, as science simply, and without 
reference to practical needs, it would be proper to represent exegesis 
as merely an historical auxiliary science, as biblical exegesis is in 
fact for biblical theology,^ or patristic exegesis for the history of 
the Church and its doctrines. 

But the Protestant Church justly insists that, as a primary qualifi- 
cation, every theologian shall be thoroughly familiar with the Bible 
and be competent to deal with it, since more than all else, he is to be 
a well-grounded servant of the Word (verbi divini minister). This 
explains why special chairs of exegesis are every- where established ^ 
and exegetical lectures are delivered, even in Roman Catholic uni- 
versities, which have always been discriminated from the historical 
in the catalogues and in literature.^ The combination of the two — 
exegesis and history — is impracticable, confusing in a methodolog- 
ical point of view, and an innovation upon the ordinary usage of 
the terms in any language. The division we advocate may, aside 
from its practical utility, derive further support from the analogy 
of the distribution of the pure sciences, discussed above, where we 
have, first, the study of language and history, next philosophy, and 
finally professional culture. In the theological field, exegesis cor- 

1 Pelt., 1. c. 

2 There was even a time when, in the Reformed Church, theology was wholly resolved 
into exegesis. In Basle at least there were but two chairs of theology from the Ref- 
oi'mation down to the earlier period of the seventeenth century, viz., of Old and New 
Test, exegesis. Comp. Hagenbach, Die theol. Schule Easels u, ihre Lehrei\, 1860, 4to. 

^ Com., for example, Winer's Handbuch d. theol. Literatur. No well arranged 
library will class exegetical with historical works ; and no person will, for instance, 
place Ernesti upon the same level of merit with Mosheim. Over-keenness is eouiva- 
lent to dullness. 


responds to philology/ historical to history, systematic to philoso- 
phy, and practical to art.'^ Thus much respecting the continued use 
of the ancient " four ruts," which, though worn, should not be held 
responsible for the faults of wretched drivers. 


The greatest diversity j;revails also in the matter of arrangement. 

Everv person who is not governed by an a prioi^i preiu- 

-,. . ^. J, . . T r ^^ 1 1 Exegetical the- 

dice m lavor ot a priori modes oi thought, must see that oiogy the first 

to give the first place to systematic theology is utterly ^^ °^^®''' 
impracticable. The assertion that Church history cannot be mas- 
tered before the idea has been made clear by speculation,^ is almost 
sufficient to recall the boy in the fable who desired to wait until the 
stream should have passed by, before crossing over. On this plan 
there could be no history of the world before the world is under- 
stood ! Christianity itself would need to be mentally constructed 
before it could be examined as it appears in the Scriptures. To 
begin with dogmatics would assuredly deliver us again into the 
power of scholasticism, from whose control the human mind was 
emancipated by the Reformation. The reasons, therefore, which 
justify the assignment of a separate department to exegetical the- 
ology, justify, also, the placing of its study at the head. The the- 
ologian must begin with exegesis and first of all become acquainted 
with the foundations. Upon this principle Protestant theology 
must insist, unless it wishes to become untrue to its principles.* 

' Philology is likewise a historical science in the wide sense, and that very fact dis- 
criminates between it and mere linguistics ; but the progressive reading of an author 
will nevertheless always be considered philological rather than historical. Philologists 
and historians are likewise related, but not identical, classes of investigators. 

^ Individual qualifications likewise lead to distinct results, so that the student who 
excels in the study of languages usually becomes a good exegete, and he who has the 
historical faculty becomes a Church historian. Philosophical ability will find its 
proper field in systematic theology, and a talent for using the vernacular in artistic 
description, etc., indicates the coming preacher and liturgist. 

' Zyro, p. 694. 

* Jerome already expressed this idea in his Comm. ad Jesaiam, " Qui nescit scripturas 
nescit Dei virtutem ejusque sapientiam ; ignoratio scripturarum ignoratio Christi est." 
It may be said, perhaps, that in order to consider the Bible as attesting the faith of 
Christianity, it is essential that it be examined from the Christian point of view, and 
that therefore apologetics must be first gone over ; hence that theology as a whole 
should begin with apologetics. Regarded merely in its principles, the idea is not bad ; 
but how can apologetics be discussed without a previous acquaintance with the mate- 
rial to which it relates ? Only they who have become interested in the study of the 
Bible are capable of deriving profit from the study of apolegetics. 


The only question that remains concerns the relative positions of 
systematic and historical theology ; for it is evident that practical 
The relative theology should close the course (though Staudenmaier 
positionsofsys- places it in the middle). The precedence of system- 
historical the- atic before historical theology is advocated on the 
oiogy. ground that in point of fact Christianity possessed a 

body of doctrine from the very beginning, which, accordingly, is 
not an aggregate resulting from the entire course of historical de- 
velopment, but, on the contrary, assumed a sort of systematic form 
at an early period, as the Apostles' Creed sufficiently attests.^ It is 
also contended that the history of doctrines can only be studied 
with proper interest, when it follows upon the study of dogmatics, 
and after the nature and true meaning of a doctrine has been appre- 
hended. With regard to this question every thing depends upon a 
separation of Biblical from ecclesiastical dogmatics (infra). We 
acknowledge that the former results from exegesis, and may be suc- 
cessfully studied without a preliminary course of Church history and 
history of doctrines ; but it will appear in our discussion of system- 
atic theology that Biblical dogmatics is simply a preliminary histor- 
ical branch, and not dogmatics in the proper sense, which latter 
Reasons why assumes the existence of Church doctrines as well as 
precede ^^doi- ^^^^^ doctrines, and constitutes the consummation of 
matics. the whole. It will also be seen, in connexion with our 

treatment of the history of doctrines, that Biblical dogmatics forms 
the natural point of transition from historical to systematic theol- 
ogy. Not until the mind has developed its powers by historical 
studies, and has acquired facility in the broad philosophical man- 
agement of thought, will it be fitted to attempt the study of dog- 
matics, that demands a robust intellect. The mind that, on the 
contrary, begins the study of theology with dogmatics, may be lik- 
ened to the bird which undertakes to fly before its wings have 
All divisions of grown, or the architect who attempts the erection of a 
ogf '""Viatrve building before its foundations have been laid. But that 
only. every division is only relative, and that in every single 

branch of theological study all the others are involved,^ even as in a 

^ Fleck, in a review of Pelt's Encykl., in the Allgem. Kirchen-Zeitung. 1844. 

"^ Exegetical theology involves historical elements (introduction, archaeology), and 
also doctrinal (criticism, hermenuetics) and practical (practical exposition) ; historical 
theology embraces exegetical functions (the study of sources, exposition of ecclesias- 
tical writers) and the dogmatic compilation of both Biblical and ecclesiastical dogmat- 
ics, and likewise has outlets leading into the practical field, e. g., through Church an- 
tiquities into liturgies, or through the history of the constitution of the Church into 
ecclesiastical law. Systematic theology falls back (in its proof passages) upon exe 


well-tuned musical instrument all the related chords will resound 
when any single one is struck, are truths that cannot be too strongly- 
impressed.^ No science has either an absolute beginning or an ab- 
solute end ; and the suggestion (in § 2) that encyclopaedia should, 
in justice, occupy a double place in the theological course, will ac- 
cordingly apply to any other special study. 

The student who is familiar with systematic and practical theology, 
and perhaps even ivith the practical experiences of ministerial life, 
as well as with the lessons of personal experience, will apprehend 
the Bible in a very different light from that in which the new be- 
ginner sees its truths — this, too, though he be governed by the most 
sublime "absence of predisposition." The same observation applies 
also to Church history, the history of doctrines, etc. We are not, 
however, inclined on that account to plant theology on its head, or 
to call the branches roots, because roots may be propagated from 
them ; the true rule is, to apply designations to the departments in 
harmony with the features which predominate in them, and to apply 
the same method to the settling of the order in which they are to 
succeed each other. 

gesis, and calls into recollection the history of doctrines and sjTnbolics, besides being 
required to treat the body of doctrine in its practical bearings and by its doctrine of 
the Church to furnish a sub-basis for practical theology. The latter, finally, is wholly 
dependent upon exegesis, on history, and on doctrine. The analogy of nature, which 
in its earlier formations prefigures those of a later age, and in later stages of devel- 
opment repeats the forms of an earlier period, holds good with reference to this sub- 
ject. It would not be difficult to discover the tendency to fall into four parts in each 
of the several branches specified in the text. Each takes the hand of the other ; each 
affords an outlook into "the other ; and whenever a single branch comes to a living 
development, the others are found to be involved with it and entitled to equal 

' Without a systematic connexion of ideas and a practical judgment both exegesis 
and history must continue to be capita mortua ; while, on the other hand, systematic 
a&d practical theology would, without the others, be founded on air. 





Exegetical theology embraces every thing that relates to the in- 
terpretation and exposition of the Old and New Testa- 
exegeticai the- ment Scriptures, and therefore includes both exegesis 
oiogy. itself, considered as an art, and the auxiliary sciences 

which enable us to apply that art. Its results appear in Biblical 
theology, which may be subdivided into historical and dogmatic 
elements (sacred history and Bible doctrines). 

Exegetical theology has the Bible for its object, for which reason 
The Bible the it has been denominated Biblical theology [e. g., by 
^eticai^the^oio- P^^^)- ^he latter, however, is simply the result ob- 
gy. tained by exegetical processes, the sum total of the gains 

secured through the investigations of the student of the Scriptures. 
Exegesis, in the proper meaning of the term, is the application of a 
method (hermeneutics) to existing writings ; ' but for the execution 
of its function the aid of an additional philological and critical ap- 
paratus is necessary, which, in all its extent, is likewise included in 
the domain of exegetical theology. The results of exegesis proper 
are partly historical and partly dogmatic in their nature ; and even 
practical theology depends on it for immediate advantages (the re- 
lation of the text to the sermon). The study of the Bible cannot be 
covered by exegesis alone, for the Scriptures command the entire 
range of theological learning, and cannot, accordingly, be forced 
within the limits of a special branch for purposes of study. Exe- 
gesis is simply the key, with which to unlock the sanctuary of Bible 
truth. Every thing, however, depends upon a proper use of the 

^ '* The term 'EfT^yj^rat was primarily applied by the ancients to persons who di- 
rected the attention of curious inquirers to the outwardly remarkable features of a 
city or a temple, for which reason they were also called irepiTjyriTaL ; but more espec- 
ially to persons of higher dignity, who brought the layman into sympathy with divine 
things, and who read the signs in the heavens and the auguries in the sacrificial vic- 
tim, and also interpreted the oracles." Creuzer, Symbolik, i, p. 15. Comp. Passow's 


key, and exegetical theology is concerned to so master its peculiari- 
ties as to become able to seize upon the treasures of Biblical theol- 
ogy. The relation of exegetical to Biblical theology is, conse- 
quently, that of the journey to the destination, or of labor to its gains. 




Comp. the Art. Bibel in Ersch and Gruber's Encyklopaedie (also in a separate reprint, Leips., 
1823), and in Herzog, Encykl.— together with the corresponding articles, Bibeltext des A. u. N. T., 
Bibeliibersetzungen, etc.; *Rothe, Zur Dogmatik, art. 3, Die heil, Schrift • Holtzmann, Kanon 
u. Tradition, Ludwigsburg, 1859 ; * Herin. Schaltz, Stellung des christl. Glaubens zur heil. 
Schrift, etc., in Volksbl. f . d. Ref. Kircke d. Schweiz, 1872, Nos. 11-13. 

The Bible or the holy Scripture of Christianity (Biblia sacra, ra 
^i(3Xia -deia, legd yQa^ij, ^sia ypacj)?]) is a collection of documents re^ 
lating to religion and its history, which date from different periods 
and were written by different authors. When conceived as a unit 
comprehended under the higher designation of the word of God, 
and as concentrating its energies upon a common object in behalf 
of religion and the Church, that of giving direction to Christian 
faith and life — this collection forms the canon of the Scriptures, in 
distinction from the Apocrypha and all other writings of human 

The nature of encyclopaedia requires that it should at the begin- 
ning appropriate to itself certain elements which according to its own 
principles belong to the science of Introduction. Its object is to se- 
cure a proper appreciation of the Scriptures by the stu- Relation of en- 
dent who enters upon their study, and to point out the sci- thes?udySthe 
entific methods appropriate for his work. Sound views Bible. 
respecting the Bible itself are first of all to be secured, for the 
attainment of which a partial intrusion into the fields of apologetics 
and dogmatics will certainly become necessary, though merely in a 
general way. It is of the highest importance that both the relig- 
ious character and the historical nature of the Scriptures should 
be examined with both holy zeal and unbiassed judgment, in order 
that the reverence due the book of God may not cause its humar 
side to be overlooked, or that the many and diverse subjects discov 
ered from the human point of observation may not lead to th^ 
rejection of its Divine character. Herder, the exponent of the 
purely human has demonstrated that in one point of view the Bible 
is a human book ; and no inquirer of later times will The human 
venture to controvert this human element, which is ap- ^^q^ beacon- 
parent in the variety of authors and of dates, in the sidered. 
language, in modes of expression, etc. To this must be added the 


reflection that the Bible did not fall from the heavens in its completed 
form, but was gradually collected, and that its different component 
parts did not escape the misfortune of all the written monuments of 
ancient times, by which what was genuine became mixed with ele- 
ments not genuine, and the text in occasional instances was cor- 
rupted. This human side presents matters of great interest to 
scientific investigation ; but such investigation becomes utterly im- 
possible on the rigid theory of a verbal inspiration of the Scriptures. 
The interest taken in philological and historical questions, does 
not, however, destroy all regard for the religious and theological 
elements, for the Divine character of the Bible, which constitutes 
Tbe tie which the ground of its importance to religion and theology.* 

^i^i^^Sl^^?^ An invariable religious reference to an institution 
of the Bible to- ^ p i i • i? t 

gether. founded by God and designed for the education ot the 

^ " The Bible, when viewed in its essence, is found to present only a single body of 
truth, not, however, in the form of unvarying and formally repeated dead traditions, 
which are handed down from age to age, but as displaying the most active Hf e, since 
the different truths continually develop with the progress of time, and assume differ- 
ent aspects and a more definite character, without becoming a confused mass or com- 
ing into conflict with each other. The truth, passing through manifold forms, is un- 
folded from the germ to the fruit on a single plan of development, a series of living 
intermediate members receiving what already exists into themselves and carrying it 
forward in harmony with their own nature, and transmitting it to their successors for 
a similar treatment, until the whole is rounded into completed truth — the ripened fruit 
produced by the entire tree, which possesses the developed power of germination, in 
order to a further development in which its inborn nature shall be reproduced." Tob. 
Beck, Einl. in d. System d. christl. Lehre, p. 216. — The religious investigation of the 
Bible belongs to the sphere of faith ; and in consequence persons possessed of robust 
faith, like Luther, have always expressed the judgment respecting the Bible which 
faith is still compelled to repeat, despite every freedom from preconceived views 
which scientific inquiry may have produced. " In summa, the holy Bible is the grand- 
est and best book of God — full of comfort in every tribulation, for it teaches much of 
faith, hope, and love, that is different from what reason is able to see, feel, conceive, 
or learn. And it teaches when misfortune comes, how such virtues are to shine forth, 
and that another and eternal life lies beyond this poor, wretched life. ... I beseech and 
faithfully admonish every pious Christian not to take offence or be disturbed at the simple 
discourses and narratives found in the Bible, and not to doubt its truth, however poor 
and silly they may seem to be ; they are yet simply the word, work, history, and judg- 
ments of the exalted majesty, might, and truth of God. In this book are found the 
swaddling-cloths and manger in which Christ has lain, whither the angel also sends 
the shepherds ; they are, no doubt, poor and mean swaddling-cloths, but precious is 
the treasure, Christ, which they enfold." Similar remarks by Luther on the Bible are 
scattered through his works. Gomp. J. G. Muellei-, Theophil., p. 235, .s-^-^. The strongs 
sense of the peculiar character of the Bible and its value above all other books enter- 
tained by Goethe also, is apparent in many passages of his works. Comp. Aus meinemi 
Leben, vol. i, book 4, and Farbenlehre, ii, p. 138: "The Bible owes the great venera* 
tion, in which it has been held by many nations and generations of the earth, to its-, 
inherent value. It is not merely a national book, but the book for the nations, be- 


human race, forms the tender spiritual tie holding together the leaves 
which in their outward form are but loosely connected, and which 
if torn from the trunk of the theocracy and the historical root reach- 
ing back into the beginning of things, would cease to be what they 
are as parts of this whole. Such reference, however, is far more 
definite and apparent in one book than in another, and in some 
portions of the Scriptures seems to disappear or be( ome obscure. 
It follows, accordingly, that the Bible is still a sacred literature, 

not only as distinguished from the profane, if it be 

^11^ ^ 1 T The Bible con- 

thought proper to apply that term to all literature stitutes a sa- 

which does not come into immediate contact with the ^red literature. 
religious life, but also as distinguished from every other religious, 

cause it employs the fortunes of one nation as a symbol of all others, connects its his- 
tory with the origin of the world, and carries it through the gradations of earthly and 
spiritual development in connexion with necessary and accidental events, to the far- 
thest regions of the most distant eternity. . . . The more the centuries increase in 
culture the more will the Bible be made in part the foundation of education and in 
part an agency in its behalf, not, of course, by conceited persons, but by the truly 
wise." Comp. many extracts in Hagenbach, Leitfaden zum christl. Rel.-unterricht, 
8d ed. (Leips., 1861), p. 32, sqq. Also Bunsen, Gott in d. Geschichte, i, p. 94. " The 
narratives of this book are God's word to mankind. A word in servant's form, of 
course ; but this is true of all Divine things that pass over the earth ; it is true of the 
Deity itself, as the immutable idea of the common source of being in this world. A 
book of ruins, too ; but the ruins are pervaded by a living spirit. A book, moreover, 
of humble language ; but in words that are undying, because every human heart bears 
witness to them. A book sweeping through thousands of j^ears, full of apparent con- 
tradictions, like nature, and man, and the history of our race ; but ever young and in 
harmony with itself through the unity of the Spirit which produced it, even as crea- 
tion is a imit, with all its contrasts, and even by reason of all its contrasts. A book 
for sages and yet capable of being understood, Hke God's nature, by every child, 
namely, according to the measure of its understanding. A book written in dead lan- 
guages, and yet eternally living in the tongues of the nations." Rothe, too, has perti- 
nent remarks (zur Dogmatik), e. g., p. 225 : " It is precisely through such human and 
personal qualities that the Bible receives a freshness and chai^m that are profoundly af- 
fecting, and it is precisely this Avonderful interplay and commingling of the Divine and hu- 
man, and still more this constant interpenetration of the two, that the pious soul famil- 
iar with its qualities recognizes as the most eminent characteristic among its peculiar- 
ities." Also p. 345 : " The sacredness and all that constitutes the unique character 
of the Bible depend unalterably and altogether upon what it actually is and what it act- 
ually proves itself to be for him who approaches it in a teachable spirit, and not at all 
upon the character given it or the qualities arbitrarily assigned to it by dogmatics." 

It is not the habit of English scholars to make apology for the form in which 
Scripture conveys its truth. From the earliest years of the Reformation a reverence 
for the letter and style of the Bible, as in every way worthy of its rich contents, is 
observable in English literature. The book is familiarly described as the Great Clas- 
sic. In Bacon's Advancement of Learning this reverential tone is noticeable in every 
reference to Scripture. Barrow makes a special point of the worthiness of the form 
of the Bible for the conveyance of a divine message. In his sermon on the Excel- 


and even Christian, literature, which, being only the word of man 

as contrasted with the word of God, can only sustain a subordinate 

relation to the Scriptures. 

The latter distinction, by which sacred is discriminated from 

other reliarious literature, furnishes the p;round for the 
Apocryphal writ- ° i • i t -t ^ ■ 

lags: whysodis- Separation between the canonical and apocryphal writ- 

tinguished. -^^^ which is maintained in our Church. The Bible is 

termed the canon, and its several parts canonical books,' inasmuch 

lence of the Christian Keligion he says : " It propoundeth itself in a style and garb 
of speech, as accommodate to the general capacity of its hearers, so proper to the au- 
thority which it claimeth, becoming the majesty and sincerity of divine truth ; it ex- 
presseth itself plainly and simply, without any affectation or artifice, without osten- 
tation of wit or eloquence, such as men study to insinuate and impress their devices 
by : it also speaketh with an imperious and awful confidence, such as argueth the 
speaker satisfied both of his own wisdom and authority; that he doubteth not of what 
he saith himself, that he knoweth his hearers obliged to believe him : its words are 
not like the words of a wise man, who is wary and careful that he slip not into mis- 
take, (interposing therefore now and then his maybes and perchances,) nor like 
the words of a learned scribe, grounded on semblances of reason, and backed with 
testimonies ; nor as the words of a crafty sophister, who, by long circuits, subtile 
fetches, and sly trains of discourse, doth inveigle men to his opinion ; but like the 
words of a king, carrying with them authority and power uncontrollable, commanding 
forthwith attention, assent, and obedience ; this you are to believe, this you are to do, 
upon pain of our high displeasure, at your utmost peril be it ; your life, your salvation 
dependeth thereon : such is the style and tenor thereof, plainly such as becometh the 
sovereign Lord of all to use, when he shall please to proclaim his mind and will to 
us." Jeremy Taylor is, in the expression of this reverence, not a whit behind Barrow : 
"For the meaning of the spirit of God is not like the wind blowing from one point, 
but like light issuing from the body of the sun, it is light round about ; and in every 
word of God there is a treasure, and something will be found somewhere to answer 
every doubt, and to clear every obscurity, and to teach every truth, by which God 
intends to perfect our understanding." (Sermon on the Minister's Duty in Life and 
Doctrine.) Even Coleridge, who says of the theory of verbal inspiration that it 
changes the living organism of Holy Writ into a " colossal Memnon's head, a hollow 
passage for a voice that mocks the voices of many men," speaks impatiently of the 
spirit which disparages the human element in revelation. In his Studies on Homer, 
Mr. Gladstone suggests that it is a mistake to bring the Old Testament before the 
tribunal of mere literary criticism ; that " we can no more compare Isaiah and the 
Psalms with Homer than we can compare David's heroism with Diomed's, and that 
we shall most nearly do justice to each by observing carefully the boundary lines of 
their respective provinces." He adds: "All that is peculiar in our conception of 
Isaiah or of Jeremiah does not tend so much to make them eminent among men as to 
separate them from other men," and this may be said of all the Scripture writers. 

' Comp. H. Planck, Nonnulla de significatu canonis in eccl. antiqua ejusque serie 
recte constituenda (Gott., 1820), which contradicts the opinion of Semler and Eich- 
horn that icavcov merely denotes a catalogue of books. Comp. also Nitzsch, System 
der christl. Lehre, § 40, sq., and especially Credner, zur Gesch. des Kanons, p. 6, sgq, 
Kapuv (corresponding to Heb. flJp, a staff, reed) is equivalent to rule, measure, norm. 
Holtzmann, I. c. 


as the "Word of God," contained in the Scriptures, is regarded as 
the whole of Scripture, and, therefore, as the Divine rule of faith 
and practice. As sacred literature stands opposed to profane in the 
more extended fields, so the canonical contrasts with the apocryphal 
within narrower limits. In the ecclesiastical vocabulary such relig- 
ious writings are termed apocryphal as are considered useful and 
good, but not pervaded by the peculiar spirit of the theocracy (the 
Old Testament Apocrypha usually appended to the canon) ; ^ or such 
(like many of the ]S[ew Testament apocryphal writings) as betray a 
tendency foreign to original apostolic Christianity, or at any rate, 
are not in thorough harmony' with it, and, therefore, not received 
as canonical.^ 



The canon of the Scriptures is divided into the books of the Old 
and New Testaments {iraXaia, fcaivri dtadrJKr]).^ The Christian theo- 
logian is, in that character, to deal primarily with the New Testa- 
ment as being the immediate source of revelation for the (^ihristian theo- 
Christian religion; but he is nevertheless required to logians should 
include the Old Testament Scriptures also in the range Testament, and 
of his investigations: ^^^y- 

^ In the ancient Church the Apocrypha were known as libri ecclesiastici. They had 
been appended to the Greek version of the LXX, and came into circulation by that 
means ; but Jerome wished to have them separated from the canon, while Augustine 
advocated their retention. Upon this question the Protestants have taken sides with 
Jerome and the Roman Catholics with Augustine. The English and Scottish Churchea 
urge this distinction more than others, and insist upon its practical application. In 
recent times the question has given rise to disputes upon the Continent also. Comp. 
the writings against the Apocrypha by Ph. F. Keerl, Das Wort Gottes u. d. Apokr. des 
A. T's, Leips., 1853; J. U. Oschwald, Die Apokr. in d. Bibel, Zurich, 1853; and those 
for the Apocrypha, by E. W. Hengstenberg, Beibehaltung der Apokr., Berl., 1853, 
reprinted from the Evaug. Kirchen Zeitung; and R. Stier, Die Apokryphen, etc., 
Brunsw., 1853. Bleek furnishes a scientific and unbiassed discussion of the subject, 
in Stellung der Apokr. des A. T. im christl. Kanon, in Stud. u. Krit., 1853, 2, pp. 
267-^54. The difference should certainly be recognized in practice ; but the animos- 
ity which has in recent times contended zealously against the circulation of these 
books in connexion with the Bible, cannot be commended. 

"■'Comp. G. Brockmann, De Apocryphorum appellatione, Gryph., 1766; Gieseler, 
Was heisst Apokryphisch ? in Stud. u. Krit., 1829, No. 1, p. 141, sqq. ; de Wette, Einl. 
ins A. T., 6th ed., p. 10; Schleiermacher, § 109. 

'^ The word testamentum occurs first in TertuUian, Adv. Marc, iv, 11, who also em- 
ploys the term instrumentum. Concerning the original signification of dtad^riKij, as 
corresponding to the Heb., XT'"!!! (foedus), and the transition to the idea of "testa- 
ment" (Heb. ix, 16), see the lexicons. Knapp (of Halle) beautifully says, "We are 
to read the Testament, not like the jurist, who criticizes, but like a child that inherits." 
Comp. Eylert, Fr. Wilh., iii, p. 325. 


1. Because the monotheistic underlying principle of the New 
Testament is grounded in the Old, and its economy (plan of salva- 
tion) has its preparation in the Old Covenant. 

2. Because the modes of thought and expression found in the 
Old Testament, furnish the only key for comprehending the New. 

3. Because tlie Old Testament contains sections whose theocratic 
and ideally religious character gives them immediate didactic and 
edifying value for the Christian, and possesses for him all the au- 
thority of Divine revelation. 

Opinions have always been divided with regard to the relation 
Different views ^^ ^he Old Testament to *the New and the value of the 
of the value of former to the Christian. The Judaizing^ (Ebionitish) 

the Old Testa- c? \ / 

ment to the tendency was opposed by certain Gnostics (Marcionites), 
Church. while the Manichaeans rejected the Old Testament; and 

in the period of the Reformation a zealous opposition to the Law 
was manifested by the Antinomians, though this movement was re- 
pressed. Renewed attention to the Hebrew language served, on 
the contrary, to greatly encourage the study of the Old Testa- 
ment, and the theology and Church government of the Reformed 
Church especially assumed an Old Testament character. In the 
end, oriental and rabbinical learning threatened to overshadow and 
smother all other learning. The Socinians, on the contrary, dis- 
tinguished between the Old and New Testaments so far as to con- 
sider the latter alone as in any proper sense the source of revelation; 
and they were followed by a number of rationalists in the last cen- 
tury.^ Other rationalists, however, evinced a strong preference for 
the Old Testament, which arose from their Ebionitic point of view. 
They preferred to select texts from the book of Proverbs rather 
than from the writings of Paul; and they rated the morality of the 
apocryphal book of Wisdom as high as that of Jesus Christ. But 
many strictly orthodox persons likewise devoted themselves prefer- 
ably to the Old Testament, and especially to its typical sections, 
because they found it more congenial to their dispositions to appre- 
hend " Christ in the Old Testament " throuo^h the obscure medium 
of types, than in the Ncav, as there presented in clear conceptions 
schieiermach- adapted to the human mind. The course of Schleier- 
ofthe^SdTes^ macher, who, in opposition to such extreme ten- 
tament. dencies, assigned to the Old Testament a position so 

^ Thiess, for instance, (in his Anleitung zur Amtsberedsamkeit der Religionslehrer des 19 
Jahrhunderts, p. 139), asserts that " for the teacher of religion the entire Old Testament 
is composed of apocryphal books, from which he may hardly venture to borrow a few 
pages " ( ! ) ; and Sintenis, in Theol. Briefe (Part I) recommended that *' the entire Old 
Testament be cashiered without mercy " ( ! ). Comp. August!, Dogmengeschichte, p. 193. 


subordinate, as to barely recognize in it the accidental soil in 
which Christianity is rooted, is, as his followers acknowledge,^ 
simply another extreme founded on a misapprehension of the pe- 
culiar character of the Covenant ; but it is historically explicable. 
The religion of salvation is contained in the Old Testament in 
the form of prophecy (in the wide meaning of the term), though 
it is apparently bound to the religion of law ; aod Luther in 
his time would not limit the Gospel idea to the letter of the New 
Testament, but traced it backward through the prophecies of the 
Old.^ More recent theology, since the time of Schleiermacher, has 
made undeniable progress in this direction, though the relation be- 
tween prophecy and fulfillment is not always clear, and many things 
may be shrouded in the gloom of that magical twilight in which a 
certain school finds so much pleasure.^ 

It must be conceded in any event that New Testament modes of 
thought and expression are inexplicable without the The form of 
study of the Old, and that an immense number of pas- ^ifou-Sfdertved 
sages in the former are taken from the latter and refer from the ow. 
back to it, even though the inquiry be pushed no further than the 
external relations existing between the two. Such passages cannot 
be isolated and torn from their proper connexion, but must be ex- 
amined and comprehended in combination with the whole to which 
they belong. But in addition to the peculiar relation sustained by 
the Old Testament to the New, there is contained in it so much of 
a general and religious nature, in a human point of view (the relig- 
ious contemplation of nature, patriotism, ethical wisdom), that this 
quality alone possesses a sufficient charm to invite to the diligent 
study of its pages. The idea of a Divine training of humanity, 
the training of a nation that it may become the chosen people of 
God, is so grand and peculiar, as compared with any thing af- 

* See Scliweizer, Ref. Glaubenslehre, p, 95 ; Pelt, Encyk., p. 129. 

' The relation between the Old and New Testaments has been variously determined 
by recent theologians, Nitzsch's view (System of Christ. Doct., p. 79) is that the 
New Testament is related to the Old as " completion is to preparation, the removal of 
barriers to limitation, the immediate to the mediate." W. Hoffmann, Die gottliche 
Stufenordnimg im Alten Test., Berlin, 1854, p. Y: "In comparison with heathenism 
the Old Testament possesses a strong consciousness of victory, but it approaches the 
coming Christianity with a humiliating consciousness of imperfection." 

^ Comp. J. Ch. K. Hoffmann, Weissagung u. Erfiillung im Alten u. Neuen Test., 
Nordlingen, 1841-44, 2 vols., and the review of Ebrard in Tholuck's Lit. Anzeiger, 
1843, Nos. 16-18. On Old Testament prophetism see the articles by Gueder and 
Oehler in Herzog's Encykl, vol. xii ; A. E. Biedermann, Die Propheten des alten Bundes, 
in Zeitstimmen aus d. ref. Schweiz, 1860; Tholuck, Die Propheten u. ihre Weissa- 
gungen, Gotha, 1860. In opposition to errors in this field, see Herm. Hupfeld, Die 
heutige theosoph. oder mythologische Theologie u. Schrifterklarung, Berlin, 1861. 


forded by the other religions of antiquity, that the study of the Old 
Testament becomes one of the highest and most profitable tasks of 
science in a general religious and historical point of view. 

Furthermore, the connexion between the Old Testament and the 
New is vital, for the New Testament has its roots in the Old. It 
is one kingdom of God which is the subject of the history in both. 
In expressing penitence, joy, and faith, the Psalms touch the deep- 
est depths of Christian feeling, and the prophecies of Isaiah are by 
anticipation evangelical. The Bible can never be rightly studied 
unless the two Testaments are comprehended in their unity and 
harmony. If the Old Testament is in the 'New in fulfillment, the 
New is in the Old in promise. There is force in the thought of 
Archbishop Trench that in a just and reasonable sense all the Old 
Testament is prophetic, " that the subtle threads of prophecy are 
woven through every part of the texture, not separable from thence 
without rending and destroying the vfhole. All the Old Testament 
is the record of a divine constitution, pointing to something higher 
than itself, administered by men who were ever looking beyond them- 
selves to a Greater that should come ; who were uttering, as the Spirit 
stirred them, the deepest longings of their souls after his appear- 
ing, is prophetic; and this not by an arbitrary ai^pointment, which 
meant thus to supply evidences ready to hand for the truth of Reve- 
lation, in the curious tallying of the Old with the New, but prophetic 
according to the inmost necessities of the case, which would not suif er 
it to be otherwise." ^ 



The Old Testament embraces the documents relating to the his- 
contents of the ^ory of the Hebrew nation and religion, "down to a 
Old Testament, certain period." The books of which it is composed 
are generally divided into historical, prophetical, and poetical; but 
the division cannot be strictly applied to details. 

The Jews divided the sacred books (ty^pn ^dd lyipn "303) into the 

Usual Jewish Law (niio), the Prophets (d'X'3j), and the Hagiographa 

division of the . ^ -^ ' '• 

books. (D'31D3}. ihe prophets are subdivided into earlier 

(D'jr^kS'i) and later (Q'jrinx). The former class included the histor- 
ical books, beginning with Joshua and ending with Kings; while 
the latter Avas again subdivided into greater (Isaiah, Jeremiah, and 
Ezekiel) and lesser prophets, the latter forming a separate book. 
The Hagiographa included Psalms, Proverbs, Job, Canticles, Ruth, 
Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, Esther, Daniel, Ezra, Nehemiah, and 
^ Hulsean Lecture for 1845 ; pp. 85, 86. 


Chronicles. The inconvenient character of this mode of arranging 
and naming is apparent ; ^ and the more recent method of division, 
in which the Alexandrian Jews led the way, and which r^jj^ Aiexan- 
classiiied the different books as theocratic-historical, the- cirian ciassm- 
ocratically inspired (prophets), and didactic and poeti- oid Testament 
cal, is therefore to be preferred. It should be remem- books. 
bered that such a division can, in view of the entire structure of the 
Bible, be only relative, inasmuch as history and doctrine,^ poetry 
and prose,^ are combined in manifold ways in a majority of its 
books. It is for this very reason that the study of the Bible, and 
of the Old Testament in particular, becomes so stimulating and 
profitable, as to demonstrate that the Scriptures are no dry and 
formally completed system, but a beautiful variegated garden of 
God, in which the most diverse trees, herbs, shrubs, and flowers 
grow and give forth their fragrance; and above this diversity 
hovers, as above the waters on creation's morn, the spirit, peculiar 
to the Bible, of theophany and theocracy. A definite physiognomy 
looks out upon us from the theophanies, a holy, majestic, and per- 
sonal will speaks in the law and the prophecies; in the first instance, 
the physiognomy and will of a national God, no doubt, but still of 
a God who will tolerate no other gods besides, and who, exalted 
above all limitation, is sacredly and divinely conscious of possessing 
eternally creative power and universal dominion over the world. * 

^ A deeper reason for it may, however, be discovered ; comp. W. Hoffmann, Gottliche 
Stufenordnung im A. T., p. 30, on which, p. 6, the author truly and beautifully observes : 
" The Torah, the law or doctrine generally, which is the text and root of all teaching and 
learning in matters pertaining to salvation before the time of Christ, constitutes the 
foundation of the old covenant, the wonderful, massive substructure, upon which is 
grounded the graceful, rich columnar forest of the pi^ophets, with its glorious and bold or- 
naments of sacred poetry, which ornaments are fruit-bearing in their turn. It (the To- 
rah) is the instituting of the true religion, the most ancient revelation in a human form." 
Bunsen likewise insists, in his Bibelwerk, that the ancient divisions should be retained. 

^ " It is apparent to all that in the two sections of this important work (the Old and 
New Testaments) the historical and the doctrinal elements are intimately combined in 
such a way that one aids and supplements the other, as perhaps in no other book." 
Goethe, 1. c. 

' It is assuredly a delicate thread that passes through the Old and New Testament 
Scriptures, and especially through sections in which image and reality, history and 
poetry, come into contact. Rude hands are rarely able to follow, and much less un- 
ravel it, without tearing or entangling — without harming either the poetry or the his- 
tory, which are spun by it into a Avhole." Herder, Theophron (Werke zur Rel, u. 
Theol, X, p. 222, sq.). 

** A more unjustifiable statement has probably never been made, than that the Old 
Testament God is simply an extra-mundane, abstract God. The very reverse is true. 
Nothing can be more concrete than the determinate God of Abraham, Isaac, and 
Jacob. Bahr (Symbolik, i, p. 9) is consequently correct when he says, " The underly- 


The leading object of the Old Testament, that of revelation, does 
The leading Ob- ^^^ appear from isolated passages, but from the whole 
ject of the Old of its development; and the present age, because of its 

Testament vis- . „ . . . ^ . „ . 

ibie throughout niania tor mvestigating separate portions oi the canon- 
its contents, ica^i Scriptures, is less capable than its predecessor of 
obtaining a comprehensive view of the Divine plan for educating 
the race, such as was still possible to Lessing, Hess, Herder, Ha- 
mann, and Kleuker, though from different points of view. It 
is to be hoped, however, that the constructive spirit of a coming 
age may, assisted by such preparatory critical labours, be able to 
erect the edifice of Old Testament theology with a more certain 
hand and in a purer style than was possible to that earlier period 
with its more limited historical horizon.^ But for an understand- 
ing of the Old Testament a knowledge of the New is necessary, in 
like manner as, on the other hand, the study of the former is impor- 
tant for the exposition of the latter (comp. sect. 2) ; and since it is 
evident, as a general truth, that " the peculiar character of a people 
can only be clearly recognized in the closing and crowning period 
of its history," it follows that " Jesus Christ is to the understanding 
of Israelitish history what Caesar Augustus is to the Roman." '^ 



While the Old Testament covers a period embracing thousands 
The New Test- ^^ years, the new is limited to a generation of men. 
ament covers The Old is concerned with the training of a single na- 
generation of tion into the character of God's people ; while the latter 
"^"i- treats of the unique personality of Jesus Christ as the 

ing idea peculiar to Mosaism is precisely this, that Jehovah has connected himself 
with Israel, and is not separate from the world and inaccessible, but lives and walks 
among his people ; and every person who in true earnestness of soul has uttered the 
Psalmist's cry, ' Whom have I in heaven but thee ? ' etc., knows also that the Lord is 
no abstract being, but a most concrete God, and no philosophy will be able to destroy 
the conclusion he has reached." 

^ A similar hope is expressed by Ebrard in his inaugural, Die Gottmenschlichkeit 
des Christenthums (Zurich, 1844), p. 17, Avhere he declares it to be one of the leading 
tasks of the theology of our day " to follow out the Divinely human character of Old 
Testament revelation in the spirit of the immortal Herder." 

"^ See Hofmann, Weissagung u. Erflilling, i, p. 54. Comp. Havernick, Vorlesungen 
liber Theol. d. A. T., p. 18, " The statement may be truthfully made that Christ is the 
central feature of the Old Testament, as being the earthly manifestation of personal, 
concrete justice and love ; but the distinction must not be overlooked that in the Old 
Testament Christ is not immediately presented, but indirectly, by means of occasional 
symbols, actions, and words. Nor can the Old Testament be understood without 
Christ, Such an attempt will end in reducing it from its proper elevation ; it becomes 
a body without a head, disintegrating and destroying itself." 


Son of God, and of the institution of a society founded on that 

The habit of confining the attention wholly to the connexion be- 
tween the Old and New Testaments, as though they The difference 
were simply the two volumes of a single book, the ^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ 

the two Testa- 
Bible, has led to many erroneous conclusions.' The ments. 

inquirer who desires merely quantity and variety of matter, will 
certainly derive greater satisfaction from the Old Testament than 
the New; for it will ever continue to be an important historical 
book, a chronicle of the world and its nations, even to persons 
who misapprehend its peculiar religious purpose. The New Testa- 
ment is not of this character. Its vision embraces but few nations 
in its range, and is limited to Palestine, Asia Minor, Greece, and 
Rome; and the student who desires information relating to those 
nations or countries is able to consult authorities of a wholly dif- 
ferent kind. Every thing in it relates to the manifestation of a 
single and wholly unique personality,'' and it offers but little to a 
mind that lacks interest in this subject. No prominence is given 
to great external events, for even the miracles, with few excep- 
tions, are of a mild and unimposing character ; but, next to the 
person of the Redeemer himself, it is human characters that en- 
gage the attention, and more especially with reference to a defi- 
nite relation sustained by them to Christ.^ The inner man, with 
his capabilities and needs, with his subjection to sin and error — 
from which he is to be delivered by an act of Divine love — the 
Divine love itself, no longer directed upon a chosen nation, but, in 
a human person, upon the entire race; the entrance of the Infinite 
into the finite conditions of human life, which is conditioned by 
the circumstances of nationality and time indeed, but none the less 
is superior to such limitations; the might of a new spirit, which,, 
entering upon the arena of human history, transforms both nature 
and conditions; the gathering of a community professing faith in 

^ Comp. the remark by Tholuck, cited in sect. 2 of this chap., note. 

^ " The pecuharities of form and contents of the New Testament become clearly 
apparent when it is compared with these collections of sacred books (the Old Testament 
and the Koran), The religious idea and the historical fact are here combined in the 
single phenomenon of tlie entrance of the Deity into hmna^i life. All the parts are 
collected about a common centre, the historical manifestation of God in Christ. But 
this unity is again resolved into a rich diversity of points of view, from which the doc- 
trine is illustrated, of historical characters, whose moral beauty does not conceal the 
stamp of individuality, and of histoi'ical situations, which serve to illustrate the appli- 
cation of Christian ideas to human life." Clausen, Hermeneutik, p. 28. 

^ The Old Testament has, not improperly, been compared to the Iliad, and the New. 
to the Odvssev. 


the crucified and risen Jesus; the regeneration of individuals into 
the likeness of God, and of nations into an (ideal) people and king- 
dom of God — these form the kernel and the contents of the Gospel 

The substance of the proclamation is presented under the two 
forms of history and doctrine, to which prophecy is appended, 
Subdivisions of ^^^^^^ affording an analogy with the Old Testament, in 
the New Testa- which a similar distinction between historical, prophet- 
doctrine, and ical, and didactic books has been observed ; but this 
prophecy. analogy will not hold good in all respects. The dis- 

tinction between historical and didactic books is likewise faulty 
when applied to details. The statement that the Gospels and 
the book of Acts form the historical, the Pauline and the gen- 
eral epistles the didactic, and the Apocalypse the prophetical part, 
must be modified by the consideration that didactic elements are 
contained in the historical books of the New Testament (the dis- 
courses of Jesus in the synoptical Gospels ' and John), that histor- 
ical matter is found in the epistles (Gal. ii; 1 Cor. xi, 23-25; xv, 
3-9, etc.), and that prophecies occur both in the Gospels (Matt, 
xxiv) and the epistles (1 Thess. v, 1, etc.). 

Questions relating to the collection of the New Testament 
canon belong to the province of Introduction; but it is to be 
observed, for the purpose of guarding against the adoption of 
The Gospel at partial views, that the Gospel was at first proclaimed 
oSiiy"^- after- altogether by living agents and by means of oral 
wards written, address ; that the introduction of writing was due 
to the necessity of corresponding with distant Churches and in- 
dividuals, and that it is by reason of the references in them to 
communities and individuals that the New Testament writings 
acquire a peculiar interest, which, however, is speedily dissipated 
by the application of over-hasty dogmatizing principles to their in- 
terpretation;^ that the transmission of historical facts by oral tra- 

'■ Matthew, Mark, and Luke, so called because their modes of presenting the sub- 
ject, though different, yet resemble each other in admitting of a ready synopsis, while 
the fourth Gospel pursues an independent method. 

^ " An examination of these (New Testament) writings will reveal a feature in which 
they differ from all other books that are accounted sacred. No trace of a formal and 
solemnly declared revelation by God is indicated by their form, nor, with the single 
exception of the Apocalypse, do they claim to have been written at the direct com- 
mand of God, which is the case in the Old Testament with the writings of Moses and 
the prophets. The sacred books of other religions, e. g.^ the Koran, likewise claim to 
be Divine revelations immediately given from heaven. Had it been intended to make 
such a book the basis of the Christian commonwealth, no person would have possessed 
more absolute qualification and authority to compose it than Jesus Christ himself ; but 


dition preceded their circulation in a written form; that the agree- 
ments and disagreements of the different records with each other 
are founded in the circumstances of their origin, and must be ex- 
plained in harmony with human reason and by scientific methods; 
and finally, that the several books composing the New Testament 
were not all admitted to the canon and comprehended The New Test- 
into a whole at the same time, but that they were ^^^^^ *^^!^°^ 

' ^ _ -^ not formed at 

gradually received (evayyeXiov^ dTrocrroAo^), opinion be- onetime. 

ing in the meantime Undecided with regard to the canonicity of 
certain of them {avriXeyofieva). While admitting such facts, how- 
ever, it must not be supposed on the other hand, that the canon is 
simply an accidental aggregation. It is rather to be regarded as 
necessarily determined by its own internal character and so received 
by the Church, and as carrying a great idea through the whole of 
its empirical form, so that the beginning and the end are linked to- 
gether like the ends of a chain, Genesis opening with the beginning 
of all things and the Apocalypse closing with the end of the world. 
The structure of the canon must be examined with an independent 
spirit rather than with a mind controlled by any pedantic method; 
a principle that should be applied also to the (not chronological) 
arrangement of the Prophets and Epistles, and to the seemingly 
abrupt transitions from one book to another.' 



Exegetical theology requires, as necessary aids : — 

1. A knowledge of the original languages of the Scriptures (phi- 
loloffia sacra) ; ^^, « ., 

2. An acquaintance with the sciences which deal with iary sciences. 

he has not done this. He has chosen instead to deposit with a number of living per- 
sons the life which he was empowered to convey ; and these persons were likewise not 
commissioned nor did they assume to give a written documentary form to the subject 
they were to announce to men. They confined themselves to the living word in the 
effort to gather a people, among whom that word should become power, life, and real- 
ity. The force of circumstances afterward led them to make use of writing, and even 
then it was because special conditions and occurrences required attention which could 
not be given in person, because the distance between the parties prevented other than 
written intercourse," etc. Chr. Hoffmann, Das Christenthum in d. ersten Jahrhun- 
derten (Stuttgart, 1853), p. 194. Comp. H. Schultz, p. 54. 

* The artistic mind of Herder discovered the right principle, here as elsewhere. " I 
cannot express the value at which I rate several of the most sharply contrasting books, 
all of which are placed together. The three books of Solomon following after the 
Psalms, the Psalms after Job, love's tender dove after the bird of wisdom, and in imme- 
diate succession Isaiah, the eagle, mounting upward to the sun. Here is instruction, 
here is human life." Solomo's Lieder der Liebe (Werke zur Rel. u. Theol., vii, p. 102). 


facts that come into question (Biblical antiquities, geography, phyS' 
ica sacra) ; 

3. A knowledge of the origin and fortunes of the canon and its 
parts (Isagogics, Canon). 

To these positive, historical, and philological sciences must be 
joined an acquaintance : — 

1. With the laws which determine the canonicity and authentic- 
ity of a book as a whole, and also the perfect preservation of the 
text in its several parts (integrity) — the science of criticism. 

2. With the rules of interpretation — hermeneutics. 

The above order of arrangement is founded in methodological 
reasons. It may be thought that Introduction should 
order of succes- properly precede all else ; but practice in reading the 
^^°^' Scriptures, involving a knowledge of the languages in 

which they were written, is necessary to success in the study of that 
branch. A knowledge of physical and historical facts is also re- 
quired, even though it be limited, at first, to such archaeological 
notes as the lexicons afford, and its full development into a scientific 
character be reserved for a later stage, in connexion with the study 
of historical theology. Lectures on Introduction having reference 
to the canon as a whole, will possess a proper 'interest only for 
students who have become familiar with separate books of the 
Bible, in the way of philological and archaeological study ; and 
a thorough comprehension of the laws of Criticism and Hermeneu- 
tics is possible to him only who has, to some extent, been engaged 
in the work of interpretation. 



The Old Testament Scriptures were originally written in the He- 
brew language, with the exception of a few sections which were 
written in Chaldee. The New Testament Scriptures were written 
in Hellenistic Greek. 

Chaldee sections, Dan. ii, 4 to the end of vii ; Ezra iv, 8 ; vi, 18 ; 
vii, 12-26 ; Jer. x, 11.^ 

It may be regarded as generally conceded that the Greek, and 
not the Aramaean, as Bolten and Bertholdt argued, is the original 
language of the New Testament ; but opinions are still divided 
on the question of the original form of the Gospel by St. 

' Concerning the Biblical Chaldee comp. L. Hirzel, De Chaldaismi Biblici origine, etc., 
Leips., 1830, 4to. ; F. Dietrich, De Sermonis Chaldaici proprietate, Leips., 1839. 




J. J. Wagner, Wlchtigkeit d. Heb. Sprache fur Theologen, Bamb. and Wiirzburg, 1806; 
W. M. L. de Wette, Aufforderung zum. Stud, der Hebr. Spr. u. Literatur, Jena, 1806; W. M.' 
Thomson, The Physical Basis of Our Spiritual Language, Bib. Sacra., vol. xxix, pp. l-2ii, 
and vol. xxx, pp. 25-127; G. H. Whittemore, Hebrew Language and Lexicography, Bib. Sacra.! 
vol. xxix, pp. 547-553; Articles on Hebrev^' Language in Kltto's and M'Clintock & Strong's 

A knowledge of the Hebrew language is indispensable to the 

theologian, not only for the study of the Old Testament, but also 

for the New : The necessity 

1. Because the New Testament idiom is partially of a knowledge 

^ "^ of Hebrew and 

based on that language. the reasons. 

2. Because much that is there given in the Greek was original- 
ly conceived and expressed in the kindred Aramaean dialect, and 
accordingly derives its colouring, in different degrees, from that 

On the word " Hebrew " (whether derived from "tn;*, the ancestor 
of Abraham), see the introductions to the grammars of Gesenius 
and Ewald. The phrase " Hebrew language " is not found in the 
Old Test., the "language of Canaan," Isa. xix, 18, and "Jews' lan- 
guage," Isa. xxxvi, 11, 13, being used instead. The latter expres- 
sion, however, denotes more particularly the Hebrew dialect spoken 
in the kingdom of Judah and in the vicinity of Jerusalem. The 
New Testament has the expressions y^cjooa rcbv '^ElSpatcov and kfipa- 
iari, John v, 2 ; xix, 13, but as designating the Aramaic vernacular, 
in distinction from the Greek. 

The Hebrew language possesses a peculiar interest for the pur- 
poses of pure knowledge alone ; but it engages the at- characteristics 
tention of the philologist only as it is a member of of Hebrew. 
the larger family of languages known as the Semitic.^ The for- 

^ This term has come into use since the days of Schlozer and Eichhorn, as 
being mere thoroughly descriptive than Jerome's phrase, "the Oriental languages." 
The latter embraces the entire East, while the Semitic languages are indigenous to 
hither Asia, and confined to Palestine, Syria, Phoenicia, Mesopotamia, Babylonia, Ara- 
bia, and Ethiopia. They are divided into three principal branches, 1. The Aramaean 
(Syria, Mesopotamia, and Babylonia), subdivided into West and East Aramaic (Syriac 
and Chaldee) ; 2. The Hebrew (Palestine and Phoenicia) from which the Punic was 
derived ; 3. The Arabic, with Avhich the Ethiopic is a cognate branch. The Samaritan 
was a mixture of Hebrew and Aramaean. It has been found, however, that the term 
Semitic is likewise neither sufficiently exact nor exhaustive (comp. Gesenius, Gesch. 
d. Hebr. Sprache u. Schrift, p. 5), and some writers {e. g., Havernick, Einl., i, 1, p. 93) 
have again adopted the temn "Oriental." Recent authors have suggested that "hith- 
er-Asiatic " or " Syro- Arabic " be substituted for either, to designate this family of 
languages. J. G. Miiller (wer suid die Semiten u, mit welchem Recht spriclit man von 


mation and character of this language, so essentially unlike Greek 
and Latin, its being written from right to left, its wealth in 
guttural letters, the facts that, strictly speaking, it has but three 
leading vowels, and that the root- word is usually a verb and is al- 
most invariably composed of three consonants, its peculiar modes of 
conjugation, of forming cases, etc., and its simple syntax, are feat- 
ures which impart to it a special charm,* but also to some extent, 
increase its difficult character. A knowledge of Hebrew is conceded 
to be necessary for the interpretation of the Old Testament ; but it 
is likewise indispensable to the exegesis of the ISTew, for the reasons: 
A k Id 1. That entire sections (citations) from the Old Testament 
of Hebrew in- can only be properly understood after being compared 
toe^eSgSs of with the original ; 2. That the :N"ew Testament itself, to 
the New Testa- use Luther's expression, " is full of the Hebrew mode of 
speaking; " ^ that though the number of assumed Hebra- 
isms has been greatly reduced since Winer's thorough investiga- 
tions, the significations of ISTew Testament words and their combina- 
tions are largely to be explained from the Hebrew (e. g., the words 
(TCLQ^, Kagdia, airXdyxvcb, orrXayx'^^i'^sfydat , (jTrepiwa, and the phrases npoGO)- 
7Z0V Xaiilidveiv ^ Trgoaconov Trpo^ nQoaconov, evojniov rov Oeov^ etc.) ; 3. That 
expressions in the discourses of our Lord, as given in the Greek text 
of the Gospels, need to be translated back into the Aramaean dialect 
then current among that people, in order to be correctly understood — 
a principle that is not sufficiently regarded, the ordinary method in 
New Testament exegesis being to ascertain simply the Greek ety- 
mon. It appears from the above that a knowledge of Hebrew is 

Semit. Sprachen? Basle, 1860, 4to.) returns to the expression, "language of Canaan," 
and accordingly regards the Hebrew as a Hamitic language ; but he observes that 
"however evident the matter may be, the term Semitic has become too thoroughly 
established in the learned and cultivated world to be easily set aside." 

' " Injucundum videtur idioma latino fastui et graecanicae eifeminationi, sed idioma 
est et sanctum et sacris Uteris necessarium maxime, cujus ignoratio multas haereses et 
errores invexit." Oecolampadius Hedioni (Epp. Oecol. et Zwinglii, Basle, 1536, sq.) 
fol. 172. "The Hebrew language is full of the soul's breath; it does not resound, 
like the Greek, but it breathes, it lives." Herder, Geist, d. hebr. Poesie, i, p. 28. 
With reference to the relation of the Semitic languages to those of the Indo-Ger- 
manic (Aryan) nations, see Bertheau, p. 613, and also with regard to their relation to 
the later, so-called rabbinical, HebrcAv. 

^ "It has therefore been justly said that the Hebrews drink at the fountainhead, 
the Greeks from the streamlets that issue from the fountain, but the Latins from the 
puddles. The Hebrew is the best and purest language ; it does not beg, and wears its 
own colours. It is more simple, indeed, than others, but majestic and glorious, direct 
and of few words, which, however, involve much that is below the surface ; so that 
none other is capable of imitating it." Comp. Herder's Briefe das Stud, der TheoL 
betreffend, iv, p. 144. 


an indispensable qualification for the theologian ; but it does not 
follow, as certain of the older writers imagined, that a good He- 
braist must necessarily be a good theologian.' The terminology of 
Christianity is clearly not confined within the limits of the Hebrew 
tongue ; and as Christianity itself has grown beyond the Old Testa- 
ment Judaism, so it has developed a new language for its own use, 
and has infused a new spirit into Hebraistic forms, which a defunct 
Hebraism cannot explain, for which the Hebrew simply affords a 
basis, and which must be wholly apprehended from its own idea. 



The older theology held that the Hebrew was the primitive 

language, the sacred language employed by God and The study ot 

the angjels, which existed alone until others were added ^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ 
o ' ^ ^ several ages of 

in the confusion of tongues at Babel. ^ Recent in- the church, 
quiries have shown that the Hebrew language was not perfected 
before the time of David, and have given rise to different opin- 
ions concerning the language of the Canaanitish and Phoenician 
tribes that occupied Palestine before the immigration of the 
Abrahamidae. The importance of the Hebrew language for the 
Christian theologian, so generally conceded in our day, was not 
always recognized. The primitive Christians generally made use 
of versions, particularly the Alexandrian by the LXX. Origen and 
Jerome (the latter especially) were distinguished for their knowledge 
of Hebrew, while Augustine was deficient in this regard. During 
the middle ages Hebrew was almost wholly neglected by Christians ; 
though a learned acquaintance with the language was preserved to 
some extent, after it ceased to be a spoken tongue, among the Jews 
(Talmudists, Masorites). The school of Tiberias was especially 
famous ; and Jerome among others, was instructed by Palestinian 
Jews. The Alexandrians, however, devoted less atten- ^^ ^^_ 

tion to the ancient language of their people (Philo). Be- brew in the 
tween the eighth and ninth centuries grammatical stud- ° 

ies were greatly neglected by the Jews likewise, until they were 
revived by the Spanish Jews (in the time of the Moorish suprem- 

* While Luther strongly recommends the study of the Hebrew, he yet writes (against 
Erasmus, who prided himself on his knowledge of languages), " Vides, quod non ideo 
quispiam sit Christianus vere sapiens, quia Graecus sit et Hebraeus, quando et beatus; 
Hieronymus quinque Unguis monoglosson Augustinum non adaequarit " — to J. Lange, 
in de Wette, Briefe, Sendschreiben, etc., i. No. 29, p. 52. 

^ This view has been defended in recent times by Father Hy. Gossler, in Die heil. 
Schrift in ihrer Ursprache (Lippstadt, 1850). The author asserts that "no accurate 
Hebrew grammar can be found outside the (Roman Catholic) Church ! " — ^P. 16. 


acy). The twelfth century produced a number of prominent rab- 
bins, among others David Kimchi. 

The knowledge of Hebrew among Christians was renewed by the 
aid of Jewish teachers. At the close of the fifteenth and the begin- 
ning of the sixteenth centuries Elias Levita, by birth a German Jew, 
was teaching in Italy, where his doctrine of the modern origin of 
the vowel signs in Hebrew drew upon him persecution from his co-re- 
ligionists, though Christians also regarded his teaching as heretical. 
Such prejudices were not favourable to impartial grammatical stud- 
ies. The renewed study of Hebrew in the Christian world, however, 
with which the Reformation is (partially) involved, is closely con- 
nected with the so-called renaissance of learning. Nicholas Lyra, 
in the fourteenth century, applied his limited knowledge of He- 
R-uchiin the ^^'^^ *^ *^^ interpretation of the Scriptures ; but the 
restorer of He- proper impulse was given by Reuchlin, who must be 
brew learning. ^Q^sidered the restorer of the study of Hebrew among 
Christians. His three books De Rudimentis Hebraicis, prefaced by 
the Exegi monumentum aere perennius of Horace, appeared in the 
year 1506. He was followed by J. Boschenstein, Seb. Mtinster (f in 
1552), the two Buxtorfs. John B., the elder, professor at Basle from 
1591, (f 1629,) wrote a Thesaurus linguae sacrae, a grammar, 1605, and 
a lexicon Hebr. et Chald., Basle, 1607 ; John B., the younger, (f 1666), 
disputed on the age of the vowel-signs at Saumur with Louis Capel- 
lus. They were succeeded by Drusius (f 1616), Schickard (f 1635), 
Glassius (f 1656), Yorstius (f 1676). In the middle of the seven- 
teenth century the method of the demonstrative philosophy, corre- 
sponding to the scholastic temper of the time, came into promi- 
nence, being represented more especially by Danz (1696) in Ger- 
many and by Jac. Alting (f 1679) in the Netherlands. A new influ- 
ence was exerted by Albert Schultens at Franecker and Leyden 
(t 1750), who consulted the Arabic and traced Hebrew words back to 
Arabic roots, but carried the method to excess. About the mid- 
dle of the eighteenth century J. D. Michaelis prosecuted the 
study of Oriental languages over a broader field and aroused an 
interest in others also for such pursuits. Gesenius (f 1842), hav- 
ing been preceded by Hezel (1777), Vater (1797-1814) and Weck- 
lierlin (1797, sqq.)^ was the first to adopt a settled and clear method, 
which still has decided adherents, though a more systematic mode, 
based on the nature of the language and complete in itself, has been 
attempted particularly by Ewald. This latter scholar has brought 
to the study of Hebrew philosophical analysis, and a wide compar- 
ison of kindred languages. 

The first great English lexicographer of Hebrew and its cognate 


languages was Edmund Castell. He published his Lexicon Hepta- 
glotton in two volumes folio, London, 1669. A Hebrew, Chaldee, 
and English Lexicon was published (London, 1840) by Samuel Lee, 
Professor of Arabic in the University of Cambridge. This import- 
ant work is quoted with approbation by Gesenius. The Hebrew 
Lexicon of Gesenius has been translated into English and repub- 
lished in England and America. The edition by Dr. Robinson 
(Boston, 1836, and subsequently) is considered "the best full He- 
brew Lexicon extant in our language." The compendious Hebrew 
and Chaldee Lexicon of Davies has been revised and republished 
by Dr. Edward C. Mitchell, of Chicago (Andover, 1859). Fiirst's 
Ilebraisches und Chaldaisches Handworterbuch iiber das Alte Testa- 
ment has been edited in English by Dr. S. Davidson (London, 1867). 
Professor Moses Stuart, of Andover, Mass., published in 1821 a He- 
brew grammar, with a copious Syntax and Praxis (Andover, octavo). 
Isaac Nordheimer, Professor of Hebrew in the University of New 
York, published a Hebrew Grammar distinguished for its philo- 
sophical treatment of the subject (1838, 1842, 2 vols., 8vo). Pro- 
fessor Lee is also the author of a Grammar of the Hebrew Lan- 
guage (London, 3d ed., 1841). The Hebrew Grammar of Horwitz 
(London, 1835) is well approved by scholars. The Hebrew Gram- 
mar of Gesenius, on the basis of the revisions of Rodiger, Kautzsch, 
and Davies, has been issued by Dr. Edward C. Mitchell (Andover, 
1880). Professor W. H. Green, of Princeton, is the author of an 
excellent Hebrew Grammar (3d ed.. New York, 1876). Compare: 

A. Th. Hartmann, Linguistische Einleitung in das Studium der Biicher des A. T> 
Bremen, 1817. 

W. Gesenius, Geschichte der Hebr. Sprache und Schiift. Lpz., 1815. 

See also the Introductions to the Old Testament, (e. g., de Wette, §§ 30-33, and the 

literature there given.) 

(G.) H. (A.) Ewald, kritische Grammatik der hebr. Sprache. S. 1 ff. 

Hoffmann in Allg. Encyklopadie. Abth. II. Thl. 3. 

Havernick, Einleitung in's A. T. I. 1. Cap. 2 : Geschichte der Grundsprachen des 
A. T. English edition (Edinburgh), pp. 81-221. 

Kiel, Einleitung in die Schriften des A. T. S. 13 ff., treats of the literature of the 
Old Testament considered with regard to its progressive development and charac- 
ter, and also to its language. 

1. Hebrew Orammars} 

W. Gesenius, Hebr. Grammatik. Halle, 1813. Latest ed. (by Rodiger,) Lpz., 1872. 

Ausfiihrliches grammatisch-kritisches Lehrgebaude der Hebr. Sprache mit Ver- 

gleichung der verwandten Dialekte. Lpz., 1817. 

1 Older works by Seb. Munster (1532), F. Buxtorf (1695, and often reprinted), J. A. Danz (1096), 
A. Schultens (1737), J. D. Michaelis (1745), F. W. Hezel (1777). Later works by J. S. Vater (1797, 
1814), J. F. Weckherlln (Stuttg., Bd. I, 1797, 1798, 1818 ; Ed. II, 1805, 1819), M. Hartmann (1798, 
1819), R. Hanno, (1825, 1828), Bockel (1825), UMemann, 1827). 


H. Ewald, Kritische Grammatik der Hebr. Sprache. Lpz., 1827. Complete textbook. 
Grammatik der Hebr. Sprache des A. T. in vollstandiger Kiirze neu bearbeitet. 

Lpz., 1828; 6. Aufl. 1855. (Gott., 1870.) The 7th ed. is entitled Ausfuhrliches 

Lehrbuch der Hebr. Sprache des A. Bundes. 

-Hebr. Sprachlehre fiir Antanger. 3. Aufl. Gott., 1862. 

R. Stier, Neugeordnetes, Lehrgebaude der Hebr. Sprache. Lpz., 1833. 2 Parts. 

D. G. W. Freitag, Kurzgef. Grammatik der Hebr. Sprache fiir den Schul- und Uni- 

versitatsgebrauch. Halle, 1835. 
Preiswerk, Grammaire Hebraique. Geneve, 1838. 8. 
H. Hupfeld, Ausfiihrl. Hebr. Grammatik. 1. Thl. Cassel, 1841. 
Lib. Stengel, Hebr. Grammatik. Karlsruhe, 1841. 
J. Hymann, Anfangsgriinde der Hebr. Sprache. Frankf. a. M., 1852. Also in French, 

Paris, 1852. 
H. Goldstein, Hebr. Sprachschiiler. Ratib., 1853. 
J. B. Lobositz, Aus der Hebr. Grammatik. Prag., 1853. 
C. H. Bosen, Anleitung zum Erlernen der Hebr. Sprache. 8. Aufl. Freiburg i. B., 

G. Bickell, Grundriss der Hebraischen Grammatik. 2 Parts. Lpz., 1869-70. 
C. H. Clauss, Werth des Hebr. Unterrichts fiir das Gymnasium. Dresd., 1853. 

A. Miiller, Hebr. Schulgrammatik. Halle, 1878. 

B. Stade, Lehrb. der Hebr. Grammatik. 1 Th. Lpz., 1879. 

A. Berliner, Beitrage zur Hebr. Gram, in Talmud u. Midrasch. Berl., 1879. 

2. Elementary Textbooks. 

* W. Gesenius, Hebr. Lesebuch. Halle, 1814. Latest (10th) ed. (by Heiligstedt). 

Lpz., 1873. 
S. W. Wirthgen, Materialien zur praktischen Einiibung der Hebraischen Sprache. 

Lpz., 1825. 
J. F. Bottcher, Hebraisches Elementarbuch fur Schulen. Dresd., 1826. 
G. Briickner, Hebraisches Lesebuch fiir Anfanger und Geiibtere. Lpz., 1844. 3. Aufl. 

G. H. Seffer, Elementarbuch der Hebraischen Sprache. Lpz., 1845. 3. Aufl., 1861. 

C. Schwarz, Hebr. Lesebuch mit Beziehung auf Ewald's Hebr. Sprachlehre fiir An- 

fanger. Lpz., 1847. 
H. Leeser, Hebr. Uebungsbuch. Coesfeld, 1853. 
C. L. Fr. Mezger, Hebraisches Uebungsbuch fiir Anfanger. Lpz., 1855; 3. Aufl., 

Stier, Hebraisches Yocabularium zum Schulgebrauch. Lpz., 1859. 
W. A. Hollenberg, Hebr. Schulbuch. 3. Aufl., Berlin, 1873. 
Schick, Hebraisches Uebungsbuch. 1. Thl. Die Formenlehre. Lpz., 1861. 

3. Lexico7is} 

* W. Gesenius, Hebraisch-deutsches Handworterbuch iiber die Schriften des A. T. mit 
Einschluss der Chald. Worter. Lpz., 1810-12. 2 Bde. 

Hebr. und Chaldaisches Handworterbuch iiber das A. T. Lpz., 1815. 7. Aufl. 

V. F. E. C. Dietrich. 1868. 
Lexicon manuale Hebr. et Chald. in Y. T. libros. Post edit. germ, tertiam Lat- 

ine elaboravit, etc. Lips., 1833; ed. alt. ab A. Th. Hoffmanno recogn., 1847. 

» Older works by J. Buxtnrf (1607, 1654), J. Coccejus (1669, 1774), J. Ch. Wolf, (1707), Stock 
(1727), Simonis (1752), CastelU (1784). 


* G. B. Winer, Simonis lexicon manuale Hebr. et Chald. Eichhornii curas denuo casti- 

gavit, etc. Lips., 1828. 
Orelli, Die Hebraischen Synonyma der Zeit und Ewigkeit. Lpz., 1871. 
Ryssel, Die Synonyma des Wahren und Guten in den Semitischen Sprachen. Lpz., 


1. Hebrew Grammars and Chrestomathies. 

Ball, C. J. The Merchant Taylor's Hebrew Grammar. The Formal Principles of 

Hebrew Grammar, as uudex'stood by modern Scientists, stated iu a manner suited 

to beginners. 8vo. London, 1882. 
Bowman, T. A New, Easy, and Complete Hebrew Course. Parti. Edinburgh. 
Craik, Heury. Principia Hebraica. The Principles of Hebrew Grammar. In 24 

large folio Tables. Folio. London, 1882. 
Crawford, F. J. Horas Hebraicae. 16mo, pp. 191. London, 1868. (Hebrew prefixes.) 
Davidson, Prof. Introductory Hebrew Grammar. 4th ed., 8vo, pp. viii,l 98. Edinb., 1 880. 
Deutsch, Solomon. A Key to the Pentateuch Explanatory of the Text and the Gram- 
matical Forms. Parti. Genesis. 8\'0. New York, 1871. 
A New Practical Hebrew Grammar, with Hebrew-English, and English-Hebrew 

Exercises, and a Hebrew Chrestomathy. 8vo. New York, 1868. 
Ewald, Heinrich. Introductory Hebrew Grammar. Translated by J. F. Smith. 8vo, 

pp. 279. London, 1870. 
Syntax of the Hebrew Language of the Old Testament. From the 8th German 

ed. 8vo, pp. viii, 823. Edinburgh, 1879. 
Gesenius, William. Hebrew Grammar, Translated by Benjamin Davis, LL.D., from 

Roediger's ed., thoroughly Revised and Enlarged, on the Basis of the Latest ed. 

of Prof, E. Kautzsch, D.D., and from other recent authorities, by Edward C. 

Mitchell, D.D. 8vo, pp. xxxiii, 423. Andover, 1880. 
Green,W. H. Elementary Hebrew Grammar. 12mo, pp. viii, 194. 2d rev. ed. N.Y, 1872. 
Kalisch, M. M. A Hebrew Grammar with Exercises. In two Parts. 8vo, pp. xv, 

374, and xvi, 324. London, 1862-3. 
Leathes, Stanley. Practical Hebrew Grammar, with the Hebrew Text of Genesis i-vi, 

and Psalms i-vi. Grammatical Analysis and Vocabulary. Post 8vo, London, 1868. 
Mitchell, Alexander. The Book of Jonah. Analyzed, Translated, and the Accents 

named ; being an Easy Introduction to the Hebrew Language. 8vo. London, 1882. 
Mitchell, E. C. A Concise Statement of the Principles of Hebrew Grammar. For 

the Use of Teachers. 8vo, paper. Andover. 
Nordheimer, Isaac. A Critical Grammar of the Hebrew Language. 2 vols., 8vo, pp. 

212, 379. New York, 1842. 
Strong, James. Epitome of Hebrew Grammar. 8vo, pp.- 80. Published by the 

Author, at Madison, N. J., 1875. 
Stuart, Moses. Course of Hebrew Study for Beginners. Vol. II. Bds. Andover, 1830. 
The Study of the Hebrew Vowel Points. Parts I, II. A series of Exercises in very 

large Hebrew type, printed upon writing paper, with space between the lines for 

the addition in manuscript of Vowel Points and Accents. 4to. London, 1882. 
Tregelles, S. P. The Heads of the Hebrew Grammar. 8vo, pp. viii, 126. London, 1852. 

Hebrew Reading Lessons. 8vo, pp. vi, 70. London. 

Vibbert, W. H. A Guide to Reading the Hebrew Texts ; for the Use of Beginners. 

12mo, pp. viii, 67. Andover, 1852. 
Wolf, J. R. A Practical Hebrew Grammar. 8vo, pp. xiv, 204. London, 1852. 


2, Hebrew Lexicons. 
Davies, Benjamin. A Compendious and Complete Hebrew and Chaldee Lexicon to 

the Old Testament ; with an English-Hebrew Index. Carefully revised by E. C. 

Mitchell. 8vo, pp. xxxii, 752. Andover, 1879. 
Davidson, B. The Analytical Hebrew and Chaldee Lexicon, consisting of an Alpha- 
betical Arrangement of every Word and Inflection contained in the Old Testament 

Scriptures, precisely as they occur in the Sacred Text. 2d ed., 4to, pp. 877. 

Fuerst, Julius. A Hebrew and Chaldee Lexicon to the Old Testament. 3d ed. 

Improved and Enlarged. Translated by Samuel Davidson, D.D. Royal 8vo, pp. 

1547. London, 1867. Improved and enlarged, 1871. 
Gesenius, Wilham. Hebrew Lexicon. Translated and edited with Additions and 

Corrections, by S. P. Tregelles, 4to. London, 1846-52. 
A Hebrew and English Lexicon to the Old Testament, including the Biblical 

Chaldee. Translated by Edward Robinson. 20th ed., 8vo, pp. ix, 1160. New York. 
Potter, Jos. L. An English-Hebrew Lexicon, being a complete Verbal Index to 

Gesenius's Hebrew Lexicon, as Translated by Prof. Edward Robinson. 8vo, 

Boston, 1872. 
Wilson, William. An English H(;brew and Chaldee Lexicon and Concordance, by 

Reference to the Original Hebrew. 2d ed. Carefully revised. 4to. London, 



A familiar acquaintance with other Semitic languages is neces- 
sary for a learned examination of the Hebrew, and for the exposi- 
tion of certain parts of the Old Testament, and is useful in many- 
respects to the ]!^ew Testament exegete and the scientific theologian; 
but it cannot be required that every Christian theologian, as such, 
should possess it to its full extent. 

On the importance of treating the Hebrew in connexion with 
A knowledge Other Semitic dialects compare the preceding section, 
of the Chaldee, At this point, however, scientific philology must serve 
able useful to t^ie purposes of theology ; and for such purposes a thor- 
the theologian, ough acquaintance with the Hebrew, as facilitated by 
the lexical and grammatical labors of other minds, is fully adequate.^ 
There always will and must be individuals whose inclinations and 
talents will urge them onward in the path of inquiry ; but here 
again " one thing will not do for all," and it is certainly more 
desirable that a definite knowledge of the Hebrew be secured, than 
that too many studies be engaged in at the same time. The chief 
interest for Old Testament exegesis attaches to the Chaldee, which, 
liowever, has been incorporated with Hebrew lexicology (by Ge- 

^ The Christian theologian cannot choose otherwise than to make Christianity the 
central object of his studies. This is historically rooted in the East (though we 
should scarcely term it a purely Oriental phenomenon) ; but its true home and life- 
development have been found in the West. 


senilis), in so far as it enters into the language of the Bible. The 
Syriac is useful for the study of the Syriac version (the Peshito), 
and also for New Testament exegesis, besides being an available 
help for the Church historian (conip. Ecclesiastical philology, infrci). 
This applies also to the Arabic, aside from its philological value for 
comparison with the Hebrew, In this way, however, the circle 
might be infinitely extended, for it cannot be denied that, on the 
one hand the Rabbinical, on the other the Oriental languages in their 
further manifestations through the Indian (Sanscrit and Prakrit), 
the Old Persic (Zend-language), the Chinese, etc., will also yield 
fruit which possesses value. Our concern is, however, primarily 
with what may be justly required, and this is and must continue to 
be the Hebrew,^ together with the language of the New Testament 




E, Reuss, articles Hellenisten und Hellenistisches Idiom in Herzog's Encykl., v, p. 701, sgg. 
While an acquaintance with Hebrew is requisite for the study of 
the Old Testament and also of the New, it is yet not sufficient, even 

^ Comp. Sehleiermacher, Dai'stellung, etc., § 131. With i-egard to the necessary 
aids for the study of the Chaldee, Syriac, and Arabic comp. Dauz, Encykl., p. 184-190, 
and Winer, Handbuch der theol, Lit. p. 124, sq. (2 ed., 1838-40; 3d ed., 1842). Val- 
uable aids for the study of the Syriac are, the grammars by Uhlemann (Berlin, 1829, 
2d ed., 1857) and A. G. Hoffmann (Halle, 1827; revised ed. by A. Merx, ibid., 1867), 
and the chrestomathies by Roediger (Halle, 1838) and Kirsch (publ. by Bernstein, 
Leips., 1836-41); for the Samaritan, Uhlemann (Leips., 1837); for the Chaldee, Bux- 
torf (Lexicon chald., etc., Leips., 1866), Levy (Chald. Worterbuch, 2 parts, Leips., 
1867-68), Winer, Grammatik (2d ed., Leips., 1842) and Lesebnch (1825, 2d ed., 1864), 
Jul. Fuerst, (Leips., 1835, 2d ed., 1864), Luzzatto (Elementi grammaticali, Padova, 
1865, German by Kriiger, Breslau, 1873), and the chrestomathy by Kaerle, 1852 ; for 
the Arabic, Tychsen (Gott., 1823), Ewald (Leips., 1831 and 1833), Schier (Gramraaire 
Arabe, Paris, 1849), C. P. Caspari (Leips., 1859), Freytag's Arabic-Latin Lexicon 
abridged ed. for beginners, (Halle, 1837, 4to.) and the chrestomathies by Kosegarten 
(Leips., 1828) and Arnold (Halle, 1853); for the Phoenician, Schroder, Die Phonicische 
Sprache (Halle, 1869); for the Coptic, the grammars by Schwartz (1850) and Uhle- 
mann (Leips., 1853.) On the Semitic languages generally see Ernst Renan, Histoire 
generale et systeme compare des langues Semitiques, Paris, 1855, 2d ed., 1863, vol. i. 

Other works are: Longfield, Litroduction to Chaldee (London, 1859); Riggs, Man- 
ual of the Chaldee Language (Xew York, 1858); Davidson, Anahi;ical Hebrew and 
Chaldee Lexicon (London and New York) ; Uhleman. Svriac Grammar, translated by 
Hutchinson (New York); Henderson, Syriac Lexicon to the Ne^v Testament (London 
and New York) ; Nichols, Samaritan Grammar, (London and New York) ; Catafego, 
Arabic Dictionary (London and New York) ; Wright, Arabic Grammar (London and 
New York). All of Bagster's Elementary Arabic, Chaldee, Samaritan, and Syriac 
books are useful. 


when supplementing a knowledge of classical Greek, to meet the 
demands of the New Testament exegete, whose work requires in ad- 
dition that attention should be given to the elements of language 
which mediate between the two and upon which the phraseology of 
the New Testament is based. 

The New Testament was written in Greek ; but it is now gener- 
The language ally conceded that the language of its authors is not pure 
Testament^not ^^^^k in either a lexical or grammatical view.^ This, 
pure Greek. however, is merely a negative statement ; and the mere 
collecting of Hebrew fragments yields no profitable result. The 
recognition of the Hebraistic character of the language of the New 
Testament would naturally cause many expressions, such as a '* con- 
suming fire," a " child of death," etc., to be explained as Hebraisms, 
which occur in all languages as figurative forms of speech. The 
essential thing required is that the transition from the Hebrew to 
the Greek (from the Oriental to the Occidental) mode of thought 
and speech be clearly apprehended, a subject which directs attention 
to the Alexandrian period as being the point of transition between 
The New Tes- the East and the West. The ordinary Greek {kolvtj) 
baTeTon'^tiS ^^ ^^® ^^^^^' periods forms the basis of New Testament 
later Greek. idiom, which, however, receives a peculiar colouring 
from the admixture of Jewish-Hellenistic elements, for which 
reason it will be found profitable to study especially the Alex- 
andrian version of the Old Testament (the LXX), the Apocrypha, 
Philo, and Josephus, in addition to authors who employ the common 
dialect (Polybius, Plutarch, Artemidorus). It is to be remembered, 
however, that as the New Testament opened a new spiritual world 
to view, it was also obliged to create a specifically Christian lan- 
guage, and that many expressions (e. g., eiQ7]V7j vyZv, etc.) possessed 
a larger and deeper meaning in the Christian than in the ordinary 
usage. Three elements are consequently to be distinguished in the 
language of the New Testament,'^ the Greek, the Jewish, and the 

* Simple as this matter is, an erroneous conception of the doctrine of inspiration 
has led to much controversy, concerning which see Morus. Acroas. herm. T. I. ; Winer, 
Grammatik, § 1. " The presumption of a former age that no imperfection can be 
acknowledged in the New Testament language because the Scriptures came forth from 
the Holy Ghost, has, itself being false, led to the adoption of erroneous maxims which 
unhappily still exist and exert their influence." Schleiermacher, Hermeneut., p. 131. 
Examples of such influence are afterward given. The work by Joachim Jungius on 
the original language of the N, T. (163 Y, republished by Geffeken in 1863) affords a 
recent illustration. 

^ " The Hellenistic idiom in the Jewish period and sphere bore the character of a slav- 
ish translation ; in the Christian it became independent and entered into the formation 
of a language, without on that account renouncing its nativity." Reuss, 1. c. 


Christian (comp. the first paragraphs of de Wette's Einleitung and 
Schleiermacher's Hermeneutik, p. 27). A different meaning, too, 
was acquired by Greek words in the New Testament, from that 
whicli attached to them in the classical lana:uaa:e, e. a., ^, 

c* o ' «^ ' New meaning 
Ta7^ei^'o0poc^l;v7/,A^^m^7^^y,which the ancient Grecian would given in tim 
understand to signify baseness of disposition (comp. furrent^ Greek 
raireivocppovelv in Arrian's Epict.), and the petition in words. 
the Lord's prayer, a0ef rjixlv rd bipeiXriiia^a r}ii(bv (Matt, vi, 12), 
which he would regard as a request for the remission of a pecuniary 
debt. The language of the ISTew Testament varies, moreover, with 
the different writers. Some Hebraize more than others New Testa- 

— Luke and the author of the Epistle to the Hebrews least ""^^^ ^^^®^ 
„ -, ^ .,. . - varies with the 

of all — some possess greater facility m the use of the cur- writers. 

rent Greek (St. Paul) than others (Peter and James), and in the 

specifically Christian field each of them employed a class of words 

which harmonized with his own modes of thought (Xoyog, ^G}rj, (pibq 

with St. John, mang, diKaLoovvr), x^Qf-^ with St. Paul, ntarLc: with St. 

James, in a meaning different from that of St. Paul, etc.). Such 

differences, furthermore, are not confined to the lexical department ; 

the grammatical form, both in etymology and syntax, also varies in 

many respects from the classical forms, e. g., Luke xxiv, 15, eyevero 

kv TO) bpitXelv avTovg Kal ov^rjrelv, where the Greek would require 

the genitive absolute, or Luke xx, 11, ngooe^ero 7TEii'{l)ai, [rhwh nDv) 

T T : ' .. ' 

for ttclXlv e7r€jLti/;ev, etc. The use of the prepositions ey, e/<;, Kara, is 
a further illustration (e. g., 6l etc marecog, for ol marevovTeg, etc.). 

Brief Historical Sketch. 

The first to bring together the grammatical peculiarities of New 
Testament diction was the philologist Solomon Glas- History of the 

sius (f 1656) of Jena, in his Philologia sacra. Cas- exposition of 

character of 
per Wyss, Professor of Greek at Zurich (fl659), NewTestament 

followed with his Dialectologia sacra (1650), in which ^^^ek. 
still greater attention was bestowed on the peculiarities of the 
New Testament. George Pasor, Professor of Greek at Franecker 
(f 1697), published a small lexicon of the New Testament, and 
left a grammar which was published by his son, Matthias, pro- 
fessor at Groningen. Pasor continued to be the standard during 
an extended period, in which only isolated attempts at observation 
were made. Ph. H. Haab attempted to provide a suitable work 
in his Hebr.-griechisch. Grammatik f, das N. T., Ttib., 1815, but 
without success. Winer established New Testament grammar on 
scientific principles, and elevated it to the rank of a theological 


and philological science, since when praiseworthy researches, in- 
cluding special branches, have been made. A translation of Winer 
was made from the first edition by Professors Stuart and Robinson 
(Andover, 1825). A translation of the seventh edition revised by 
Ltineman has also been issued by Professor J. Henry Thayer (An- 
dover, 1869). The same American editor has prepared a revised 
translation of Alexander Buttman's Grammar of New Testament 
Greek (Andover, 1873). Thomas Sheldon Green is the author of 
a brief Grammar of the New Testament (London, 1862). Profes- 
sor Stuart, of Andover, prepared a Grammar of the New Testa- 
ment Dialect which is deserving of honorable mention (Andover ; 
also in Clark's Biblical Cabinet, Edinburgh, 1835). Planck's Sa- 
cred Philology and Interpretation was translated by Professor 
Samuel H. Turner, of the Protestant Episcopal Seminary, of New 
York (republished in Clark's Biblical Cabinet, Edinburgh, 1834). 
iDr. Edward Robinson's Greek and English Lexicon of the New 
Testament, originally based on Wahl's Clavis, but recast and made 
an original work, carefully traces the differences between classical 
and New Testament usage. But most valuable for the student 
is Cremer's Biblico-Theological Lexicon of New Testament Greek 
(3d English ed., Edinburgh, 1880). It traces the words which 
are distinctive of the New Testament from the classics to the Sep- 
tuagint, and thence on " till they reach the fullness of New Testa- 
ment thought." 

1. Grammars of New Testament Language. 
* B. G. Winer, Grammatik des Neutestamentlichen Sprachidioms, als sichere Grund- 
lage der Neutestamentlichen Exegese. Lpz., 1822. 7. ed. v. G. Liinemann 1867, 
J. C. W. Alt, Grammatica linguae Graecae, qua N. T. scriptores usi sunt. Halae 1829. 
f J. Th. Beelen, Grammatica Graecitatis N. T. Lovanii. 1857. 
Alex. Buttmann, Grammatik des Neutestamentlichen Sprachgebrauchs, in Anschluss 

an Ph. Buttmanns griechische Grammatik bearbeitet. Berlin, 1859. 
S. C. Schirlitz, die Hellenistischen, besonders Alexandrinischen und sonst schwierigen 
Verbalformen im griechischen N. Testamente. For schools and private study. Ar- 
ranged in alphabetical order, and grammatically elucidated. Erfurt, 1852. 

Grundziige der Neutestamentlichen Gracitat. Nach den besten Quellen fiir 

Studirende der Theologie u. Philologie. Giessen, 1861. 
Anleitung zur Kenntniss der Neutestamentlichen Grundsprache, zugleich als 

Griechische Neutestamentliche Schulgrammatik fiir Gymnasien. Erfurt, 1863. 
C. H. Lipsius, Grammatische Untersuchungen, iiber die biblische Gracitat, herausge- 
geben von R. A. Lipsius. Lpz., 1863. 

2. Concordances and Lexicons.^ 
Erasmi Schmidii, Tafjuelov tuv ttj^ KatvTJc Sia^fjKTjc Affewv s. concordantiae omnium 
vocum N. T. (Viteb., 1638); new ed. by E. S. Cyprian (Goth., 1717), and Glasg., 

* Older works by G. Pasor (1631, 173.5), stock (1725, 1752), Mintert (1728), Simonis (1762), J. F. 
Fischer (Proluss., etc. 1772), Kypke (Vocab. Lips., 1795). 


1819; latest ed. ('-nunc sec. eritiees et hermeneutices nostrae aetatis rationes 

emendatae, auctae, meliore ordiae dispositae") by C. H. Bruder. Lips., 1853. 

2 partt., 4. ed. 3. Lips., 186Y. 
Schmoller, Tafitelov T?jg naivrjc ^tad^riKrjc eyxetpLdiov, od. Handconcordanz zum Griech- 

ischen N. Testament (548 S. 16), Stuttg., ]869. 
Chr. Schoettgen. Novum Lexicon graeco-lat. in N. T. Post J. T. Krebs., ree. aux. 

G. L. Spohn. Hal., 1819. 
J. F. Schleusner, Nov. Lex. gr.-lat. in N. T. Lips., 1792, (1801, 1808,) 1819. 2 voll 

* Chr. Abr. Wahl, Clavis K T. philologica usibus scholarum et juvenum theologiae 

studiosorum accommodata. Lips., 1822, 1843. 2 voll. 

* C. G. Bretschneider, Lexicon manuale gr.-lat. in libros N. T. Lips., 1824. Edit. 3. 

Ch. G. Wilke, Lexicon graeco-latinum in libros N. T. Dresdae, 1839, 1840. 2 voll. 

Edit. 2., ibid., 1850. 
S. C. Schirlitz, Griechisch-deutsches Worterbuch zum N. T. Giessen, 1851. 2 ed., 

1858. 3 ed., ibid., 1868. 
E. F. Dalmer, Lexicon breve graeco-latinum ad voces et vocabula librorum N. T. ex- 

plicanda concinnatum. Gothae, 1859. 
Ch. G. Wilkii, Clavis N. T. philologica usibus scholarum et juvenum theologiae studi- 
osorum accommodata. Quern librum ita castigavit et emendavit, ut novum opus 

haberi possit, C. L. W. Grimm. Lips., 1862-1868. 
H. Cremer, Biblisch-theologisches Worterbuch der Neutestamentlichen Gracitat. 

Gotha, 1866 ; 2d ed., 1872. 

3. Othej- Philological Helps for Explaining the New Testament 
J. Vorst, De Hebraismis N. T. commentarius, cur. J. I'. Fischer. Lips., 1778. 
Lamb. Bos, Exercitatt. philologicae, in quibus N. T. loca nonnulla ex profanis auctori- 

bus illustrantur. Franeq., 1700, 1713. 
J. Alberti, Observatt. philol.-crit. in sacros N. T. libros. Lugd., 1714. 
G. D. Kypke, Observatt. sacrae in N. T. libros. Vratisl., 1755. 2 voll. 
G. Raphel, Annotatt. in K T. ex Xenoph. (Ham., 1709), Polybio et Arriano (ibid., 1715) 

et Herodoto (Luneb., 1731) collectae ; nunc in unum corpus redactae. Lugd., Bat., 

1747. 2 voll. 
Jac. Eisner, Obss. sacrae in N. T. libros. Traj. ad Rhen., 1 728. 
E. Palairet, Observatt. phil.-crit. in sacros N. T. libros. Lugd., Bat., 1752. 
K. H. Lange, Spec. obss. philol. in N. T. ex Luciano potissimum et Dion. Halic. Lub., 

Csp. F. Munthe, Obss. philologicae in sacros N. T. libros ex Diodoro Siculo collectae. 

Hafn. et Lips., 1755. 
J. B. Ott, Excerpta ex Flav. Josepho ad N. T. illustr. cura Havercamp. Lugd., Bat., 

C. F. Loesner, Obss. ad N. T. e Philone Alexandrino. Lips., 1777. 
A. F. Kuehn, Spicil. Loesn. obss. ad N. T. e Philone. Lips., 1785. 
J. T. Krebs, Obss. in N. T. e Flavio Josepho. Lips., 1755. 
K. L. Bauer, Philologia Thucydideo-Paulina. Hal., 1773. 
C. G. Kuinoel, Observatt. ad N. T. ex libris apocr. N. T. Lips., 1794. 

Other matter of this sort taken from Plutarch by v. Seelen (1719); from Polyb. by 
Kirchmaier (1725); from Aristophanes by Eckhard (1733); from Euripides by Lange 
(1734); from Diog. Laert. by Richter (1739); from Theocritus, Bion, and Moschus, by 
Porschberger (1744); from Callimachus by Peucer (1751); from Musaeus by Ade- 
lung (1756); from Homer by Bellermann (1785). 


On the method as a whole : — 
K. B. Hauff, iiber den Gebrauch Griech. Profanscribenten zur Erlauterung des N. T. 

Lpz., 1706. 
C. G. Gersdorf, Beitrage zur Sprachcharakteristik der neutestaraentlichen Schrift 

steller. Bd. 1. Lpz., 1816. 
J. D. Schulze, Der Schriftstellerische Charakter und Werth des Petrus, Judas, und 

Jacobus. Weissenf., 1802. Lpz., 1811. 
Der schriftstellerische Charakter und Werth des Johannes. Weissenf., 1803. 

Lpz., 1811. 
Wilke, Die neutestamentliche Rhetorik. Ein Seitenstiick zur Grammatik des neutes- 

tamentl. Sprachidioms. Dresden u, Leipzig, 1843. 
Lasonder, De linguae Paulinae idiomate. 2. Partt. Traj. ad Rhen., 1866. 


1. Greek Grammars. 
Buttniann, Alexander. A Grammar of the New Testament Greek, with numerous 

Additions and Corrections by the Author. By J. H. Thayer. 8vo, pp, xvi, 474. 

Andover, 1873. 
Greek Students' Manual, The, containing : I. A Practical Guide' to the Greek Testa- 
ment. IT. The New Testament, Greek and English. III. A Greek and English 

Lexicon to the New Testament. F'cap, 8vo, pp. 676. London, 1868. 
Greek New Testament, Hand-Book to the Grammar of, with Yocabularj and the 

chief New Testament Synonymes. 8vo. London. 
Green, T. S. A Grammar of the New Testament Dialect. 8vo, pp. viii, 244. 

Jelf, W. E. A Grammar of the Greek Langua,ge, 3d ed., enlarged and improved. 

2 vols., 8vo, pp. 517, 700. Oxford, 1861. 
Middleton, Thos. F. The Doctrine of the Greek Article, applied to the Criticism 

and Illustration of the New Testament. New ed., 8vo. London, 1855. 
Stuart, Moses. A Grammar of the New Testament Dialect. 8vo, pp, 312. Andover, 

Trollope, William. A Greek Grammar to the New Testament, and to the Common 

or Hellenic Diction of the Later Greek Writers. 8vo, pp. 257. London, 1841. 
Winer, George Benedict. A Grammar of the Idiom of the New Testament. 7th 

ed., enlarged and improved by Gottlieb Llinemann. Revised and authorized 

translation. 8vo, pp. xviii, 728. Andover, 1877. 

2. Greek Lexicons. 

Analytical Greek Lexicon to the New Testament, The. 4to, pp. 490. London, 1868 ; 
also New York. 

An Etymological Vocabulary of all the words in the Greek New Testament. 8vo, pp. 
224. London, 1882. 

A Practical Guide to the Greek New Testament. Designed for those who have no 
knowledge of the Greek language. Svo. London, 1882. 

Cremer, Hermann. Biblico-Theological Lexicon of the New Testament Greek. Trans- 
lated from the 2d German ed. 4to, pp. viii, 603. Edinburgh, 1878. 3d En- 
ghsh ed., 1880. 

Greenfield's Greek Lexicon to the New Testament. Svo. London, 1882. 

Robinson, Edward. A Greek and English Lexicon to the New Testament. New ed., 
royal 8vo, pp. xii, 804. New York, 1878. 


Schleusner, J. F. Novus Thesaurus Philologico-Criticus, sive Lexicon in LXX, et 
Reliquos Interpretes Graecos, ac Scriptores Apocryphos Veteris Testament!, etc. 
2 vols., 8vo. Glasguae, 1824. 

Sophocles, E. A, A Greek Lexicon of the Roman and Byzantine Periods. From 
B. C. 146 to A. D. 1100. 4to, pp. 1202. Boston, 18Y0. 

3. Greek Si/nonymes. 
Synonymes of the New Testament, and Disquisitions on Various Grammatical and 

Philological Subjects. By John Aug. Henry Tittmann, D.D. Edinburgh, 1837. 
Trench, R. C. Synonymes of the New Testament. 12mo, pp. 250. New York, 1854. 

2d part, 12mo, pp. 214, 1866. 9th ed., 8vo, pp. xxx, 405. London, 1880. 
Webster, William, Syntax and Synonymes of the Greek Testament. 8vo. London, 




Comp. Schleiermacher, § 140, sqq. ; Herzog, Encykl., i, p, 411. 

A knowledge of the historical, physical, geographical, statistical, 

and politico-economical conditions under which a work 

^ ... , The scope of 

was written, is the indispensable means for any expla- Biblical archse- 

nation of its matter intended to be at all exhaustive, in ^ ^^^' 
like manner as grammatical proficiency is necessary for the inter- 
pretation of its language. For this reason the range of Biblical 
studies includes a scientific investigation of the history of the Jew- 
ish people and their relations to other nations, the constitution of 
their State, their politico-economical and ecclesiastical arrangements, 
etc., the geography of Palestine and other Eastern countries as well 
as of all countries referred to in the Bible, and the natural products 
of these regions, together with the corresponding industries and the 
manner of life and the customs of their inhabitants. All of this is 
comprehended under the vague title of Biblical archseology — a 
branch which is, in one point of view, preparatory to exegesis, but 
in another results from exegesis. 

It may be held that the science of language is itself a branch of 
archaeology ; for it certainly belongs to archaeology to 
ascertain the spoken and written language of a people, ch^oiogy too 
In an inverse direction archaeology must be included in '^^^™^'- 
the domain of language, inasmuch as the lexicon is obliged to explain 
a multitude of terms by means of archaeological and geographical 
inquiries (proper names, technical terms, e. g., '7nN, nni, \:^D, nnjD, 

etc.). Strictly speaking, however, the term archaeology is too nar- 
row, because matters relating to physical geography and natural 
history (physica sacra), with all else of a similar nature, are not 
included in archaeological inquiry. The manners and customs 


of the East liave, moreover, undergone so little change in many 
respects, that descriptions of travel in our own day frequently 
throw light upon statements of the Bible ; and this feature likewise 
cannot be assigned to the departmentof historical archaeology but 
must be classed with statistical and ethnographical knowledge.' 

Biblical archaeology, on the other hand, includes more than Jew- 
Archaeoiogyin- ish and Hebrew antiquities. It cannot even be restrict- 
tiaf ' Hebrew ^^ ^^ ^^^ researches to the East alone, especially as re- 
antiquities, gards the New Testament, for whose exposition it is 
necessary that "the historical apparatus should embrace aknowledo-e 
of the spiritual and civil conditions of all the regions in and for 
which the New Testament Scriptures were comp'osed." ' This in- 
volves a thorough familiarity with the state of the Roman world 
from Augustus to Domitian, and of the state of the Jewish people 
in this period, Josephus being the principal source for the latter 
information. A broader inquiry would include the range of ideas 
prevalent at this time, though it cannot always be determined 
whether ideas, drawn, for instance, from the rabbins, were actually 
current in the time of Christ, or belong to a later age instead. In 
this direction archaeological inquiries lead back, as Schleiermacher 
has remarked,^ to the domain of apologetics. 

The Old Testament must always be the principal source for Bib- 
lical Archaeology,* and consequently the science is compelled to 
move in a kind of circle, archaeological knowledge being needed for 
a thorough understanding of the Bible, while that knowledge re- 
ceives further additions from a profounder study of the Scriptures. 
The Bible thus becomes at one time the object and at another the 
means of archaeological: research, while this research is sometimes a 
preparation for exegesis and again its result. Archaeology may 
consequently be reckoned among the auxiliaries to exegetical theol- 
ogy, or be classed as a product of exegetical studies with historical 
theology, in proportion as one or the other point of view prevails. 
Classification -^ more careful distribution of the material of archae- 

of the material ology will warrant its classification under: 
of Biblical ar- , m, , ^ , i-*-! i / •. • 

chEeoiogy— Re- 1- I he geography of the Bible (on its importance to 

ograpby. Biblical exegesis, comp, the work by Furrer under that 

' Comp. de "Wette's Bibl. Archgeol,, § 1 and 2, where reference is also made to the 
still more extended meaning of the word apxaioTioyia in Josephus and Dion. Halicar. 
Gesenius defines Biblical Archaeology to be " the science which makes us acquainted 
with the natural and social conditions of the peoples among whom the Scriptures orgin- 
ated and to whom they relate," (Hall., Encykl., x, 74), which is still correct in an 
empirical point of view. 

^ Schleiermacher, § 141. ^ § 143, note. * Schleiermacher, § 141, note. 


title, Zurich, 1871). The geography of Palestine^ forms its cen- 
tral feature, but it is not confined to Palestine. It begins 
historically with the country in which the sources of the Eu- 
phrates and the Tigris are situated, the Asiatic highlands in the 
region of Ararat), and extends, in the Old Testament, over Egypt, 
Arabia, Mesopotamia, Assyria, Babylonia, and Persia.' New 
Testament geography extends its range farther into the West, 
the incidents of the New Testament record being located in Asia 
Minor, Macedonia, Greece, and Italy (Rome), in addition to those 
of which the scene was in Judea, Samaria, and Galilee. Topogra- 
phy^ the description of remarkable places, especially of Jerusalem 
and the temple, forms a special element of this geography, for the 
study of which the records of ancient and modern travel render 
valuable aid. 

2. The Natural science of the Bible (Physica sacra), which is 
most intimately connected with its geography. The Natural science 
importance of securing a vivid idea of the natural (geo- ^^ *^'^® "QVax^. 
ological, topographical, and climatic) conditions of the country is 
heightened by the fact that the religious thought of the Hebrews 
was closely related thereto, and that the most important features of 
revelation connect themselves with the natural scenery of the 
Orient. Man is an object of natural science, in the whole of his 
physical constitution, in proportion as he is moulded by natural con- 
ditions. This applies, among the rest, to the entire subject of dis- 
eases and their peculiar form in the East (leprosy). In proportion, 
however, as man becomes superior to nature and assumes a social 
character, the physical and anthropological element will become 
subordinate to the ethnographical. Hence : — 

3. Biblical Ethnography, the description of manners and customs, 
first of Eastern peoples, and then of the ancient world Biblical Eth- 
in general. This involves the study (1) of man's rela- nography. 
tion to nature (agriculture, herding cattle, hunting, and fishing) and 

^ This name was primarily applied to the country of the Philistines, in the south- 
western part of Canaan ; but it Avas subsequently given to the entire region embraced 
between the Jordan, the Mediterranean Sea, and Mt. Lebanon. Canaan (}V^3), derived 
from the fourth son of Ham, Gen. x, 6, was the older designation ; and it was also 
called the " land of Jehovah," the " land of promise," the " pleasant land." In later 
periods the name Judea denoted the entire country. The expression, " land of the 
Hebrews" (onnyn pX) occurs but once in the Bible, in Gen. xl, 15, and the designa- 
tion was not common until after the time of Josephus {fi 'EjSpaiov x<^P°)- ^^r addi- 
tional information see J. G. Miiller, Die Semiten in ihrem Verhaltniss zu Chamiten 
und Japhetiten, Gotha, 1872. 

" In strictness, the extreme western limit would be the ancient Tarshish (Tartessus) ^ 
but this appears only as aii isolated point. 



of his modes of preparing tlie raw materials provided by nature for 
his use (dwellings, clothing, ornaments, food, utensils, handicrafts, 
navigation, etc.) ; and (2) man's relations to society (social customs, 
marriage, domestic life, general intercourse ; journeys, hospitality, 
relations with strangers, war, and slavery).^ Inasmuch, however, 
as such relations of ordinary life were, among the Hebrews, regu- 
lated by the law of the Theocracy, it becomes necessary to examine : 

4. The Biblical (Mosaic) legislation and political constitution 

«^ * ^^r. with which the codes of laws and the constitutions of 
structure of the , , , ^ 

Hebrew com- the Other nations embraced within the range of the 
monwea th. Scriptural records are to be compared (the Roman law, 
consequently, in connexion with the New Testament). The consti- 
tution of the theocratic State and its laws, were, moreover, intimately 
connected with the system of worship, so that in this point of view 
also the religious feature forms the central object of theological 
study ; and Biblical ai'chaeology must accordingly give a prominent 
place to^ — 

5. The sacred institutions of the Hebrews (sacra) in comparison 

^ ,. . with the other religions of antiquity as mentioned in 
The religious _ o _ , . 

institutions of the Bible. Many writers have limited the idea of Bib- 
the Hebrews. ^^^^^ archaeology wholly to this branch of antiquities. 
It is usually subdivided into (1) The sacred places (the tabernacle, 
the temple, and, later, the synagogue); (2) the sacred seasons (the 
Sabbath, the new moons, the Hebrew feasts); (3) sacred and 
theocratic persons, the judges, prophets, priests, Levites, scribes ; 
and (4) sacred usages, circumcision, sacrifice, anointings, purifica- 
tions, ceremonies, etc. The religions of non-Israelitish peoples and 
their polytheistic and nature-worship (worship of animals in Egypt, 
the worship of Baal, Astarte, and Moloch, witchcr^t and divina- 
tion) must receive special attention inasmuch as the Israelites were 
constantly exposed to their influence. For the study of the New 
Testament the Graeco-Roman mythology is likewise important. 
Finally, the worship having taken art into its service (music and 
poetry among the Hebrews) and the religion having developed a 
theology, it becomes necessary to give attention to : — 

6. The sciences and arts of the Hebrews and the nations with 
Art and science whom they came into contact. For the interpretation 

of the Hebrews f ^^^ poetical Sections of the Bible it is especially im- 
and related ^ j • i 

peoples. portant that the nature of Hebrew poetry and music be 

' For this inquiry also travels are especially valuable. " You will find the reading 
of travels in the East, in which the life, manners, and customs of the nomads are de- 
scribed, and from which conclusions respecting these earlier times of innocence and 
Btrength may be drawn, to be the best commentary." Herder, Briefe, No. 3, p. 42. 


Understood. The development of theology among the later Jews 
into Phariseeism and Sadduceeism, and into the Alexandrian phi- 
losophy of religion (Philo),^ belongs more appropriately to the 
history of Bible doctrines, but is nevertheless entitled to a place iti 
this department also.^ 

The real task of the Biblical archaeologist will be to combine all 
these threads into an organic whole, through which runs the prin- 
ciple of a higher intelligent life ; to represent the Biblical matter 
both in its development in time and in its extension in space, as 
contrasted with contemporary ethnical facts, and thus to bring be- 
fore the mind of the inquirer a living picture in which the lights 
and shadows are accurately disposed.^ 


The history of archaeology is rooted in the science itself. A, circle 
„. ^ ^ „.^ is involved at this point. * The Bible is the most ancient 

History of BiTd- ^ 

licai archaeoi- source for Hebrew and the related archaeologies of the 

^^^' East, and yet the exposition of the Bible requires ^ar- 

chaeological knowledge. We become acquainted with the Bible 

^Opp. ed. Mangey (Lend., 1742), 2 Tom. ; Pfeiffer (Erl., 1785-92, 1820) 5 Tom. ; Ed, 
Tauchnitziana (Lips., 1851-53), 8 Tom. English version in Bohn's Ecclesiastical Library 
(Lond., 1854). Comp. J. G. Muller, Textkritik der Schriften des Pliilo, Basle, 1839, 4to, 

2 The Talmud (from ^UP, t^^^ doctrine)^ a collection of Jewish traditions, beconaes a 
rich, though confused, source at this point. It consists of two parts, the Mishna, dat- 
ing in the second century A.D., and the Gemara, formed in the third century. The 
Babylonian Talmud, which was completed as late as the sixth century, must be dis- 
tinguished from the Jerusalem. On the editions comp. Winer, Handb. der Lit. i, p. 
523, and M. Pinner, Compend. des hierosolym. u. babyl. Talmud, with preface by Bel- 
lermann, Berl., 1832. Lightfoot, Schoettgen, Surenhusius, Wetstein, Meuschen, Danz, 
and others, have made extracts from the mass of the rabbinical literature, Comp, 
Winer, Chrestomathia talmudica et rabbinica, Leips., 1822 ; F. Nork, Kabbin. Quellen 
u, Parallelen zu N. T. Serif tstellern, Leips., 1839. Concerning the later Judaism see 
J. A. Eisenmenger, Entdecktes Judenthum, Frankf., lYOO, 2 vols., 4to, ; A. F. Gfrorer, 
das Jahrhundert des Heils, Stuttg., 1838, 2 vols. ; S. Griinwald, Glaubens und Sitten- 
Lehre des Talmud. Heilbronn, 1854, 

^ George remarks, in his work, Die Jiidischen Teste, pp. xii-xiv (see below, Litera- 
ture), " The tendency still prevails to regard Biblical Archseology as a garner into 
which the separate grains may be brought, without attemping to combine them into a 
scientific Avhole, to which every individual object will sustain a definite and necessary 
relation. . , , Archieology is the science which first opens to our view the real life of 
a people, by placing before our eyes its conditions in all the different periods and sit- 
uations of its history. Its office is to point out all the features in that life in their neces- 
sary connexion, and thereby to explain one in the light of the others and each one in 
its principles. It is, so to speak, the interior of the various phenomena, which spring 
from it as from a root. It is the complement of history, to which it stands related as 
the soul to its body, since it presents to view the conditions from which may be de- 
duced the phenomena in the life of a people recorded by history." 


through the Bible. In addition to the Bible, mention must be made 
of Josephus, the son of a Jewish priest (born A. D. ^^^ ^ j ^^ 
-S7) and a Pharisee, an eye-witness and participant in waiters on ar- 
the Jewish war (A.D. 70). He wrote a history of his ^^^^^^^y- 
nation, extending down to the close of Nero's reign, in twenty 
books — Antiquitates Judaicae ; and also described the Jewish wars 
in seven books, besides treating of other matters.^ For acquiring a 
knowledge of the country the study of Herodotus, Strabo (ii, 16), 
Ptolemy, Dio Cassius, Pliny (Hist. Nat., v, 13-19), Diodorus Sicu- 
lus, and others, is also useful. The beginnings of Bible geography 

were laid by the Christian Church historian Eusebius (in ^ ^. 

•^ . , ^ Eusebius the 

the fourth century) in his work ILept Tottlicojv 'Ovofidrojv first of Biblical 
ep T^ ■&ela Tpacp'q. This work was known only in the ^^^^^^p^®^- 
translation by Jerome: Onomasticon urbium et locorum Scripturae 
Sacrae, until the Jesuit Bonfrere published it in 1659 (later editions 
by Cleric uSy 1707, Larsow and Parthey, 1862, Lagarde, 1870). The 
itineraries of Christian pilgrims are not without historical import- 
ance, though they contain much fabulous matter (the oldest is the 
Itinerarium Burdigalense, dating since 333), and this is especially 
true of the statements by crusaders, e. g., William of Tyre, James 
de Yitri, etc. (the whole published in Bongars. Gesta Dei per 
Francos, Hanover, 1611, 2 vols.). The journey of Rabbi Benjamin 
of Tudela (1160-1173), a Spanish Jew, has again commanded at- 
tention in recent times (published in Hebrew and English by A. 
Asher, London and Berlin, 2 vols.). A more critical character be- 
longs to works of the sixteenth century. The Roman Catholic priest 
Chr. Adrichomius (f 1585), among others, published a description 
of Jerusalem in the time of Christ and a Theatrum terrae sanctae, 
with maps (Col. 1590), and the Reformed theologian S. Bochart 
(f 1667) laid the beginnings for a Bible geography in his Phaleg 
et Canaan, (1646, 1674) and of a Biblical natural history in his Hiero- 
zoicon (Lond., 1663, 1690). These were followed by the works of 
H. Reland (f 1718), Antiquitates sacrae veterum He- GeograpMcai 
braeorum (Traj., 1708 and often), and Palaestina (1714); ^j^^ters'^of ^the 
J. D. Michaelis, Spicilegium geographiae Hebr. (1769, istb century. 
1780), Mosaisches Recht (1770-1775, 6 vols.) and others. The 
numerous and predominantly scientific Travels, begun more than a 
century ago and still continued, have afforded much valuable in- 
formation. Of such works those by Berggren, Buckingham, Cha- 

' Editions by Havercamp (Amst., 1726, 2 vols., fol.), Oberthur (Leips., 1782-85,'' 
3 vols.), Richter (Leips., 1825-27), Dindorf (Par., 1845-47, 2 vols., ed. Tauchnitziana 
Leips., 1850), Bekker (Leips., 1855-56, 6 vols.); also translated into English by 
Whiston, various editions. 


teaubriand, Clarke, Hasselquist, Joliffe, Maundrell, Niebuhr, Po- 
cocke, Prokesch, Richardson, Seetzen, Shaw, Volney,' etc., belong 
Writers on sa- more or less to an earlier period. Of more recent works 
<'rji<ijreogv^phY notice, J. E. Burckhardt, Reisen in Syrien u. Palaes- 

of the 19th cen- ' . . 

tury. tina (with notes by Gesenius, Weimar, 1822-24, 2 vols.); 

A. Lamartine, Voyage en Orient, 1832-33 (Paris, 1835); G. H. v. 
Schubert, Reise in d. Morgenland (Erl., 1838-40, 3 vols.); E. Rob- 
inson, Biblical Researches, etc. (2d ed., 1856, 2 vols.), Physical Ge- 
ography of the Holy Land (1865); Tischendorf, Reise in den 
Orient (Leips., 1846, 2 vols.); Lynch, Narrative of Exploring Expe- 
dition to the Dead Sea (1849; 9th ed., 1854); and Official Report 
of expedition (1852, 4to.); Ph. Wolff, Reise, etc. (Stuttgart, 1849); 

F. A. Neale, Eight Years in Syria and Palestine (Lond., 1851, 2 vols.). 

G. H. van Senden, Het heilige Land, (Gorinch., 1851); Gossler, Pil- 
gerreise nach Jerusalem (Paderb., 1852); J. S. Schiferle, Reise ins 
h. Land (Augsb., 1852, 2 vols.); F. J. Gehlen, Wanderung n. Jerusa- 
lem, (Miinst., 1853); J. Hilber, Pilgerreise ins heil. Land (Inn- 
spruch, 1853); Plitt, Skizzen einer Reise n. d. heil. Lande (Carls- 
ruhe, 1853); Schulz, Reise ins gel. Land 3 ed., Muhlheim, 1855); 
F. A. Strauss, Sinai u. Golgatha, etc (7 ed., Berl., 1857); Tobler, 
Denkblatter aus Jerus. (St. Gall, 1853) and Dritte Wanderung n. 
Palaest. (1859); K. Graul, Reise n. Ostindien, Part i, Palestine 
(Leips., 1854); de Saulcy, Voyage autour de la mer morte (Par., 
1853, 2 vols.); Delessert, Voyage aux villes maudites, etc. (Par., 
1853); M. Sachs, Stimmen vom Jordan (Berl., 1854); Leibetrut, 
Reise n. d. Morgenl, etc. (Hamb., 1854, new ed., 1858); Thomson, 
The Land and Book (1880 ; new ed., revised) ; Van de Velde, Journey 
through Syria and Palest. (1854, 2 vols.); Roroff, Reise n. Palaest. 
(Leips., 1862, 2 vols.); Bovet, Voyage en terre Sainte (4 ed.. Par., 
1864); Furrer, Wanderungen durch Palaest. (Zurich, 1865); Lud- 
wig, Bethlehem in the Summer of 1864 (Berne, 1865); Petermann, 
Reisen in den Orient (Leips., 1865); Macedo, Pelerinage aux lieux 
saints (Paris, 1867); Riggenbach (Balse, 1873); Dean Stanley, Sinai 
and Palestine (London, 1853; New York, 1870); E. H. Palmer, The 
Desert of the Exodus (London; also New York, 1872); J. L. Por- 
ter, Handbook for Syria and Palestine, (last London ed., 1875); 
Lieuts. Conder and Hitchen, Survey of Western Palestine : Memoirs, 
of its Topography, Orography, Hydrography, and Archaeology; 

* Comp. Paulus, Sammlung der merkwiirdigsten Reisen in den Orien., Jena, 1792-94, 
7 vols. Continued by Rink (Konigsberg, 1801); Winer, Handb. d. theol. Lit., p. 151. 
For New Test, times see the imaginary journey, Helons Wallfart nach Jerusalem, 109 
Jahre vor der Geburt des Herrn, by Fr. Strauss, Elberfeld, 1820-23, 4 vols — an imi- 
tation of the Voyage du jeune Anacharsis en Grece. 


6 vols., 4to; 3 vols, yet to appear (London, 1881). See also Quar- 
terly Statements of Palestine Exploration Fund, London ; also the 
Egyptological and Assyriological researches of Bonomi, Botta, Bun- 
sen, Brugsch, Fergusson, Grotefend, Layard, Lepsius, Rawlinson, 
Reinisch, linger, Seyffarth, Vaux, Geo. Ebers (Aegypten u. d. Buch- 
er Mosis, etc. (vol. i, Leips., 1868), Schrader," Die Keilschriften u. d. 
Alte Testament (Giessen, 1872), Smith, and others. The Phoenician 
studies of Movers, Renan (1864), and others, and the numerous re- 
ports by missionaries stationed in the East, are likewise valuable in 
many respects. (Comp., too, the Ausland and the different geo- 
graphical magazines). 

Concerning the recently discovered " Moabite stone " recording 
the triumphs of the Moabite king Mesha (ninth century B.C.) comp. 
the works by Noldeke, Schlottmann, Kampf, Ginsburg, and others. 

1. Archceoloffical works on the Bible of a general character.^ 

J. J. Bellermann, Handbuch der biblischen Literatur, comprising Biblical Archaeol- 
ogy, Chronology, Genealogy, History, Natural Philosophy and History, Mythology 
and History of Idolatries, Antiquities, History of Art, and Sketches of the Script- 
ural Writers. Erfurt, 178*7-99, 4 vols. (Also published with separate titles.) 

f J. Jahn, Bibl. Archaologie. Wien, 1796-1805. 3 Bde., L Bd., 2. Auti., 1818. 2. Bd., 
2. Aufl., 1825. 

Archaeologia biblica in compend. redacta. lb. 1805, 1814. 

f F. Ackermann, Archaeologia biblica breviter exposita. Vienna, 1826. 

E. F. K. Rosenmuller, Das alte und neue Morgenland oder Erlauterungen der heil. 
Schrift aus der natiirlichen Beschaffenheit, den Sagen, Sitten und Gebrauchen des 
Morgenlandes. Lpz., 1818-20. 4 Bde., (in 6 Abth). 

Handbuch der bibl. Alterthumskunde. Lpz., 1823-31. 4 Bde. 

* G. B. Winer, Bibl. Realworterbuch, zum Handgebrauche fiir Studierende Candidaten, 

Gymnasiallehrer und Prediger. 3. Aufl. 1847, 1848. 2 Bde. 
E. W. Lohn, Bibl. Sachworterbuch zum Handgebrauch. 1834. 
C. G. Haupt, Bibl. Real- und Verbal-Encyklopadie. Quedlinb., 1823-27. 2 Bde. 
K. F. Keil, Handbuch der biblischen Archaologie. Frankf., 1859. 
f Scholz, Die heiligen Alterthiimer des Yolkes Israel. Regensb., 1868. 

* f Bonif. Haneberg, Die religiosen Alterthiimer der Bibel. Miinchen, 1869. 

* Bibellexikon, Realworterbuch zum Handgebrauch fiir Geistliche und Gemeinde, 

publ. by Dan. Schenkel, in connexion with Bruch, Diestel, u. Dillmann. Bd. 1-4. 
Lpz., 1869-72. 

Hamburger, Real-Encylopadie fiir Bibel und Talmud. 1. Abth. Die Biblischen Arti- 
kel. In 5 Heften. 1866-70. 

Herzog's Real-Encyklopaedie, contains a multitude of articles belonging to this de- 
partment (by Arnold, Kurtz, Riietschi, Oehler, Vaihinger, and others). For popu- 
lar use we recommend 

H. Zeller, Biblisches Worterbuch fiir das christliche Volk ; an alphabetical handbook 

» Older works : A. Calmet, dictionnaire historique, critique, chronolog., g^oprrapli. et littdral 
de la Bible. Par., 1730. 4 veil. f. F. W. Bezel, bibl. Reallexicon. Lpz., 1783-85. Bias. Ugo- 
lini, thesaurus antiquitatt. sacrar. 1744-68. 34 voll. f. 


for the promotion of a knowledge of the Scriptures among all readers of the Bible. 

2d ed., Gotha, 1865-67, 2 vols. ; and also 

Biblische Alterthiimer, published by the Calwer Publication Society. New series, 


2. Hebrew Antiquities.^ 

H. E. Warnekros, Entwurf der Hebr. Alterth. Weim., 1792-94 ; 3d revised ed., by 

A. G. Hofmann. Weim., 1832. 
G. L. Bauer, kurzes Lehrbuch der Hebraischen Alterthiimer d. A. und N. T. Lpz., 1797. 

* W. M. L. de Wette, Lehrbuch der Hebr.-jiid. Archaologie, nebst einem Grundriss 

der Hebr.-jud. Geschichte. Lpz., 1814; 4. sehr verm. u. verb. Aufl. 1864. 
J. H Pareau, Antiquit. Hebr. breviter descriptae. Traj. ad Rhen. 1817. 1823. 
f J. M. A. Scholz, Handbuch der Biblischen Archaologie. Bonn, 1834. 
f J. M. A. Lohnis, Das Land und Yolk der alten Hebraer. Regensb., 1844. 
H. Ewald, Die Alterthiimer des Volkes Israel. (Appendix to vol. 2 of the Gesch. des 

Volkes Israel.) Gott., 1844. 2d ed. ibid. 1854. Comp. the review by Mezger in 

Stud, und Krit., 1853. 1. S. 133-204. 
J. L. Saalschiitz, Archaologie der Hebraer, fiir Freunde des Alterthums und zum Ge- 

brauche bei akadem. Vorl. Konigsb., 1855, 1856. 2 Bde. 
K. F. Keil, Handbuch der Bibl. Archaologie. 2d ed. Frankf., 1875. • 

3. Sacred Antiquities {connected with church and religion in particular)."^ 
G. L. Bauer, Beschreibung der Gottesdienstlichen Verfassung der alten Hebraer. 
Lpz., 1805, 1806. 2 Bde. 

* K. Ch. W. Bahr, Symbolik des Hebraischen Cultus. Heidelb., 1837-39. 2 Bde. 

J. F. L. George, Die altern jiidischen Feste ; mit einer Kritik der Gesetzgebung des 

Pentateuch. Berl., 1835. 
Casar von Lengerke, Kanaan, Volks- und Religionsgeschichte Israels. 1. Thl. Konigsb., 

E. W. Hengstenberg, Die Opfer der h. Schrift. Berl., 1852. (Reprinted from the 

Evang. KZ.) 
J. H. Kurtz, Beitrage zur Symbolik des alttest. Cultus. Lpz., 1851.' 
B. Scholz, die Bib. Alterth. des Volkes Israel. Regensb., 1868. 
B. Haneberg, die relig. Alterth. der Bibel. Miinchen, 1869. 
B. Schafer, die relig. Alterth. der Bibel. Miinster, 1878. 

With reference to the Mosaic Tabernacle, consult the works of Friederich (1841), 
Knobel (1858), Keil und Delitzsch (1861), Kamphausen und Fries (Stud, und Krit., 
1858-59), * W. Neumann (1861), and Riggenbach (1862; 2d ed. 1867); and with ref- 
erence to the Synagogues (in addition to Yitringa, infra, note 2), Zunz, der Ritus des 
synagogischen Gottesdienstes geschichtl. entwickelt. Berl., 1859. 

4. Sacred Geography.* 

E. F. K. Rosenmuller, Bibl. Erd- und Landerkunde (Part 1 of the Handb.). 
K. Ritter, Erdkunde (Berl, 1832-49). 15. Thl. 1. Abth. 

» Older works by Waehner (1743, 2 vols.), Carpzov (1748), Iken (1732, 1764), Reland (1708.) 

2 Older works : Goodwin (Moses et Aaron, 1618), Spencer (1686-1727), Vitringa (de synag. vet> 
librt III., 1696, 1726), Rau (1726). 

3 On non-Israelitish religions: F. C. Movers, die Religion der Phonicier. Bonn, 1841. 2 Bde. 

F. Miinter, die Religion der Karthager. Kopenh., 1821. 4. Ibid., die Religion der Babylonier. 
Same, 1827. (Comp. the History of Religion, appended to our paragraph on Church History.) 

* With reference to the older geographical works and to Oriental Travels, comp. the historical 
matter given above, and the Art. Palastina (by Arnold) in Herzog's Encykl., xi, p. 1 sqq. The 
fullest statement of the literature is given in Tobler, Bibliographia geographica Palestinae. 
Lips., 1867, 


C. F. K16den,Landeskunde von Palastina, Berl., 1817. 

* Karl von Raumer, Palastina. Lpz., 1835, (To which is added, Der Zug der Israel- 
iten aus Aegypten nach Kanaan, 1837. With a map and contributions on the 
Geography of the Bible, 1843.) 4th ed., 1860. Comp. the review by Gross in 
Stud. u. Krit., 1845. 

M. Russel u. J. B. Fraser, Landergemalde des Orients ; a. d. Engl, von A. Diezmann 
u. J. Sporschill. Pesth, 1840. 6 Bde. (Bd. 3, 4, das h. Land.) 

F. A. Arnold, Palastina. Halle, 1845. 

A. Knobel, Die Volkertafel der Genesis. Giessen, 1850. 

Ludw. Volter, Das heil. Land und das Land der Israelitischen Wanderung. (With a 

map of Palestine and Arabia Petraea.) Stuttg., 1855. 2d ed., 1864. 
Bram, Israels Wanderung von Gosen bis zum Sinai. Elberfeld, 1859. 
Unruh, Zug der Israeliten aus Aegypten nach Kanaan. 1860. 

G. Ebers, Durch Gosen zum Sinai. Lpz., 1872. 

D. Korioth, Geogr. von Palastina. 2d ed. Freib., 1874. 
A. Driow, Jerusalem et la Terre Sainte. Limoges, 1877. 

Popular works: F. Bassler, Das heil. Land (Merseb., 1846; new ed., Lpz., 1856); 
P. W. Behrends, Kurze Beschreibung des h. Landes (Helmst., 1829); 0. Belling, Der 
christl. Fiihrer in das h. Land (Landsh., 1854) ; A. Bram, Beschreibung des h. Landes 
(2d ed., Meurs,, 1838); F. Gessert, Palastina bis auf Christi Zeit (Essen; 3d ed., 
1835); H. V. Gerstenbergk, Palastina (Eisenb., 1850); Hornung, Handb. zur Erlauter- 
ung der bibl. Geschichte und Geogr. (Lpz., 1825-27); S. Lowisohn, Bibl. Geographic 
(Wien, 1821); J. G. Melos, Beschreibung des jiid. Landes (Weim., 1822-30); A. Rath- 
geber, Palastina, Land und Volk (Langens., 1853; 4th ed., 1861); J. F. Rohr, Hist.- 
geographische Beschr. des jiid. Landes (Zeits, 1816 ; 8th ed., Lpz., 1851) ; R. J. Schwarz 
Das heil. Land nach seiner ehemaligen und jetzigen Beschaifenheit (Frankf. a. M., 
1852); Karl Ritter, Ein Blick auf Palastina u. seine christ. Bevolkerung (Berl., 1852), 
L. Th. Westhaus, Palastina oder das h. Land zur Zeit Jesu (Soest, 1856); F. A. und 0. 
Strauss, Die Lander und Statten der heiligen Schrift, in ausgewahlten Bildern (Stuttg., 
1861); f J. R. Sepp, Jerusalem u. das heil. Land, oder Pilgerbuch nach Palastina, 
Syrien und Aegypten (Schaffh., 1862; 2. Aufl., 1872); Dixon, W. H., Das heilige 
Land, from the English by J. E. A. Martin, with woodcuts and two steel plates 
(Jena, 1870). 

Scarcely any of these works are unprovided with means of some sort for illustrat- 
ing their subject (maps, plans, etc.), and in this regard the following possess dis- 
tinguished merit : 

J. M. Bernatz, Bilder aus dem h. Lande, mit Text von G. H. v. Schubert (Stuttg., 
1842), und Bernatz, Album des heil. Landes, 50 ausgew. Orig.-Ansichten bibl. wichtiger 
Orte nach der natur gez., mit Text von G. H. v. Schubert (Stuttg., 1855); A. Eltzner, 

Das bibl. Jerusalem aus der Yogelschau (3d ed., Lpz., 1863). Charts of Syria 

and Palestine in the Atlases of d'Anville and Reichardt, * Berghaus ; single, by Kloden 
(1817), Grimm (1836), RosenmuUer (1830), Mayr (1842), *Kiepert, publ. by Ritter 
(1842), *Karl Zimmermann, Karte von Syrien und Palastina (15 maps, Berl., 1850); 
Riess, Karte von Palastina (1861), Altmiiller, Aegypten, Sinai-Halbinsel und Palastina 
(1861). Manuals: C. Ackermann und C. F. Weiland, Bibel-Atlas, nach den neuesten 
und besten Hiilfsmitteln Weimar, 1832; 3d unchanged ed., 1855 (where see additional 
literature on p. 1 sq.)- *Kiepert, Bibel- Atlas ; 3d unchanged ed., Berl., 1857, with 
8 charts and 3 tabular illustrat. (to accompany Peter's Uebersichtskarten der Reisen 
Jesu nach den 4 Evangelisten) ; new revision by Lionnet, 1864; *Van de Velde, 
Map of the Holy Land. 8 leaves. (Gotha, 1858.) 2d ed., ibid., (1866.) Menke, Bibel- 
atlas in 8 Blattern. (Gotha, 1868.) 



1. Hebrew Antiquities. 

Benisch, A. Judaism Surveyed ; a Sketch of the Rise and Development of Judaism 

from Moses to our Days. 12mo. London, 1874. 
Cox, F, A. The Manners and Customs of the Israelites in relation to their Religion 

and Civil Polity. 12mo. London, 1852. 
DeCosta, B. F. The Moabite Stone. 8vo. New York, 1871. 
Ewald, Heinrich. The Antiquities of Israel. From the German. Svo, pp. 898. 

London, 1876. 
Freeman, James M. Hand Book of Bible Manners and Customs. 12mo, pp. 615. 
■ New York, 1874. 
Ginsburg, C. D. The Moabite Stone ; a Fac-simile of the Original Inscription, with 

an English Translation, and an Historical and Critical Commentary. 4to. 

London, 1871. 
Jahn, John. Biblical Archaeology. From the Latin. 5th ed., 8vo, pp xii, 573. 

New York, 1859. 
Jamieson, Robert. Eastern Manners, Old and New Testament. New ed., 2 vols., 

12mo. Edinburgh, 1859. 
Josephus, Flavins, Works of. Translated by Wm. Whiston, A.M. Many editions. 
King, J. Moab's Partriarchal Stone ; being an account of the Moabite Stone. 8vo. 

London, 1878. 
Madden, F. W. History of Jewish Coinage and of Money in the Old and New Testa- 
ments. With 254 Engravings of all the Jewish Coins mentioned in the Bible. 

Svo, pp. 373. London, 1864. 
Maimonides, Rabbi. The laws of the Hebrews relating to the Poor and the Stranger. 

Translated by James W. Peppercorn. Svo. London, 1841. 
Michaelis, J. D. Commentaries on the Law of Moses. Four vols., Svo. London, 

Pierotti, B. Customs and Traditions of Palestine, illustrating the Manners of the An- 
cient Hebrews. Translated by T. G. Bonney. Svo, pp. 288. London, 1864, 
Rawlinson, G. Historical Illustrations of the Old Testament. With Additions by 

Prof. H. B. Hackett. Boston, 1874. 
Snowden, J. R. The Coins of the Bible and its Money Terms. ISmo. Philadelphia, 

The History of the Hebrew Commonwealth, from the Earliest Times to the Destruc- 
tion of Jerusalem, A. D. 72. With a continuation to the time of Adrian. 3d 

ed., Svo, pp. xvi, 592. Oxford, 1840. 
Townley, James. The Reason of the Law of Moses. With Notes, Dissertations, 

and a Life of the Author. Svo, pp. 451. London, 1827. 
Warburton, William. The Divine Legation of Moses Demonstrated. Three vols., 

Svo, pp. 526, 518, 512. London, 1846. 
Wines, E. C. Commentaries on the Laws of Ancient Hebrews. Svo, pp. 640. New 

York, 1852. 

2. Biblical Natural History. 

Abbott, Gorham. Scripture Natural History. 12mo. Boston. 
Calcott, Maria. Scripture Herbal. Svo, pp. 568. London, 1842. 
Harris, T. M. The Natural History of the Bible. Svo. London, 1820. 
Kurtz, J. H. The Bible and Astronomy. An Exposition of the Biblical Cosmology 
and its Relations to Natural Science. 12mo. Philadelphia, 1861. 


Mitchell, 0. M. Astronomy of the Bible. 12mo, pp. 822. New York, 1863. 
Natural History of the Bible; being a review of the Physical Geography, Geology, 

and Meteorology of the Holy Land. 12mo, pp. 526. London, 1867. 
Osborn, Henry S. Plants of the Holy Land, with their Fruits and Flowers. 8vo. 

Philadelphia, 1860. 
Tristram, H. B. The Land of Israel, a Journal of Travels in Palestine undertaken 

with special Reference to its Physical Character. 2d ed., 8vo, pp. 6*71. London, 

Wood, J. G. Bible Animals ; being a Description of every Living Creature mentioned 

in the Scriptures, 8vo, pp. 652. New York, 1869. 

3. Biblical Geography. 


Lowth, Geo. T. The "Wanderer in Arabia ; or. Western Footsteps in Eastern Tracks. 

2 vols., 12mo, pp. 724. London, 1855. 
Palgrave, W. G. Journey through Central and Eastern Arabia. 2 vols., 8vo. Lon- 
don, 1869. 
Stephens, J. L. Travels in Egypt, Arabia Petraea, and the Holy Land. 2 vols., 

12mo. New York, 1851, 
Taylor, B. Travels in Arabia. New York, 1874. 


Curzon, Robert. Armenia ; a Year at Erzeroum. 12mo, pp. xiv, 226. New York, 

Smith, Eli, and Dwight, H. G. 0. Researches in Armenia, with a visit to the Nestori- 
an and Chaldean Christians of Oroomiah. 2 vols., 12mo, pp. 679. Boston, 1830. 
Wheeler, C. H. Ten Years on the Euphrates ; or, Primitive Missionary Policy Illus- 
trated, 12mo. Boston. 

Asia Minor. 

Fellows, Charles. A Journal written during an Excursion in Asia Minor, 1838. 

Royal 8vo, pp. 358. London, 1839. New ed., 1852. 
Hamilton, William J. Researches in Asia Minor, Pontus, and Armenia. 2 vols., 

Svo, pp. 1069. London, 1842. 
Leake, W. M. A Journal of a Tour in Asia Minor, with Comparative Remarks on 

the Ancient and Modern Geography of that Country. Svo, pp. 391. London, 

Van Lennep, H. J. Travels in Little-Known Parts of Asia Minor. 2 vols., 8vo. 

London, 1870. 


Assyrian Discoveries ; an Account of Explorations and Discoveries on the site of 
Nineveh, during 1873 and 1874, with Illustrations. Svo, pp. xvi, 461. New 
York, 1875. 

Smith, George. The Chaldean Account of Genesis. Svo, pp. xvi, 319. New York, 



Newman, John P. Thrones and Palaces of Babylon from Sea to Sea. Svo, pp. 455. 

New York, 1876. 


Loftus, William K. Travels in Chaldea and Susiana. Svo, pp. 436. New York, 



Postlethwaite, E. Tour in Crete. 12mo. London, 1868. 
Skinner, J. E. H. Roughing it in Crete in 186*7. 8vo. London, ISeY. 


Di Cesnola, Louis P. Cyprus : its Ancient Cities, Tombs, and Temples. A Narra- 
tive of Researches and Excavations during Ten Years' Residence in that Island. 
8vo, pp. xix, 456. New York, 1878. 

Loher, Franz von. Cyprus. Historical and Descriptive, from the Earliest Times to 
the Present Day. 8vo, pp. vii, 324. New York, 1878. 

Porter, J. L. Five Years in Damascus ; with Travels to Palmyra, Lebanon, and 
other Scripture Sites. 2 vols., 8vo. London, 1855. 

Dead Sea. 

De Saulcey, L. F. 3. C. Narrative of a Journey round the Dead Sea and in Bible 

Lands. 2 vols., 12mo, pp. 968. London, 1854. 
Lynch, W. F. Narrative of the United States Expedition to the River Jordan and 

the Dead Sea. Svo, pp. 516. Philadelphia, 1848. 

Desert and the Exodus. 
Bartlett, W. H. Forty Days in the Desert on the Track of the Israelites ; or, a 

Journey from Cairo to Mount Sinai and Petra. New ed., 8vo. London, 1867. 
Brugsch Bey, Henry. The True Story of the Exodus of Israel. Edited by Francis 

H. Underwood. 12mo, pp. 260. Boston, 1880. 
Foster, Charles. Israel in the Wilderness. 12mo, pp. 319. London, 1865. 
Palmer, E. H. The Desert of the Exodus ; Journeys on Foot in the Wilderness of 

the Forty Years' Wandei-ings. Svo, pp. 470. New York, 1872. 


Bartlett, W. H. The Nile Boat ; or. Glimpses of the Land of Egypt. 12mo, pp. 

236. New York, 1851. 
Bunsen, Ernest de. Egypt's Place in Universal History. New ed., 5 vols., Svo: 

London, 1867. 
Brugsch Bey, Henry. A History of Egypt under the Pharaohs, derived entirely from 

the Monuments. Edited by Philip Smith. 2 vols., Svo. London. 
De Leon, Edwin. The Khedive's Egypt ; or, the Old House of Bondage under New 

Masters. 12mo, pp. 435. New York, 1877. 
Galloway, W. B. Egypt's Record of Time to the Exodus of Israel, critically investi- 
gated. London, 1869. 
Harman, Henry M. A Journey to Egypt and the Holy Land in 1869-70. Pp. xii, 

331. Philadelphia, 1873. 
Hengstenberg, E. W. Egypt and the Bopks of Moses, ]2mo, pp. 312. Andover, 

Jones, J. Foulkes. Egypt in its Biblical Relations and Moral Aspect. Svo, pp. viii, 

326. London, 1860. 
Lane, E. W. An Account of the Manners and Customs of the Modern Egyptians. 

2 vols., 16mo, pp. XX, 418 ; viii, 429. London, 1836. 5th ed., enlarged, 1871. 
Lepsius, C. R. Tour from Thebes. Svo. London, 1847. 
Lepsius, Ric. Discoveries in Egypt, Ethiopia, and the Peninsula of Sinai, 1842-45. 

Edited, with Notes, by K. R. H. Mackenzie. Svo, pp. 471. London, 1858. 


Lindsay, A. W. C. Letters on Egypt, etc. Boston and New York. 

Osburn, "William. The Monumental History of Egypt as recorded on the Ruins of 

her Temples, Palaces, and Tombs. 2 vols., 8vo, pp. 461, 643. London, 1854. 

Israel in Egyyt; or, Genesis and Exodus. 2d ed. London, 1856. 

Palmer, William. The Egyptian Chronicles ; with a Harmony of Sacred and Egyp- 
tian Chronology. 2 vols., Svo, pp. 1053. London, 1861. 
Schaff, Philip. Through Bible Lands : Notes of Travel in Egypt, the Desert, and 

Palestine. 12mo, pp. 413. New York, 18'79. 
Sharpe, Samuel. The History of Egypt from the Earliest Times till the Conquest by 

the Arabs, A. D. 640. 2 vols., Svo, pp. 628. London, 1846. 5th ed., 18'70. 
Taylor, Bayard. Egypt and Iceland in 18*74. New York, 1875. 
Taylor, W. C. Illustrations of the Bible from the Monuments of Egypt. 12mo, pp. 

xvi, 200. London, 1838. 
Wilkinson, J. Gardner. Manners and Customs of the Ancient Egyptians. New ed., 

revised and corrected by Samuel Birch, LL.D. 3 vols., Svo, pp. xxx, 510 ; xii, 

515 ; xi, 528. London, 1878. 
Zincke, F. Barham. Egypt of the Pharaohs and the Khedive. Svo. London, 



Wood, J. T. Discoveries of Ephesus. New ed., 4to. Loudon, 18'76. 

Anderson, Rufus. Observations upon the Peloponnesus and Greek Islands. 12mo. 

Boston, 1830. 
Baird, Henry M. Modern Greece ; a Narrative of a Residence and Travels in that 

Country. 12mo, pp. xii, 380. New York, 1856. 
Wordsworth, C. Greece, Pictorial, Descriptive, and Historical. Svo. Boston. 

Barclay, J. T. The City of the Great King ; or, Jerusalem as it was, as it is, and as 

it is to be. Svo, pp. 64*7. Philadelphia, 1858. 
Bartlett, W. H. Walks about the City and Environs of Jerusalem. Svo, London, 

Palmer, E. H., and Besant, Walter. Jerusalem: the City of Herod and Saladin. 

Svo. London, 1871. 
Pierotti, E. Jerusalem Explored ; Ancient and Modern. 2 vols., folio. London, 1864. 
Thrupp, J. F. Ancient Jerusalem ; a new Investigation into the History, Topography, 

and Plan of the City, Environs, and Temple. Svo, pp. 428. Loudon, 1855. 
Warren, Charles. Underground Jerusalem ; an Account of some of the Principal 

Difficulties encountered in its Exploration, and the Results obtained. Svo, pp. 

5*79. London, 1876. 
Williams, George. The Holy City. Historical, Topographical, and Antiquarian 

notices of Jerusalem. 2d ed. 2 vols., Svo, pp. 601, 629. London, 1849. 
Wilson and Warren. The Recovery of Jerusalem. A Narrative of Exploration and 

Discovery in the City and Holy Land. Svo, pp. 459. New York, 1871. 

Burton, R. F., and Drake, C. T. Unexplored Syria. Visits to the Libanus, the 
Ami-Libanus, the Northern Libanus, etc. 2 vols., Svo, London, 1872. 

Walker, U. A. Macedonia to the Albanian Lakes. Svo. London, 1864. 


Tristram, H. B. The Land of Moab : Travels and Discoveries on the East Side of 
the Dead Sea and the Jordan. 8vo, pp. 416. New York, 1873. 


Fergusson, J. The Palaces of Nineveh and Persepolis Restored ; an Essay on An- 
cient Assyrian and Persian Architecture. Svo, pp. 384. London, 1851. 

Layard, A. H. Nineveh and its Remains. 2 vols., Svo. London, 1848-49. 

Discoveries among the Ruins of Nineveh and Babylon, with Travels in Armenia, 

Kurdistan, and the Desert. Second Exploration. Svo, pp. 586. New York, 1853. 

Rich, C. J. Narrative of a Residence on the Site of Ancient Nineveh. 2 vols., Svo. 
London, 1836. 

Smith, George. Assyrian Discoveries : Explorations and Discoveries on the Site of 
Nineveh, 1873, 1874. New York, 1875. 

Vaux, W. S. W. Nineveh and Persepolis. A Historical Sketch of Ancient As- 
syria, etc. 2d ed., 12mo, pp. 444. London, 1850. New ed., 1855. 


Bartlett, W. H. The Footsteps of our Lord and his Apostles in Palestine, Syria, 
Greece, and Italy. Svo. London, 1S56. New ed., 1862. 

Benjamin, I. J. Eight Years in Asia and Africa, from 1846 to 1855. Svo, pp. 347. 
Hanover, 1859. 

Buchanan, Claudius. Christian Researches in Asia. 12mo, pp. 275. Philadelphia, 

Burt, N. C. The Land and its Story ; or. The Sacred Historical Geography of Pales- 
tine. Svo.. New York, 1869. 

Conder, Claude Reignier. Tent Work in Palestine. A Record of Discovery and Ad- 
venture. Published for the Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund. With 
Illustrations by J. W. Whymper. 2 vols., Svo, pp. xxvi, 381 ; viii, 352. Lon- 
don, 1878. 

Dixon, William H. The Holy Land, with Illustrations. 3d ed., 2 vols., Svo. Lon- 
don, 1867. 

Keith, Alexander. The Land of Israel, according to the Covenant with Abraham, 
Isaac, and Jacob. 12mo. New York, 1851. 

Kinglake, W. Eothen; or. Travels in the East. New ed., 12mo. London, 1871. 

Merrill, Selah. Galilee in the Time of Christ. With an Introduction by A. P. Pea- 
body. Pp. 159. Boston. 1881. 

East of the Jordan. A Record of Travel in the Countries of Moab, Gilead, and 

Bashan, With an Introduction by Prof. R. D. Hitchcock. Svo, pp. 549. New 
York, 1881. 

Macleod, Norman. Eastward : Travels in Egypt, Palestine, and Syria. 3d ed., Svo. 
London, 1872. 

Ridgaway, Henry B. The Lord's Land : A Narrative of Travels in Sinai, Arabia 
Petrae, and Palestine, from the Red Sea to the entering in of Hamath. Svo, pp. 
744. New York, 1876. 

Robinson, Edward. Biblical Researches in Palestine and in the Adjacent Regions. 
A Journal of Travels in the Year 1838. 2 vols., Svo, pp. xxx, 614 ; xiv, 600. 
Boston, 1868. 

Later Biblical Researches in Palestine and in the Adjacent Regions. A Jour- 
nal of Travels in 1852. New Maps and Plans. 2d ed., Svo, pp. xxx, 664. Bos- 
ton. 1871. 


Sandie, George. Horeb and Jerusalem. Pp. 417. Edinburgh, 1864. 

Thomson, W. M. The Land and the Book ; or, Biblical Illustrations drawn from 
the Manners and Customs, the Scenes and Scenery, of the Holy Land. 2 vols., 
8vo, pp. 560, 614. New York, 1859. New ed., vol. i, pp. xx, 592. 

Tillotson, John. History of Palestine and the Holy Land. Illustraied with 350 En- 
gravings and Maps. With a History of the Crusades, compiled by W. and R. 
Chambers. 8vo. New York, 1 875. 

Tristram, H. B. Bible Places ; or, the Topography of the Holy Land, 8vo, pp. xvi, 
367. London, 1871. 8th ed. New York, 1878. 

Wright, Thomas. Early Travels in Palestine, Comprising the Narratives of Arculf, 
Willibald, Bernard, Saewulf, Sigurd, Benjamin of Tudela, Sir John Mandeville, 
De la Brocquiere, and Maundrell. 12mo, pp. 548. London, 1848. 

Myers, H. M. Remains of Lost Empires. Sketches of the Ruins of Palmyra, Nine- 
veh, Babylon, and Persepoiis, etc. 8vo, pp. 531. New York, 1875. 

Loftus, William K. Travels and Researches in Chaldea and S.usiana. 8vo, pp. 436. 

New York, 1857. 
Wagner, M. Travels in Persia and Georgia. 3 vols,, 8vo, London, 1856. 

Phoenicia and Israel. A Historical Essay. London, 1871. 

Samaria. ' 

Mills, John, Nablus and the Modern Samaritans. 12mo, pp. xii, 335. London, 

Shelaby, Jacob Esh, Notices of the Modern Samaritans. 8vo, pp. 55, London, 1855. 

Seven Churches. 
Cathcart, M. The Seven Churches of Asia. 4to. London, 1869. 
Tristram, H. B. The Seven Golden Candlesticks. 8vo. London, 1871. 

Bartlett, S. C. From Egypt to Palestine through Sinai, the Wilderness, and the 

South Country. 8vo, pp. 555. New York. 
Gaussen, L. From Egypt to Sinai. The Exodus of the Children of Israel. 12rao. 

London, 1869, 
Ritter, C. Comparative Geography of Palestine and the Sinaitic Peninsula ; 

translated and adapted to the use of students by W. L. Gage. 4 vols., 8vo. 

New York. 
Stanley, Arthur P. Sinai and Palestine in Connection with their History. 8vo, pp. 

Iv, 535. New York, 1857. 

4. Hebrew Poetry and Music. 
Carhart, J. Wesley. The Poets and Poetry of the Hebrews. New York, 1865. 
Herder, J. G. The Spirit of Hebrew Poetry. From the German. 2 vols., 12mo, pp. 

293, 320. Burlington, Yt., 1833. 
Hutchinson, Enoch. The Music of the Bible ; or, Explanatory Notes upon all the 

Passages of the Sacred Scriptures relating to Music. Svo, pp. 513. Boston, 

Lowth, R. The Sacred Poetry of the Hebrews. London and Andover. Many ed. 
Taylor Isaac. The Spirit of Hebrew Poetry. 8vo, pp. xvi, 347. London, 1861. 


BIBLICAL IS AGOGICS. (Introduction. Canonics). 

Corap. Dav. Sctiulz, Review of Eichhorn's and de Wette's Einleitungen in Stud. u. Krit, 1829, 
No. 3, pp. 570-72 ; Hupfeld, Begriff u. Methode der sog. Bibl. Einl., Marb., 1844 ; Rudelbach, Be- 
griff der N. T. Theologle u. Isagoglk, in his Zeitschrift, 1848, 1 ; Baur, Die Einl. in das N. T. als 
theol. Wissensch. in Theol. Jahrbb., 1850-51 ; Delitzsch, Begriff u. Methode der sog. Biblischea 
u. insbeson. A. T. Einleitung, in Thomasius and Hofmann's Zeitschr. fiir Prot. u. Kirche, xxviii. 
No. 3 ; Erl., 1854, p. 133, sqq. ; Hahn, in Herzog's Encykl., iii, p. 726, sqq. (s. v. Einl. ins A. T.) ; 
Articles Biblical Introduction in M'Clintock & Strong's Cyclopaedia, vol. iv, p. 630, and Kitto's 
Cyclopjedla, vol. ii, p. 27 ; Brooke Foss Westcott, Introduction to the Study of the Gospels ; 
Henry Alford, How to Study the New Testament. 

The Bible is a body of writings which originated in different 

periods and under various circumstances and conditions, which were 

from different authors, and were gradually collected ^^^ objects of 

into a whole; and it is consequently necessary for a a history of the 

proper appreciation of its character that the origin and 

fortunes of the entire collection and also of its several parts be 

understood. To afford this knowledge is the office of the history 

of the canon or the science of Biblical Introduction (Isagogics in 

the limited sense), which is divided either into Introduction to the 

New or to the Old Testament, or into general and special. General 

introduction discusses the origin and progress the establishing of 

the canon, the history of manuscripts, editions, versions, , , , 

o 1 1 1 c^ ' c^ •/. -, Introduction is 

revisions oi the noly Scriptures, etc. bpecial mtroduc- either general 

tion, on the other hand, inquires, in partial connexion °^ special, 
with criticism, into the authenticity and integrity of the several 
writings, and deals, in addition, with the history of their authors 
as such, the design, plan, form, and style of their works, and finally 
with the date, place, and circumstances in which the writings were 

The idea of Introduction itself is vague, and opinion is still di- 
vided with regard to its importance and extent as a T^^g g^^pg ^^^j 
Biblical science. De Wette denies that Introduction limits of mtro- 

. -, . . duction not 

is a science m the proper sense, and views it as a mere precisely de- 
aggregation of preliminary knowledge, which lacks t®^"^"^^*^- 
both " a true scientific principle and a necessary connexion of its 
parts ; ^ but in more recent times scholars (e. (/., Schulz, Credner, 

^ De Wette, Einl. § 1. Schleiermacher (Harm. u. Krit., p. 379) observes in a similar 
spirit that the so-called N. T. Introduction is " a science that has no limits whatever, 
and into which anything that is desired may be thrown. A going back to principles 
is wholly out of the question in such a case. . . . But it is pertinent to ask, ' Are there 
no such principles?'" Comp. p. 36; "N. T. introduction is not properly a constitu- 
ent part of the organism of tlieological science, but it is practically useful for both 
the beginner and the master, because it facilitates the bringing together upon a single 
point of all the inquiries that are involved." Scholz, a Roman Catholic writer on in- 


Reuss, Hupfeld) have directed attention to the necessity for a sift- 
ing of the material to be treated by Introduction, and also for the 
application of principles to such treatment. The indefinite char- 
acter of the word " introduction " ^ will be apparent to every mind. 
At the bottom, all that our treatment of encyclopaedia has touched 
upon or shall hereafter discuss, relating either to the Bible itself or 
to the aids necessary for its interpretation, may be included under 
Introduction to the Bible ; and, in point of fact, the Hebrew and 
New Testament languages, archaeology, hermeneutics, etc., have 
been thus disposed of in some instances. Some writers have accord- 
Thename"ca- i^gly preferred to lay aside this indefinite term, and the 
nonics" pro- name canonics has been proposed as a substitute.'' 0th- 

posed as a sub- /i-i t-» \ r r ^ 

stitute f or " In- ers (like Reuss) have exchanged it for the name "His- 
troduction." ^^^,^ ^^ ^^^ pj^^^ Scriptures of the Old and New Tes- 
taments." The vague idea of introduction is certainly confined with- 
in wholesome limits in one direction by this method ; but in another 
direction the present science of introduction is extended to cover a 
field that lies beyond the bounds of introductory matter, since the 
later fortunes of the Bible — the dissemination of the sacred writ- 
ings, the history of their employment and their exposition — are in- 

troduction, likewise speaks of it as being simply an aggregation of multifarious mat- 
ters, in connexion with which the important feature is that they be " conveniently dis- 
tributed." He divides introduction into criticism, hermeneutics, and archaeology (see 
pp. 1 and 2). Comp. Delitzsch, 1. c, "Every science is an organism; but the term 
organic applies only to what is not simply a means for promoting an object external 
to itself, but is itself a whole, an object to itself, in which the individual with its pe- 
culiarities is lost in the idea of the whole, and only that is an instrument (organ) 
which aids the development of the whole in its identity with itself. The so-called in- 
troduction lacks this organic character. It is not without idea and aim, but it lacks 
the immanent, self-developing idea, the principle of teleological self -reference, which 
is necessary to a science." 

^ The name is first employed by Adrian, a writer probably of the fifth century, in 
the small hermeneutical work elGayuy)] dg raf i9-e/af ypadd^ ; afterward by Cassiodorus 
(in the sixth century), and later in the Middle Ages. In Germany Michaelis first used 
it in connexion with the N". T., and Eichhorn Avith the 0. T. Comp. Hahn in Herzog's 
Encykl., iii, p. 727, sqq. 

^ Zyro, in Stud. u. Krit., 183Y, No. 3, considers canonics to be merely a branch of 
isagogics. In his view, the latter comprehends everything that is necessary for the 
interpretation of the Scriptures, i. e., 1. the nature and importance of the Bible, to- 
gether with its history (canonics) ; 2. its compass, or the genuineness of its matter (crit- 
icism) ; 3. its language and contents (hermeneutics). He then divides canonics into 
two parts, in absiracto^ in which character canonics unfolds the nature of the Scrip- 
tures under the forms of authenticity, credibility, and genuineness, and canonics in 
concrete^ or what is usually termed introduction in the more limited sense, which is 
again divided into general and special m into Old and New Testament canonics. Comp. 
Pelt, Encykl, p. 121. 


It will not be denied that great interest attaches to such an 
all-sided historical knowledge respecting the Bible ; but methodo- 
loo-ical considerations require nevertheless that what is introductory 
to the study of Scripture (the history of its origin and the collection 
of its parts into a canon), and what relates to the further history of 
the already completed collection of the Scriptures, should be kept 
apart. Only the former, though likewise historical in its nature, 
is an exegetical auxiliary science, because it affords a correct posi- 
tion to the exegete from which to operate ; while the latter must 
be assigned to the department of Church history and the his- 
tory of literature, and may be reserved for a later stage of theo- 
logical study. It does not appear to us a matter which the sci- 
ence need be ashamed of, that the "reader of the introduction 
Bible" (i. e., the student) must before all "be well- P^^^'^i^t^^f^j 
grounded in historical knowledge in order to correctly the canon and 
understand and properly appreciate the Bible as a who'le 
and in its parts ; " ^ but such preliminary knowledge needs a careful 
discrimination of its elements among themselves, and a proper dis- 
tribution of its parts in the organism of the sciences. If, in har- 
mony with this principle, the grammatical and archaeological ele- 
ments be excluded, and a distinct place be assigned to hermeneutics, 
there will be left only what is generally denoted by the still current 
name of introductory science, namely, the history of the canon 
(within the limits hitherto assigned to it) and criticism. These 
may not be wholly separated from each other, for the history of the 
canon is not to be a mere review, but history involving the discus- 
sion of principles — critical history; in which connexion it maybe 
remembered that what is now called introduction was formerly 
known as critica sacra or histoire critique du V. et N. T. (Richard 
Simon). This does not forbid, however, that criticism as such, 
i. e., the whole of the science of critical principles, should consti- 
tute a distinct branch of study, as does hermeneutics, which em- 
braces the theory of interpretation. The science of introduction is 
thus confined to critical and historical inquiry concerning the books 
of Scripture and their collection into a canon, instituted for pur- 
poses of exegesis. 

The division into Old and New Testament introduction results 
from the nature of the case ; but the relation of general Relation of 
to special' introduction is more difficult to determine. cfaTTntrodS^ 
The usual method is to begin with the general (the col- tion. 
lection of the canon, history of the text, versions, etc.), and to sup- 
plement this with introductions to the several books ; but the oppo- 

^ The words of Hupfeld, p. 8. 


site course may be adopted with Reuss, and the origin of the 
different books discussed, so that the forniation of the canon from 
its first beginnings to its final completion is presented in a genetic 
view. In the latter case, however, the special introduction would 
need to be very brief and to steadily approach its object, as is the 
case with Reuss, the more extended discussion being reserved for 
the exegesis of the books. Here, again, the intervention of the 
different sciences comes into view. Introduction provides the 
point of view from which the exegete is to regard the Bible ; but 
the progress of exegesis reacts upon introduction and alters the po- 
sition of isagogics. 

Encyclopaedia is concerned with the material of introduction only 
in so far as it is necessary to give preliminary information with 
regard to its general character. The question concerning the period 

„.-,., in which the formation of the canon was first under- 
Penod of the 

first formation taken, is Connected with the inquiry respecting the time 
o e canon, ^f^jign the art of writing was invented. It is certain 
that the canon as a whole appears for the first time after the cap- 
tivity. The traditional view that Ezra (B.C. 478) and Nehemiah 
(2 Mace, ii, 13) took measures for collecting the different books, has 
been doubted by the criticism of recent times. ^ The first to receive 
a completed form was probably the Pentateuch, and to this the 
other books were added in various collections and at different 
times. The earliest constituents of the New Testament canon were 
the Pauline epistles, which w^ere written as occasion required 
(those to the Thessalonians being the oldest); and to these were 
gradually added the (catholic) epistles of other aj)ostles, togeth- 
er with the written memorabilia of the life of Jesus (Gospels), 
the latter being probably first in point of time. The ancient Church 
knew of but two collections, the EvayyeXiov and the aiToaroXog (ac- 
The New Test- cording to the assumption which has become current 
amentcanonin • ^j^ ^-^ ^£ Semler, though it is not fully estab- 

the early Chris- ' *=> i i • i 

tian Church. lished).^ The former included the four Gospels, which 
had already been distinguished from the spurious gospels and recog- 

^ Comp. Leyrer's art. in Herzog's Encykl., xv, p. 296, sqq. A reference to an al- 
ready completed canon cannot, of course, be looked for in the canonical books them- 
selves. The apocryphal Book of Wisdom, however (not later than B.C. 130), affords 
proof that a collection of sacred writings existed (chap, xlv-xlix), though it cannot be 
shown that the entire canon, as we possess it, is intended ; for this purpose a formal 
catalogue would be required. The first to furnish a list (of twenty-two books) was 
Josephus (contr. Ap. i, 8), from whom the tradition referred to in the text is also 

" Pelt, p. 144, under reference to Orelli : Selecta patrum capita ad elaTjyjjTiKTjv sacra 
pertin. p. 1, 11, sq., note. Comp. Landerer in Herzog's Encykl., vii, p. 270, sqq. 


nized by the Church, and the latter embraced the apostolical epis- 
tles and the Book of Acts. Opinion was long divided with regard* 
to the Apocalypse and certain of the catholic epistles, and a distinc- 
tion was made between biioXoyoviieva and avrtXeyofjieva and voda 
(Euseb., H. E. iii, 25) as late as the fourth century. The first dass 
included the four Gospels, the book of Acts, the fourteen Pauline 
epistles,^ and 1 Peter and 1 John ; to the second were assigned the 
2d ep. by Peter, 2 and 3 John, James, and Jude ; and the third was 
limited to the Apocalypse, though many classed it among the writ- 
ings whose authenticity was acknowledged (comp. the canon of 
Origen in Euseb., vi, 25, and that of Eusebius himself, ibid., iii, 25, 
as also the somewhat divergent so-called Muratorian canon of 
Milan, in Kirchhofer, Quellensammlung, p. 1, sqq.; also Westcott 
on the Canon of the New Test., p. 184, sqq., and Harman's In- 
troduction, pp. 428-438). The canon of the New Testament 
as it now stands was gradually formed by the actions of councils 
(comp. Canon Laodic, 364, and the canon of the third council of 
Carthage in 397). This may suffice to enable the beginner to un- 
derstand the relation of the early Christian Church to the canon, 
and to demonstrate to him that the former had already attained to a 
liigh degree of independence ("sine charta et atramento." — Irenseus) 
before the canonical boundaries of the letter of the Bible had been 
definitely fixed.^ But this by no means involves the conclusion 
that the canon is a mere accident ; the religious disposition will 
still recognize its providential, though not necessarily miraculous, 

1. Introductions to the Bible as a whole.^ 

Leonh. Bertholdt, Historisch-kritische Einleitung in sammtl. kanonische ti. apokry- 

phische Schriften des A. u, N. T. Erl, 1812-19. 6 Bde. 
* W. M. L. de Wette, Lehrbuch der histor.-krit. Einleitung in die Bibel A. ii. N. T, 

^ Including that to the Hebrews, though its Pauline character is denied bv some 

^Comp. Schleiermacher, § 104, sqq.; Goethe, p. 140, "The Bible itself — and this 
receives too little attention — exerted almost no influence in the older times. The books 
of the Old Testament had scarcely been collected, and the nation in which they orig- 
inated was utterly dispersed. The latter alone formed the nucleus about which it; 
members gathered and still gather. The books of the New Testament had scarcely 
been brought together before Christendom divided into endless differences of opinions. 
And thus it appears that people do not busy themselves loith the work so much as 
abo^lt the work." 

3 Older works by Rivetus (1627), Walther (1636). A. Calov (1643-73), Brian Walton 
(1657; Edit, von Wrangham, 1828), Heidegger (1681), PfeifPer (Ultraj., 1704), van 
Till (1720-22), du Pin (1701), Calmet 1720; translated by Mosheim (1738-47), 
Moldenhauer (1744), Borner (1753), f Goldhagen (1765-68), Wagner (1795). 


Part 1 : Einleit. in's A. T. Bed., 1811; 7th ed., 1852. Part 2 : Einleit. in's N. T. 

1826-30; 6th ed., by Messner and Liinemann, 1860. 
K, A. Credner, Beitrage zur Einl. in die Bibl. Schriften. 1 Bd. Halle, 1832. 
f J. M. A. Scholz, Einl. in die heil. Schriften des A. u. N. T. (1st part : allgemeine 

Einl.) Koln, 1845. 
f D. Haneberg, Versuch einer Geschichte der bibl. Offenbarung als Einleit. in's A. u. 

N. T. Regensb., 1850. 3d ed., 1863. 
J. J. Prins, Handboek to de kennis van de heil. Schriften des Ouden en Nieuwen Ver- 

bonds. Rotterd., 1851, 1852. 2 parts. 
0. R. Hertwig, Tabellen zur Einl. in die kanonischen u. apokryphischen Biicher des 

A. T. Berl., 1856. 
F. Kaulen, Einl. in die heil. Schrift Alt. u. N. T. Freib., 18V6. 

Practical, and in popular style : 
Huber, Einleit. in die sammtl. Biicher der h. Schrift. Basel, 1803. (3. Aufl., 1841.) 
A. Schumann, Prakt. Einleit. in die Biicher des A. und N. T. Berl., 1847. 
J. Kirchhofer, Leitfaden zur Bibelkunde fiir Biirgerschulen, Elementarschullehrer- 

Seminarien, etc. 2d ed. Stuttg., 1860. 
R. F. Grau, Entwicklungsgeschichte des Neu Testamentlichen Schriftthums. Giitersl., 


F. W. Weber, Kurtzges. Einl. in die heil. Schriften Alten u. N. Test. 4th ed. Nord., 

E. Zittel, die entstehung der Bibel. 3d ed. Karlsr., 1875. 
C. A. Witz, Einl. in die Schriften A. u. N. Test. Wien., 1876. 

Apologetical : 
L. Gaussen, Die Echtheit der heiligen Schriften vom Standpunkt der Geschichte und 

des Glaubens. From the French, by J. E. Grob. Basel and Ludswigsb., 1864 and 

1865. 2 parts. 

2. Introductions to the Old Testament. 
Dillmann, IJeber die Bildung der Samlung der h. Schrift A. T. (Jahrbb. fiir deutsche 

Theolog., 1858. 3.) 
Diestel, Ueber den gegenwartigen Stand der Einl. ins A. T. (Deutsche Zeitschr. fiir 

christliche Wissenschaft und christl. Leben. April, 1861.) 
R. Simon, Histoire critique du Vieux Testament. Par., 1678. 4. Rotterd., 1685. 4.* 
* J. G. Eichhorn, Einleitung in's A. T. Lpz., 1780, 1783, 1787, 1803. 3 Bde; 1823, 

1824. 5 Bde. 
Einleitung in die apokryphischen Schriften des A. T. Lpz., 1795. 

G. L. Bauer, Entwurf einer krit. Einleit. in die Schriften des A. T. Niirnb., 1794, 
1801, 1806. 

t J. Jahn, Einleitung in die gottlichen Bticher des A. T. Wien, 1793, 1802. 2 Bde. 

Introductio in libros sacros Yet. Foed. in compend, redacta. Vienn., 1804-15. 

*.Bertholdt and de Wette. (See above, under 1.) 

W. M. L. de Wette, Beitrage zur Einl. in das A. T. Halle, 1809. 2 Bde. 

J. Ch. W. Augusti, Grundriss einer histor.-krit. Einleitung in's A. T. Lpz., 1806-27. 

f F. Ackermann, Introductio in libros Vet. Foed. Vienn., 1825. 

' Works in Latin : Natalis Alb. de Verse, hist, critica V. T. auctore R. P. Ricardo Simonio. 
Amst., 1681-85. Franeq., 1698. 4. With which comp. (le Clerc) : Sentimens des quelques The- 
ologiens de Hollande sur Thistoire critique, etc. Amst., 1685. Germ, by Corrodi. Zurich, 1799. 
2 Bde. Other older works by J. A. Fabricius (1610), J. H. Hottinger (1649-96), J. Leusden (1663- 
1739), J. G. Carpzov (Introductio, 1714-31-41. Critica Sacra, 1728-48), J. S. Semler (Apparatus 
1773), H. E. Gute (1787), J. D. Michaelis (1787). 


Hengsteuberg, Beitriige zuv Einl. in's A. T. Berl, 1831-39. 3 Bde. 

* H. A. Ch. Havernick, Handbuch der histor.-krit. Einleit. in das A, T. Erl., 1837-49. 

3 Bde. (Vol. 3 by K. F. Keil.) (Vols. 1 and 2 in a 2d ed., 1854-56, by Keil.) 
K. F. Keil, Lehrbueh der hist.-krit. Einleit. in die kanon. Schriften des A. T. Frankf. 
a. M., 1853. 2. Aufl. 1859. 

* Fr. Bleek, Einleit. in's A. T. Published by J. F. Bleek and A. Kamphausen, with 

preface by C. J. Xitzsch. Berl., 186(>. 3. Aufl., 1870. 

* J. J. Stahelin, Specielle Einleit. in die kanonischen Biicher des A. T. Elberf., 1862. 
f Reuseh, Lehrbueh der Einleitung in das Alte Testament. 4th ed. Freib., 1870. 
Volckmar, Haudb. der Einleit. in die Apoki-yphen. 2 vols. Tiib., 1862, 1863. 

Th. Xoldecke, die alttest. Liter, in e. reihe von Aufsatzen. Lpz., 1868. 

T. S. Bloch, Studien zur Geseh. der Sammlung der althebr. Liter. Bresl., 1876. 

3. Introductioyis to the Xew Testament. 

0. R. Hertwig, Tabellen zur Einl. in's X. T. Berl., 1849. 4th ed., prepared by Wein- 

garten, 1872. 
R. Simon, Histoire critique du texte du X. T., ou Ton etablit. la verite des actes, sur 

lesquels la religion chretienne est fondee. Rotterd., 1689. 4.^ 
H. K. A. Hiinlein, Handbuch der Einleitung in die Schriften des X\ T. Erl., 1794— 

1800. 2d ed., 1801-9. 3 Bde. 

Lehrbueh der Einleitung. Ebend., 1802. 

J. E. Chr. Schmidt, Historisch-kritische Einleitung in's X"". T. Giessen, 1804. 2 Bde. 
J. G. Eichhorn, Einleit. in's X. T. Lpz., Bd. 1, 1804. 2d ed., 1820. Bd. 2 and 3, 

1810-14. Bd. 4 and 5, 1827. 

* t J. L. Hug, Einleitung in die Schriften des X. T. Tiib. u. Stuttg., 1800-21-26-47. 

2 Bde. 
Bertholdt and de Wette. (See above, under 1.) 
H. E. F. Guericke, Beitrage zur hist.-krit. Einleitung in's X. T. besonders mit polem. 

Riicksicht auf das Lehrbueh des Herrn de Wette. Halle, 1828. Fortges. Bei 

trage, 1831. 

* H. A. Schott, Isagoge hist.-crit. in libros X. T. sacros. Jen., 1830. 

f A. B. Feilmoser, Einleitung in die Biicher des X. T. Innsbr., 1810-30. 

M. Schneckenburger, Beitrage zur Einl. in's X. T. Stuttg., 1832. 

H. Ohlshausen, Xachweis der Echtheit sammtlicher Schriften des X. T. Hamb., 1832. 

K. A. Credner, Einleitung in das X. T. Part 1. Halle, 1836. 

Geschichte des neutestamentlichen Kanon, publ. by G. Volkmar. Berl., 1860. 

C. G. Xeudecker, Lehrb. der hist.-krit. Einleitung in das X. T. Lpz., 1840. 

* E. Xeuss, Die Geschichte der heiligen Schriften des X'. T. Halle, 1842. 2d ed.. 

Braunschw., 1853. 2 vols. 3d ed., 1860. 4th ed., ibid., 1864. 
f A. Maier, Einl. in die Schriften des X. T. Freib., im Br., 1852. 
f F. X. Reithmayr, Einleitung in die kanonischen Biicher des X. T. Regensb., 1852. 
H. E. F. Guericke, Gesammtgeschichte des X. T. oder neutestamentl. Isagogik. 2d ed. 

Lpz., 1854. 3d ed., ibid., 1868. 

1 With which connect : Histoire critique des versions du N. T., oil Ton fait connaitre quel a 
dt^ I'usage de la lecture des livres sacres dans les principales eglises du monde. Rott., 1690. 4., 
and Nouvelles observations sur le texte et les versions du N. T. Par., 1695. 4. (Translated by 
Matth. H. Cramer, with preface and notes by Semler. Halle, 1776-80) . Other older works by 
J. Leusden (1684-1739), J. G. Pritius (1704 ; published by Hofraann, 1737-64), E. Harwood (Schulz, 
Halle, 1770-73), J. Dav. Michaehs (Einl. in die gottl. Schriften des N. B. Gott, 17.50. 4th ed., 
1787, 1788. 2 vols. 4.), Herb. Marsh (Anram. und Zusiitze zu Michaelis Einl. Cambr., 1793; 
ubers. von E. F. K. RosenmiiUer. Gott,, 1. Thl., 1795. 2. Thl., 1803. 4.). 


F. Bleek, Einleitung in das N. T. Berl., 1862. 2d ed., ibid., 1866. 

■j- Langen, Grundriss der Einleitung in das Neue Testament, Freib., 1868. 

Grau, Entwicklungsgeschichte des neutestamentlichen Schriftthums. 2 Bd. Giitersl, 

A, Hilgenfeld, histor.-krit. Einleitung in das N. T. Lpz., 1875. 
M. von Aberle, Einl. in das N. T. Hersg. v. P. Schanz. Freib., 1877. 

1. Introduction to the whole Bible. 

Angus, Joseph. The Bible Hand-Book : An Introduction to the Study of the Sacred 

Scripture. 12mo, pp. 727. Philadelphia, 1865. 
Bissell, E. Cone. The Historic Origin of the Bible: a Hand-Book of Principal 

Facts from the best recent authorities. German and English. New York, 

Fairbairn, P. The Typology of Scripture, viewed in connection with the whole series 

of the Divine Dispensations. 5th ed., 2 vols., 8vo, pp. 420, 484. New York, 

Gaussen, L. The Oanon of the Holy Scriptures. Examined in the Light of History. 

From the French, by Ed. N. Kirk. J2mo, pp. x, 463. Boston, 1863. 
Harman, Henry M. Introduction to the Study of the Holy Scriptures. 8vo, pp. 762. 

New York, 1880. 
Hitchcock, R. D. New and Complete Analysis of the Holy Bible : or, the Old and 

New Testaments arranged according to subjects. 8vo. New York, 1870. 
Home, Thomas Hartwell. An Introduction to the Critical Study and Knowledge of 

the Holy Scriptures. 2 vols., 8vo, pp. 464, 493, and 198. Philadelphia, 1841. 

Thirteenth English edition, with the aid of Ajre and Tregelles. 4 vols., 8vo. 

London, 1872. 
Lightfoot's Horae Hebraicae et Talmudicae. 4 vols., 8vo. London, 1880. 
Rogers, Henry. The Superhuman Origin of the Bible. Inferred from itself. 8vo, 

pp. 475. New York, 1874, 
Stowe, C, E. Origin and History of the Books of the Bible, both Canonical and 

Apocryphal, In Two Parts. Part I, The New Testament. 8vo, pp. 583. Hart- 
ford, 1867. 
Townley, James. Illustrations of Biblical Literature, exhibiting the History and 

Fate of the Sacred Writings from the Earliest Period to the Present Century. 

2 vols., 8vo, pp. 602, 604. New York, 1847. 

2. To the Old Testament. 

Birks, T. R. The Pentateuch and its Anatomists ; or, the Fnity and Authenticity of 

the Books of Moses Vindicated. 12mo. London, 1869, 
Bleek, Johannes, An Introduction to the Old Testament. Translated by (j. H. 

Yenables. 2 vols., pp. 967. London, 1875. 
Cowles, Henry, The Pentateuch in its Progressive Revelations of God to Men. Pp. 

414. New York, 1874. 
Curtiss, Samuel Ives, The Levitical Priests : a Contribution to the Criticism of tlie 

Pentateuch. With Preface by Dr. Delitzsch. 12mo, pp. xxix, 254. Edinburgh, 

Davidson, Samuel. An Introduction to the Old Testament, Critical, Historical, and 

Theological. 3 vols., 8vo. London, 1862. 


Davison, John. Discourses on Prophecy. In which are considered its Structure, 
Use, and Inspiration. 8vo. London, 1870. 

Delitzsch, Franz. Messianic Prophecies. Translated from Manuscript Lectures by 
S. Ives Curtiss. New York, 1 880. 

De Wette, W. M. L, A Critical and Historical Introduction to the Canonical Script- 
ures of the Old Testament. Translated and enlarged by Theodore Parker. 2 vols., 
8vo, pp. 517, 570. Boston, 1843. 

Ewald, Heinrich. The History of Israel. Translated and Revised. 5 vols., 
8vo. London, 1869-1871. (Discusses the formation of the Old Testament 

Fairbairn, P. Prophecy, viewed in Respect to its Distinctive Nature, its Special 
Function, and Proper Interpretation. 2d ed., 8vo. New York, 1866. 

Gloag, James Paton. The Messianic Prophecies. Baird Lectures for 1879. 12mo, 
pp. 368. Edinburgh, 1879. 

Godet, F. Biblical Studies on the Old Testament. Edited by W. H. Lyttleton. 16mo. 
New York and London. 

Green, W. H. Moses and the Prophets. New York, 1883. (A reply to Prof. Rob- 
ertson Smith and Kuenen.) 

Havernick, H. A. Ch. A Historico-Critical Introduction to the Pentateuch. From 
the German. 8vo, pp. 450. Edinburgh, 1850. 

A General Historico-Critical Introduction to the Old Testament. From the 

German. 8vo, pp. 389. Edinburgh, 1852. 

Hengstenberg, E. W. Dissertations on the Genuineness of Daniel, and the Integ- 
rity of Zechariah. Translated from the German. 8vo. Edinburgh, 1858. 

Dissertations on the Genuineness of the Pentateuch. From the German. 2 vols., 

8vo, pp. 462, 543. Edinburgh, 1847. 

Jehovah and Elohim in the Pentateuch, On the Use of, as Consistent with, and Con- 
firmatory of, its Mosaic Authorship. By H. T. 8vo. London, 1869. 

Keil, Karl F. Manual of Historico-Critical Introduction to the Canonical Scriptures 
of the Old Testament. Translated by M. Douglas. 2 vols., 8vo, pp. 545, 444. 
Edinburgh, 1869. 

Leathes, Stanley. The Structure of the Old Testament : a Series of Popular Essays. 
16mo, pp. 198. Philadelphia, 1873. 

M'Donald, Donald. Introduction to the Pentateuch. 8vo, pp. 487, 489. Edinburgh, 

Norton, Andrews. The Pentateuch and its Relations to the Jewish and Christian 
Dispensations. 12mo. London, 1870. 

Oehler, G. F. Theology of the Old Testament. Translated by Sophia Taylor. 8vo, 
pp. 497. Edinburgh, 1875. 

Phelps, Austin. Studies in the Old Testament. 12mo, pp. 333. Boston, 1879. 

Porter, J. L. The Pentateuch and the Four Gospels : a Statement of our Lord's Tes- 
timony to the Mosaic Authorship, Historic Truth, and the Divine Authority of 
the Pentateuch. 12mo. London, 1865. 

Quaney, John. Genesis and its Authorship, Two Demonstrations : I. On the Im- 
port of the Introductory Chapters. II. On the Use of the Names of God in the 
Book of Genesis. 8vo. London and Edinburgh, 1866. 

Smith, R. Payne. Prophecy a Preparation for Christ. Bampton Lectures for 1869. 
12mo, pp. 397. Boston, New York, and Cincinnati, 1870. 

Stebbins, Rufus P. A Study of the Pentateuch for Popular Reading, with an Intro- 
ductory Examination of recent Dutch Theories, as represented by Dr. Kuenen's 
Religion of Israel. 12mo, pp. 233, Boston, 1881. 


Stuart, Moses. Critical History and Defense of the Old Testament Canon. i2mo. 

Revised ed., pp. 422. Andover, 1872. 
Watts, Robert. The Newer Criticism and the Analogy of Faith. A Reply to Prof. 

Robertson Smith. Edinburgh, 188L 
Williams, Rowland. The Prophets of Israel and Judah, during the Assyrian Empire. 

8vo, pp. 450. London, 1866. 
Wright, W. The Book of Jonah, in Four Oriental Versions, namely, Chaldee, 

Syriac, Ethiopic, and Arabic; with Glossaries. Svo, pp. xii, 148. London, 


3. To the New Testament. 

Abbott, Ezra. The Authorship of the Fourth Gospel. 8vo, pp. 104. Boston, 

Alexander, Jos. A. Notes on the New Testament Literature and Ecclesiastical His- 
tory. 12mo, pp. 319. New York, 1873. New ed., 1875. 
Alford, Henry. How to Study the New Testament. First Section, The Gospels and 

Acts. Second Section, The Epistles. Third Section, The Epistles and the Rev- 
elation. 3 vols., 12mo. London, 1865-69. 
Bleek, Friedrich. An Introduction to the New Testament. From the Second Edition 

of the German. 2 vols., Svo, pp. 900. Edinburgh, 1869-70. 
Conder, Josiah. Literary History of the New Testament. 8vo, pp. 624. London, 

Conybeare and Howson. The Life and Epistles of St. Paul. 2 vols. ; also 2 vols, in 

one, 12mo, pp. 556. Nev^r York, 1869. 
Davidson, D. Connection of the Sacred and Profane History, from the Close of the 

Old Testament History till the Establishment of Christianity. 3 vols, in one. 

12mo. New York, 1857. New ed., 24mo. London, 1868. 
Davidson, Samuel. An Introduction to the Study of the New Testament. 3 vols., 

8vo, pp. 458, 495, 688. London, 1851. 
Ebrard, J H. A. The Gospel History. A Critical Investigation in Support of the 

Historical Character of the Gospels. Translated by James Martin. 8vo, pp. 602. 

Edinburgh, 1863. 
Gloag, Paton J. Introduction to the Pauline Epistles. 8vo, pp. 488. Edinburgh 

and New York. 
Godet, F. Studies in the New Testament. 12mo, pp. 398. New York, 1877. 
Gregory, D. S. Why Four Gospels ? or, the Gospel for all the World. 12mo, pp. 

348. New York and Cincinnati, 1880. 
Howson, John S. The Metaphors of St. Paul, and Companions of St. Paul. With 

an Introduction by H. B. Hackett. 2 vols, in one, 16mo, pp. v, 91, 211. New 

York, 1872. 
Hug, John Leonard. An Introduction to the Writings of the New Testament. From 

the German. 8vo, 2 vols., pp. 529, 682. London, 1827. 
Hutton, Richard H. The Historical Problems of the Fourth Gospel. In Essays, 

Theological and Literary. 2 vols. London, 1871. 
Kelley, Wm. Lectures Introductory to the Study of the Gospels. 12mo. London, 

Lectures Introductory to the Study of the Acts, the Catholic Epistles, and the 

Revelation. 12mo. London, 1870. 
Introduction to the Study of the Epistles of Paul. 12mo. London, 1869. 

Less, Godfrey. The Authenticity, Lncorrupted Preservation, and Credibility of the 
New Testament. Translated by R. Kingdom. Svo. London, 1864. 

LITP:RATURE of biblical introduction. 201 

Lewin, Thomas. Fasti Sacri ; or, a Key to the Chronology of the New Testament. 
8vo, pp. 429. London, 1865. 

The Life and Epistles of St. Paul, with Numerous Illustrations, finely en- 
graved on wood; Maps, Plans, etc. 2 vols., 4to, pp. xxxiv, 414; xxii, 487. Lon 
don, 18*78. 

Luthardt, C. E. St. John the Author of the Fourth Gospel. From the German. 8vo, 
pp. 369. Edinburgh, 18*75. 

Martin, James. Origin and History of New Testament. 2d ed., 16mo. London, 

Michaelis, J. D. Introduction to the New Testament ; Translated, with Notes, etc., 
by Herbert Marsh. 6 vols., 8vo. London, 1823. 

Mitchell, E. C. The Critical Iland-Book. A Guide to the Authenticity, Canon, and 
Text of the New Testament. 12mo. Andover. 

Monod, Adolphe. St. Paul. Five Discourses. From the French, by J. H. Myers. 
New ed., 12mo. Andover, 18*76. 

Nast, Wm. The Gospel Records. Their Genuineness, Authenticity, etc. 12mo, pp. 
373. Cincinnati, 1878. 

Norton, Andrews. The Evidence of the Genuineness of the Gospels. Abridged ed., 
12mo, pp. 584. Boston, 1867. 

Roberts, Alexander. Discussions of the Gospels. Part I, on the Language used by 
our Lord. Part II, on the Original Language of Matthew's Gospel. 8vo, pp. 571. 
Cambridge and London, 1864. (Argues that Jesus spoke Greek.) 

Sandy, Wm. The Authorship and Historical Character of the Fourth Gospel con- 
sidered in reference to the Contents of the Gospel itself. A Critical Essay. 
12mo. London, 1872. 

Scrivener, F. H. Six Lectures on the Text of the New Testament, and the Apcient 
MSS. which contain it. Crown 8vo, pp. 607. Cambridge, 1861. 

Tischendorf, Constantine. Origin of the Four Gospels. Translated by William L. 
Gage. 16mo, pp. 287. Boston, 1868. 

When were our Gospels Written? An Argument ; with a Narrative of the Dis- 
covery of the Sinaitic Manuscript. 16mo. New York, 1867. 

Tregelles, S. P. Canon Muratorianus. The Earliest Catalogue of the Books of the 
New Testament. Edited, with Notes, and a Fac-simile of the Manuscript in the 
Ambrosian Library at Milan. 4to. London, 1868. 

Upham, Francis W. Thoughts on the Holy Gospels : How they came to be in Man- 
ner and Form as they ai"e. 12mo, pp. 378. New York and Cincinnati, 1881. 

Westcott, B. F. A History of the New Testament Canon during the first Four Cent- 
uries. 12mo. Cambridge, 1870. 

Introduction to the Study of the Gospels; with Historical and Explanatory 

Notes. 12mo, pp. 476, Boston. 

Whately, Richard. Difficulties in the Writings of the Apostle Paul and other parts of 
the New Testament. From the 8th London edition. 12mo, pp. 376. Andover, 

For Literature of the disputed origin of the Fourth Gospel, see Appendix to 
Luthardt's work on St. John ; and also Smith's Dictionary of the Bible, 
American edition, sub voce, pp. 1437-1439. 




J. S. Semler, Abhandlnng von freier Uutersuchimg des Kanon, Halle, 1771-75, 4 vols.; Jod. 
Herlnga, Ueber d. rechten Gebrauch u. Missbrauch d. bibl. Kritik, from the Dutch, by Beckhaus, 
Offenbach, 1S04 ; F. Hitzig, Begrifl der Kritik, am A. T. praktisch erortert, Heidelberg, 1831 ; 
M. Drechsler, Die Unwissenschaftlichkeit im Gebiete d. Kritik, etc., Leips., 1837; G. A. Hauff, 
Offenbarungsglaube u. Kritik d. bibl. Geschichtsbiicher, am Beispiele d. B. Josua in ihrer noth- 
wendigen Einheit dargethan, Stuttg., 1843; Q. L. Hahn, Gegenwartigen Stand d. N, T. Kritik, 
Breslau, 1848 ; Ebrard, in Herzog's Encykl., s. v. Kritik ; B. B. Edwards, Certain Erroneous 
Methods and Principles of Biblical Criticism, Bib. Sacra., vi, p. 185 ; Kitto's Cyclopaedia, 
vol. i, p. 487. 

Biblical Criticism operates on the historical ground opened to 
The objects oiir view by the study of isagogics. Its task is, to 
bv^^^n^cai determine, on the one hand, the authenticity of the 
Criticism. Scriptures as a whole ; on the other, the uncorrupted 

character (integrity) of single passages or the entire text, and also 
to restore the true reading where it has been lost or crowded out. 
It conducts its work on scientific principles, and makes use of avail- 
able historical monuments and of the evidence afforded by internal 
marks in the writings themselves under examination. 

No pious mind need be startled by the phrase "Biblical Criti- 
cism,"^ as though it implied a purpose to criticise and force the 
text. Of such criticism there has been no lack ; but here no criti- 
cism of the contents, whether historical or dogmatical, is intended, 
but simply an examination into the authenticity of the text as it 
exists, either in its parts or as a whole. At the first glance even 
such inquiry may seem to conflict with the reverence we owe to the 
Bible, though this reverence itself, when more correctly under- 
stood, invites to conscientious investigation of the Scriptures.^ The 
thought that God has always watched over the Bible, is, in this gen- 
eral form, the presumption of a pious consciousness, which may be 

^ " It is very difficult to oonceive of this word (criticism) as denoting a real unity in 
the technical meaning which has been attached to it." Schleiermacher, Herm. u. Kritik 
(at the beginning) ; comp. his Abhandl. iib. Begriff u. Eintheilung der philolog. Kritik 
in Akadem. Reden u. Abhandlungen (Sammtl. Werke zur Phil., vol. iii, p. 38); and 
also Rothe, Zur Dogmatik, p. 310: "There assuredly exists a criticism that springs 
from the full confidence of faith as well as one that takes its rise in doubt ; and the 
former is inborn with Christian piety, at least with that of the evangelical type. God 
has not made, and did not intend to make, the task a trifling one for us. He gives 
nothing whatever to man in its finished state ; all his gifts are imparted in such a way 
as to abundantly tax human energy — this for the reason that we are human. This 
applies also to the Scriptures ; and if we consent to undertake the labor impesed on 
us by God and subject the Bible to historical criticism, it does not follow that we 
thereby exalt ourselves above and constrain it, but rather that we are sincerely en- 
deavoring to learn its true meaning." 

- Upon this point comp. esp. Hauff, supra, p. 19, sqq. 


sustained at the bar of science, and even finds its justification at the 

hands of science. But to decide beforehand how God should have 

watched, what things he must have guarded against 

to prevent the Bible from becoming a book like other i^de^n^iau^y 

books, is an arrogant assumption equal to that of ra- guarded, yet 

T ^. .... , ^ , ?: . ^ . subject to hu- 

tionalistic criticism in the other direction. It is an man vicissi- 

historical fact to which we are, in all humility, to as- ^^^^^' 
sent, that God has chosen to permit the Bible to pass through the 
same human processes by which other written monuments have 
been and are being tested. This will be apparent to every person 
who has looked with an unprejudiced eye into the history and for- 
tunes of the canon. ^ 

It is doubtless true that (in recent times, especially) criticism has 
been often employed for perverse and even frivolous Biblical criti- 
ends,'* and rarely has a book been subjected to so much cism, though 
abuse as has the Bible ; but it is by no means wise to ed!''stiirof 
oppose uncritical to hypercritical arbitrariness. Only a ^i^eat value. 
strictly scientific procedure, unbiassed by dogmatic preconceptions 
of any kind, will meet the demands of the case.^ While it is true 

^ Comp. Herder, Briefe, No. 1, " Banish the last remains of the leaven of the opin- 
ion that this book is unlike other books in its outward form and matter, so that, for 
instance, no various readings can occur in it, because it is a Divine book. Various 
readings do occur (and yet but one can be the correct reading) — this is fact, not opin- 
ion. . . . Whether a person who makes a copy of the Bible thereby becomes at once a 
faultlfc-ss God ? ... No parchment acquires a firmer nature because it bears the Bible, 
and no ink becomes thereby indelible." Similiarly, Eichhorn, Einl. ins. A. T., p. 5*7, 
$q. (2d ed.), "Every person who censures the Biblical scholar, or even sighs with 
pious anxiety because he examines one book after another of the Old (or New) Testa- 
ment for this purpose, applying critical exactness and judicial strictness to his work 
must either remain unacquainted with antiquity and profane literature, together with 
the processe:5 employed in that field, or be so extremely weak in mental powers as to 
fail to see the serious consequences resulting from the neglect of such tests, as well as 
the invincible host of doubts which can only be driven from their entrenchments by the 
proposed (^. e., critical) method," 

^ It must be admitted, however, that complaints upon this point have been exagger- 
ated, as, for instance, by Drechsler, who is governed by the idea that " every assault 
upon the genuineness of a Scriptural book is at the same time an attack directed 
against the belief in salvation through Christ." — Page 12, etc. ; comp. Hauff, p. 255. 

^ " Every person is sufficiently protected against the arbitrary tendencies of his own 
nature who enters on the investigation animated by a sincere love of truth, and against 
the arbitrariness of others by the liberty to test assertions and arguments made by 
them," Hauff, p, 45 ; " It is the especial task of our age to place this department 
of theology (criticism) in a new and clearer light, to provide new fundamental con- 
ceptions and a new basis for this science, since the old has become decayed and un- 
serviceable," Hahn, p. 7 ; "I am convinced that in order to renew the Christian faith 
we need, not Ze.s.s, but more, investigation," Bunsen, Hippolytus, i, 88 ; " On its bright 
side, criticism is the self -rejuvenating element of the Church as a whole, the boast of 


that the authenticity of many a book or single passage has been 
doubted because it gave discomfort to the critic's subjectivity, it 
yet appears, from the history of criticism, that genuine critics, while 
abstaining from all passion, have brought within the range of their 
researches matters having no immediate connexion with the faith, 
and have ffiven them the most conscientious consideration, and that 
upon the whole, and on the large scale, their judgment has been con- 
trolled by other than predetermined dogmatical reasons. How can 
a dogmatical system derive advantage from the fact that the ac- 
count of the adulterous woman (John viii) is assigned to a different 
Gospel; that a doxology (Rom. xvi) is assigned to a different place; 
or even that the genuineness of Second Peter is by some surrendered? 
Not a single Bible truth is thereby deprived of its support. Criti- 
The objection cism has also been frequently denounced as paltry, and 

that Biblical \\^ mav doubtless surprise the layman or the besjinner 
Criticism is , "^ . . . . i it i i • i. 

often paltry. that extensive investigation should be made into tne 
transposition of a word, or concerning a particle, w^hich might seem 
to exert no immediate influence on the meaning. Precisely this 
devotion to the letter of the Scriptures (which was cultivated " for 
the glory of Jesus Christ" by the pious Bengei) constitutes, with 
all its apparent dryness, the finest flower of scientific earnestness 
and the most effectual restraint upon recklessness, while, on the 
contrary, uncritical ignorafice, which, for instance, would, in order 
to possess an additional proof -text, retain passages like 1 John v, 7, 
though known to be not genuine, is rendering but poor service to 
the interests of piety. The glory of science is this, that it presses 
onward in the course marked out by an incorruptible love of truth, 
without yielding to the power of outside influences. 


The claim of a book to be canonical is only partially established by 
the acknowledgment of its genuineness ; but the canonical char- 
acter of the Bible certainly depends on the integrity of the separate 
j^assages contained in it, and consequently on the purity of the text. 
Genuineness of The word spurioits (spurius, 2^0190^) is, in its harshest 
sages^tobede- meaning, applied to w^orks intentionally ascribed to 
termined by j^n author with whom they did not orisjinate ; and a 

Biblical Criti- o ^ 

cism. number of such works was known to the early Church, 

the evangelical Church and theology ; on the darker side, criticism has, by its deform- 
ity, filled one of the most pungent pages in the history of the Protestant Church.'* 
J. P. Lange, Das Apostol. Zeitalter, i, p. 9 ; comp. also the Periodisirung der krit. 
Operationen in der evangel. Kirche, p. 10, by the same author. 


bearing the names of Peter, James, Thomas, etc., and seeking to 
intrude themselves into the canon, from which they were, however, 
subsequently rejected as apocryphal.' In this instance the denial 
of genuineness ^ involved the loss of canonicity also. But the ques- 
tion of genuineness may relate to more than the canonicity of a 
book. The admission that a book possesses the highest title to a 
place in a collection of sacred and even Divinely-inspired books, 
does not necessarily preclude inquiry into the propriety with which 
it is attributed to the author to whom tradition or the inscription 
(of later date than the work itself) ascribes it. It will hardly do,' 
however, to claim inspiration for a book whose very lirst sentence 
is a forgery. If the pastoral epistles, for example, are not Paul's, 
then some one has palmed off a deee^^tion in his name, and they are 
not deserving of respectful consideration. It will be useless to 
argue that, though written under false pretences, they may be 
yet canonical, although this concession has very unwisely been 

The greatest caution is, therefore, required at this point. The 
good name of the Bible would be damaged seriously by the assump- 
tion of well-meant imitations of apostolical productions ; for such an 
hypothesis throws a very equivocal light upon the question of the 
integrity of the Biblical writers, and attributes to them arts which 
can hardly be made to consist with tjie character of sincere dis- 
ciples of Christ. Fortunately, the results of the destructive crit- 
icism applied to the authorship of New Testament books are not 
yet so well established as its originators would persuade them- 
selves they are. Criticism finds here a proper field for a frank dis- 
cussion of the reasons for and against, by which means the questions 
involved can be brought to a final settlement ; but let the thought 
that it might possibly become necessary even to give up one book 
or another cause no alarm in advance, as though our salvation 

' The N. T. ApocnT)ha has been published by J. A. Schmid, Pseudo-Nov. Test., 
Helmst., 1809, 4to. ; J. A. Fabrieius, Cod. Apocryphus N. T., Hamb., lYlQ, 3 vols.; 
C. Ch. L. Schmid, Corpus vet. Apocryph. extra Biblia, Hadam., 1805 ; J. C. Thilo, Cod. 
Apocryphus N. T., etc., torn, i, Lips., 1832 (incomplete); Tischendorf, Evangelia 
Apocrypha, Lips., 1853; same. Acta Apostol. Apocrypha, 1851, and Apocalypses 
Apocryphae, Lips., 1866; K. W. Borberg, Bibliothek der N. T. Apocryphen, Stuttg., 
1840-41, 2 vols. J. F. Kleuker, Die Apocryphen des N. T., Hamb., 1*790; Nitzsch, De 
Apocr. Evv., etc., Viteb., 1804, 4to.; Arens, De Evang. Apocryph., etc., Gott., 1836, 4to. ; 
Tischendorf, De Evangg. Apocryph., origine et usu, Hague, 1851, (prize essay). See 
also Hone's Apocryphal X. T., Lond., 1820, and N. Y., 1849, Svc, and Abp. Wake's 
Apost. Fathers, Lond., 1830, and Hartford, 1834, 8vo.). 

2 The word has reference solely to the authorship of a book, and not to its fitness 
to rank as canonical. 


depended on such a contingency ; unlikely as that contingency 
may be.^ 

The principle applies to the Old Testament as well. Let it 
be proven that certain Psalms were not composed by the royal 
singer himself, but merely ad modum Davidis — would this de- 
stroy their religious worth? We should no more exclude them 
from the canon, than we would exclude from the hymn book a beau- 
tiful poem by an unknown author of the seventeenth century, con- 
cerning which we learn that it has been erroneously attributed to 
Paul Gerhard. Is the description of God's servant in Isa. liii less 
applicable to Christ on the supposition that Isa. xl-lx was written 
by another (later) than Isaiah, a deutero-Esaias?' Who, moreover, 
would find the book of Job to be less impressive because its author 
is unknown ? Even Pope Gregory I. was able to form a more in- 
dependent judgment upon this question than many Protestants liv- 
ing ten centuries later. It follows that the canonicity of a book 
may be maintained, even when its authorship is left in doubt,* pro- 
vided the book itself contains nothing that conflicts with the nor- 
mal character of the theocracy in the Old, or of the Gospel in the 
New, Testament. But should criticism extend its investigations to 
the question of canonicity also ? If so, to what extent ? That it did 
so in the ancient Church is a matter of fact, and it is to the exer- 
cise of such criticism that we owe the rejection of apocryphal writ- 

^ A very correct and much more intelligent view than that entertained by many 
pious people of to-day Avas advanced by Richard Baxter (died 1691) in his work De 
casibus conscientiae, T. iii, p. 1Y4: "Non est ad salutem necessarium, ut quis credat 
singulos libros aut versus Scripturae esse canonicos aut scriptos per spiritum Dei. Si 
liber aliquis periret aut in dubium vocaretur, v. g. epistola Judae, non inde sequeretur, 
una cum ipso omnem veram fidem spemque salutis perituram." Comp. also Episcopii 
Institut. iv, 1. " It must become evident at some time," says J. L. Riickert, Theologie, 
i, Leips., 1851, Pref., p. 4, "that all the results of criticism maybe acknowledged, and 
a thoroughly independent mode of thinking may be followed, Avithout destruction to 
the Christian character. It must become evident that Christian faith and volition do 
not depend upon our judgment respecting this or that particular book." Even Kahnis 
(Dogmat.), occupying the strict confessional ground of Lutheranism, has asserted his 
right to an independent position with regard to the canon ; comp. his Zeugniss v. d. 
Grundwahrheiten d. Protestantismus gegen Dr. Hengstenberg, Leips., 1862. 

2 Umbreit (Prakt. Comm. zum Jesaia, p. 308) beautifully observes, " The auroral 
light of grace and salvation breaks forth from the joyously animated discourses which 
are appended to the book of Isaiah in a well-ordered succession. We hear the voice 
of one of the greatest prophets at the close of the Babylonish exile. Even though his 
name is not Isaiah, his high importance is apparent from every word proclaimed by 
him. . . . Well may we term him (this anonymous) the evangelist of the old covenant^ 
for no one of the prophets has declared like him the glad tidings of the day-star from 
on high." The thorough discussions in relation to Daniel, which Bunsen places in the 
mouth of his Hippolytus, ii, p. 296, sqq.^ are very similar. 


ings. Whether the exclusion of such writings was absolute, or 
whether the boundary line between canonical and apocryphal is 
still in dispute, is a different question. The recognition of a dis- 
tinct class of avTcXeyofxeva, and the distinction between proto- and 
deutero-canonical writings are of themselves evidence that such crit- 
icism was exercised. The Reformation asserted in its own behalf 
this right of the ancient Church,' and more recent times have like- 
wise recognized it as a right and so employed it. We readily admit 
that the common feeling of the Church is not likely to consent that 
the slightest alteration in the canon be attempted, and cannot even 
desire it for ourselves ; ^ but the right of judgment must be con- 
ceded and science must steadily respect it. However unlikely it 
may now be that at this late day books will be excluded from the 
canon by general consent, it is yet more unlikely that the changes in the 
canon will receive any addition or be enriched by the canonunukeiy. 
incorporation with it of such writings as were formerly not known 
at all or were misunderstood.^ 

It is not the genuineness of the sacred writings alone, however, 
that engages attention, but their integrity as well ; and the lat- 
ter is even more directly necessary to the canonical reception of 
a book than the former. Whole books or extended i^aragraphs, as 
well as particular expressions, or even single adjectives, particles, 
etc., may have slipped into a completed work or have been attached 
to a revered name, whether by a designed insertion (interpolation) 
or through mistake, by which, e. g.^ a marginal note (gloss) written 
by a later hand was transferred to the text. The text may, more- 
over, have become corrupt in places or be defective by reason of the 
carelessness or inexperience of copyists, or for other reasons to be 
discussed in connexion with introduction itself (faded characters, 
abbreviations, absence of divisions between words, etc.). That 

^ Comp. Luther's criticisms of the Epistle of St. James and of the Apocalypse. With 
this comp. the opinion of L. Osiander (1614): In eo autem erratum est, quod epistolam 
Jacobi et Judae et posteriores duas Joannis inter canonica scripta numerant, quae 
scripta non longe post apostolorum tempora non pro scriptis canonicis habita sunt. . . . 
Recte autem omissa Apocalj'-psis ; ea enim non est Joannis Apostoli, sed cujusdam 
Joannis Theologi, et multa habet adeo obscura et perplexa, ut non multi dextre in 
ejus lectione versari queant — in Spittler, Ueber d. 60 Laod. Kanon, p. 16. This cita-j 
tion is not designed as an approval of such opinions in themselves, but simply as a 
proof that independent views respecting the elements of the canon may consist with a 
decided faith in the Divine nature of Christianity. 

^ Comp. Schleiermacher, § 114, sq. 

^ Discoveries made up to the present time (e. ^., of a lost letter by Paul to the Cor- 
inthians) have not, however, been sufficiently attested. But comp. Schleiermacher. 
§ 111. 


such things have occurred is, as Herder observes, not supposition, 
but fact/ Who can even assure us that, despite the great number 
of MSS. of the Scriptures, none of which reach back to the time of 
the original founding, the original form of expression was not lost 
here and there, and that this could not have been the case at a very 
early period, perhaps at the time when the first copy was made from 
the autograph ? 

Upon the purity of the text depends the internal value and char- 
acter of our Biblical canon. It may be said that as a book may be 
canonical, though found to emanate from another than the reputed 
author, even so a single passage, e. g., 1 John v, 7, may be allowed 
Apuretextin- ^o stand in the Bible if it does not contradict the 
dispensable. aualogia fidei. Reverence for the Bible, however, re- 
quires that every thing within our power be done to secure it in a 
form of the highest attainable purity, though the nature of the 
case is such as to prevent more than an approximate accomplish- 
ment of the task. 


Criticism is, according to its objects, divided into external and 
internal, and, according to its results, into negative and positive. 
A further distinction is sometimes made between the criticism of 
books and that of words or texts ;^ but the two cannot easily be 
kept apart, though they are employed on different objects — the 
former being more concerned with the authenticity of entire books 
or separate paragraphs, the latter with the genuineness and purity 
of the text (comp. the preceding §). It is usual, though inappro- 
priate, to designate the criticism of sections and books the higher, 
and that of words and separate passages the lower criticism.^ Not 
less misleading is the usage of others, who endeavor to include in 
the higher criticism what we would, more appropriately, term the 
internal, and in the lower criticism what we characterize as the 
external.* The truth is that the business of the critic deals with 

^ " The evidence which lies on the surface long ago destroyed all the prejudices 
which formerly prevailed on this subject."— Schleierraacher, § 116. To this we add, 
" Ought, at least, to have destroyed them." Wetstein, Proleg., p. 4, adduces a note- 
worthy example from the Aldine ed. of the LXX, in Gen. xliv, which reads ol avdpuTzoi 
avTuv, instead of ol ovoi avrov (QrClbn). The MS. had uvoi instead of ovoi, which waa 
taken for an abbreviation of av&puTTot^ and in this way asses were transformed into 
men! 2 Danz, p. 210. ^ Schleiermacher, § 118. Note. 

* Some writers apply the phrase, " the lower criticism," to the genuineness, etc., of 
single letters and words, and that of "the higher criticism" to entire books and sec- 
tions. Schleiermacher has, however, forcibly demonstrated the mechanical and un- 
tenable character of this distinction. Comp. Herm. u. Krit., p. 267 ; comp. 2'7'7. 


various combinations which are all equally important, but which 
are sometimes directed toward the external, historical, empirical, 
and sometimes toward the internal and psychological side. We 
accordingly give the name of external criticism to that External criti- 
which seeks to demonstrate the authenticity and genu- cism denned, 
ineness of a book, and also to discover the true readings from exist- 
ing facts, viz. : from existing testimonies taken from Christian an- 
tiquity, from MSS. versions, etc. This is by no means to be de- 
nominated a lower criticism, as if it were contrasted with anoth- 
er kind, which might proudly claim a higher place, or even disre- 
gard its existence, but rather constitutes the necessary basis of all 
critical procedure, unless we intend to build on air. But this ex- 
ternal application of the so-called critical apparatus is not alone 
sufficient ; for on the one hand that apparatus is itself subject to 
higher critical conditions, since the age and the importance of MSS. 
versions, etc., must first be ascertained,^ and on the other hand the 
most perfectly constructed critical apparatus cannot accomplish 
everything. It is necessary that internal criticism be brought in to 

complement the other. In this way conclusions may be 

. ^ , . , , . .^ „ . '^ , The office of 

arrived at respecting the authenticity ot a written work, internal criti- 

even though the testimony from external sources be ^^^' 
indefinite or conflicting, or though no such testimony exist — the 
means employed being comparison with other works by the same 
author (e. (/., the Ep. to the Hebrews compared with the acknowl- 
edged writings of St. Paul, the Apocah^se with the gospel and the 
epistles by St. John, 2d with 1st Peter and Avith discourses in the 
Acts by the same apostle), the collocation and estimating of histor- 
ical conditions {e. (/., in connexion with disputed predictions in the 
prophets), and finally the careful observation and comparison of the 
language in any particular period, its grammatical forms, figures of 
speech, etc. Upon the question of integrity the disturbance of the 
natural connexion caused by an interpolated passage (1 John v, 7-8) 
may be sufficient to arouse the suspicion of spuriousness, even before 
the authority of MSS. is appealed to ; or with regard to the choice 
between diiferent existent readings an important influence may be 
exerted, in addition to that exercised by the external superiority of 
some particular MS., by the internal relation of the passage to the 
whole connexion. It also becomes possible occasionally to show by 
internal criticism how a false reading could have originated, and 

' In this regard compare the different critical systems by Bentley, Mill, Bengel, Wet- 
stein, Griesbach, Hug, Matthaei, Scholz, Lachmann, Tischendorf. At this point crit- 
icism and introductory science interpenetrate each other. See Schleiermacher, § 120 ; 
de Wette, Einl., § 37, sqq. 


not rarely is it compelled to decide whether the preference is to be 
given to an easy or a more difficult reading ; for while it is certain 
that words have been changed because they were not understood in 
such a sense or such a connexion, it is equally certain that many a 
difficult reading was introduced into the text by ill-timed polishing 
or thoughtless want of care on the part of copyists. 

To discover the proper bounds to be observed between external 
Carefully fixed and internal criticism in their application, is conceded 
limits to be set ^^ ^^ difficult. Great care is certainly required in con- 
icism. nexion with the latter, and much mischief has already 

been caused by its use ; but we cannot on that account give an un- 
qualified assent to the idea that the critic's work should be of a 
purely mechanical nature, and that the authority of MSS. should 
alone be allowed to decide.^ Harmonious activity of the intellect- 
ual powers, the combination of external with internal circumstances, 
comprehension and judgment, doctrina and ingenium^ must go hand 
in hand in this pursuit. Who will deny that even the earliest and 
best codices were exposed to accidents, the very thing which the 
keen scent of criticism, certainly a natural endowment which is to 
be ennobled by learning, is to discover when possible ? Above all 
arbitrariness and accident, however, stands science, combined with 
liberty and a higher necessity. 



The negative criticism endeavours simply to ascertain and cast out 
Negative and what is spurious as a whole or in part ; while the posi- 
ci?mrfunctions ^^^^ criticism seeks, with reference to authenticity, to 
of each. discover the real authors of anonymous and pseudony- 

mous works, and with reference to integrity to restore the text to 
its original condition. The former, when sufficient external evi- 
dence is wanting, is done by hypothesis, the latter by conjecture. 

It is generally more easy to determine with certainty that a work 
was not written by the author to whom tradition has attributed it, 
than to discover who the real author was ; and it is likewise more 
easy to arrive at the conclusion that a passage has been corrupted 
or mutilated than at a definite result in settling the true reading. 
Positive criticism receives occasional aid from external helps, how- 
ever, even though they be not wholly adequate. Thus, e. g., the 
testimony of Tertullian (De pudic. c. 20) led many to adopt the 

^ Comp., e. g.^ Rettig's notice of Lachmann's N. T. in Studd. u. Kritt., 1832, No. 4. 
Baur (contra Thiersch et al.) has said much that is worthy of note, in opposition to 
pure mechanism in critical processes. 


theory that the Epistle to the Hebrews was w^ritten by Barnabas. 
Sometimes, however, hypothesis puts forth claims, based solely upon 
possibilities, as in the case of Eichhorn's assumption of a primitive 
Gospel, and in many other instances of recent times. The claim 
of hypothesis upon our approval is even less authoritative in the 
latter class of cases (L e., of appeal to bare possibilities) frequent faiia- 
than in the former, and many w^riters have accordingly cies of critical 
forsaken the way of hypothesis, as being entirely too ^^^^ ®^®^* 
uncertain, and have ceased altogether from making use of the so- 
called positive criticism; bolder inquirers, however, still continue 
to employ it.^ Similar considerations apply to conjectures relating 
to the readings. A former age was entirely too prone to apply 
conjecture, at first in the department of profane, and subsequently 
also in that of sacred, literature ; but they are likewise wrong who 
unconditionally reject conjecture, for it is knowm that conjectures 
have occasionally been confirmed by readings that were afterward dis- 
covered. While therefore it may be advisable in general to insist 
upon the rule that " whatever of correct results may be obtained in 
the way of conjecture must be supported by facts connected wdth 
the history of the text," the rule must yet be so modified as not to 
forbid conjectural attempts in needful cases.'* 

' Comp. Hitzig, supra. The positive criticism is especially recommended by Hahn; 
understanding thereby not a criticism which so dreads negation as to cling with firmer 
grasp to the traditional, but that which conquers the negative, and which by concen- 
trating its attention upon its object — ^the several books of the Bible and the cir- 
cumstances of history — assigns to such books their definite and assured historical 

2 Schleiermacher, §§ 119 and 121, and Kritik, p. 291: "The canon that the divina- 
torial process (conjecture) is to be allowed only where documentary aids are wanting, 
or even that when the latter are not wanting, the right to employ conjectural processes 
does not exist, the best that manuscripts afford being all that we are authorized to 
ask — this canon does not apply absolutely, and may not even be assumed, because the 
interests of hermeneutics would suffer loss thereby." But see p. 312, and comp. 
Herder. " Conjecture, in the critical sense, resembles the scalpel of the surgeon. It 
may unfortunately become necessary and beneficial, but only terribly necessary, terri- 
bly advantageous ; and the wretch who plays and whittles with it, cutting away at pleas- 
ure, now an ear, now an eye, now a nose, that does not suit his fancy — but mutilates 
himself." Specimens of vain conjecture are given by Herder in the Appendix to the 
Briefe zweener Bruder Jesu (Werke z. Rel. u. Theol., viii, p. 291). Similarly, Liicke, 
" Divinatorial criticism involves a dangerous element, and is least of all the concern 
of everybody ; but it is needed for complementing the theological science of the canons 
(Stud. u. Krit., 1834, Xo. 4, p. 267). Comp. Rosenkranz, Encykl., p. 121, sqq. ; de 
Wette, Einl, § 59. 




Although criticism is, in its idea, distinguished from exegesis, 

„ , ,. , ., assuming: the relation of an auxiliary to the latter, it 
Relation of en t- ^ . ... . 

icism to exe- can yet be conceived of in reality only in connexion 
^^^^^' with the functions of interpretation ; for an interest in 

criticism must be aroused, and a sense for it be quickened, by ex- 
egesis. The two sciences must accordingly be conceived of as con- 
tinually acting upon each other, and therefore as conditioning and 
aiding each other. 

Nothing is more hurtful, and nothing has done more to damage 
criticism in the estimation of pious people, than the ill- 
by dabwers in timed and superficial dabbling with it of persons who, 
n icism. before having properly read a single book in the Bible, 

or having been tested in the work of exposition, undertake to deal 
exclusively with the surface results of criticism, and swear by them 
as though they were established facts — who pronounce their dictum 
about the Bible without being well read ^?^ the Bible, or having 
learned anything of value from it. How frequently has a taste 
for the Bible been destroyed at the outset by forcing uj^on the no- 
tice of young men such oracular decisions of criticism, before they 
had become well acquainted with the sacred text ! If it is highly 
unpedagogical to trouble pupils who have not thoroughly read an 
ode of Horace or an oration by Cicero, with criticism in connexion 
with the explanation of the classics, it is nothing less than sin to 
disgust young theologians with the study of the Bible from the be- 
ginning, or, what is worse, to lead them to cultivate a foolish self- 
conceit, by means of depreciatory criticisms. It might therefore 
be sufficient for the beginner at first if he were to make himself 
acquainted with the tasks which criticism is to perform, leaving the 
practical employment of its operations for a later time, when he 
shall have become familiarly acquainted with his Bible, and shall 
have tasted somewhat of its positive contents, even having refreshed 
and nourished his soul thereby. This is possible, however, only 
in the rugged way of a thorough exegesis. Critical virtuosity, as 
Critical and ex- Schleiermacher terms it, is to be attained only as the 
effeticai skill result of practice ;' and exegetical virtuosity is its neces- 
practice. sary prerequisite, although neither of them can attain 

to its completion without the aid of the other. Such reciprocal ac- 
tion between exegesis and criticism is self-evident, however. If the 
choice of a reading affects the interpretation, or, rather, if it pro- 

* Schleiermacher, § 122, sq. 


vides the matter for interpretation, it is conversely true that the 
correct explanation of a passage throws needed light upon the vari- 
ous readings which exist, so that, not unfrequently, a more accurate 
comprehension of the connexion inclines us to readopt a reading 
which we had rejected, or to reject one which we believed ourselves 
obliged to hold, before the passage itself was understood. The 

authenticity of a book and the acknowleds-ment of its ^ .,. . 

•^ , P . . Criticism and 

author may likewise be affected, and suspicion against exegesis act on 
the book itself be excited, by the misunderstanding of ^^^ ^ ®^' 
a passage, while a profounder apprehension of the writer's spirit 
and of the situation may restore its genuineness. Conversely, a 
superficial knowledge respecting the authenticity of a book may al- 
lay all questionings, while a thorough examination of the matter 
may excite doubts warranted by the facts, and call for a more ex- 
haustive discussion of the points in doubt. It will thus be seen 
how necessary it is, first, in every case, and before the judgment 
has been formed, to have regard to the results obtained by others, 
and in this way to employ in reading the Bible a text as critically 
correct as may be possible; but, second, while making use of the 
best critical aids at command, to preserve unbiassed the keenness of 
our oTVTi mental vision in the work of interpretation. 

History of Criticism. 
To provide the history of criticism fully is the task of Intro- 
duction. The text of the Old Testament, upon which „ . ^ . , 

'^ Historical 

the copyists expended conscientious care (the syna- sketch of Bib- 

gogue-rolls), engaged the attention first of all of the ^'""^^ criticism. 
Masorites, Jewish scholars, whose principal school '^^® Masorites. 
flourished at Tiberias in the beginning of the sixth century. They 
compared the codices, noted the various readings, (Keri and Chetib,) 
and even anxiously numbered the Avords and syllables. To thera 
we likewise owe the vowel-signs, pointings, etc. Among Christians, 
meritorious services were rendered by Origen (f 254), who com- 
pared the Greek versions of the LXX, of Aquila, Theodotion, and 
Symmachus with the Hebrew original (Hexapla) ; and by Jerome, 
who improved the existing Latin version (Itala) and published a 
version of his own (Vulgata), which soon came into general use and 
acquired ecclesiastical authority in the Western Church. The prej- 
udices which this man, usually so anxiously cautious, was compelled 
to encounter in connexion with this work, are well known. The 
"two-legged asses," as he terms his opponents, even went to the 
length of calling him falsarius, sacrilegus, corruptor sanctarum 
Scripturarum ! The New Testament was gradually collected. The 


originals are no longer extant. The most ancient MSS. do not reach 
back further than the fourth century. An inclination to adulterate 
the text was apparent at an early day, against which the Church was 
obliged to guard. Copies were made, in the first instance, for the 
use of Churches, and "without any philological supervision." It 
was reserved for science in later ages to divide the different codices, 
according to their age (Uncials and Cursives), or according to the 
countries in which they originated (Oriental and Occidental), into 
Mo f rt t f^^i^i^s ^^^ recensions. The most important MSS. of 
MSS.oftiieNew the N^ew Testament are. The Cod. Alexandrinus (A) in 
e^amen. ^|^^ British Museum at London ; the Yaticanus (B) at 
Rome; the Codex Regius (Parisiensis) ; also the Cod. Ephraem Syr. 
(a palimpsest) at Paris (C) ; and the Codex Cantabrigiensis (D). 
To these must be added, as of highest importance, the Codex Si- 
naiticus {^), discovered by Tischendorf in 1859 and published in 
1862; comp. Stud. u. Krit., 1860, 4; 1862, 1, 4; 1864, 3 (by Wies- 
eler); Gott. Gelehrt. Anzeigen, 1860, No. 177; Prot. Kirchenzei- 
tung, 1862, No. 50; Zarncke's CentralbL, 1860; Literaturbl., 1863, 
Ko. 69; Hilgenf eld's Zeitschr., 1864, 1, and *Yolbeding: Constantin 
Tischendorf, 1862; Tischendorf, Die Sinaibibel, etc., 1871. See 
also article on Sinaitic Manuscript in M'Clintock and Strong's Cy- 
clopaedia, and Harman's Introduction, Appendix. This Codex is 
distinguished not only by its age (Tischendorf assigns it to the for- 
mer half of the fourth century, which is, however, already denied 
by otheis) but also by its completeness, even the Epistle of Barna- 
bas, in the Greek text, and the Shepherd of Hermas being included 
in it. 

But little was done for criticism during: the Middle Ag:es. Al- 

, . , ^ .,. cuin, about A. D. 802, improved the Vul^ata based on 
Biblical Criti- ' _ ' r & 

cism in the the translation of Jerome, by the command of Charle- 
Middie Ages, magne. New revisions were undertaken by Lanfranc 
in the eleventh century and Cardinal Nicholas in the twelfth. At 
about this time the Correctoria biblica appeared (concerning which 
see De Wette, Einleitung, p. 108, sq.). The work of Cardinal Hugo 
de St. Caro in the thirteenth century, who divided the Bible into 
chapters, was rather mechanical than critical. The division of the 
New Testament into verses was not performed until the sixteenth 
century, when Robert Stephens devised the present arrangement. 
The undertaking of the Cardinal Ximenes, shortly before the Refor- 
mation, was, on the other hand, a magnificent conception, to which 
we owe the so-called Complutensian Polyglot, which was followed 
by those of Antwerp, Paris, and London, being critical collocations 
of the text and versions after the manner of Origen. A rich bib- 


lical apparatus was given in the prolegomena to the London Poly- 
glot (also published separately) of Brian Walton (f 1661). The 
first critical edition of the New Testament was issued 

First 0T*1ti03l pfli 

by Erasmus (Basle, 1516) at nearly the time when the tion of the New 
Complutensian Polyglot was completed. Testament. 

All this work was text criticism; but the Reformation called 
into life a universal spirit of inquiry. Luther permitted himself to 
form independent opinions respecting various parts of the Scrip- 
tures, though he was rather influenced by subjective feeling than 
by scientific considerations. The progress of an unbiassed criticism 
was long hindered afterward by the strictness with which the Prot- 
estant Church clung to the principle of adherence to the letter of 
Scripture, and to the idea of inspiration connected with that prin- 
ciple. The Reformed Formula Consensus raised even the inspira- 
tion of the vowel-points into a dogma! A new critical impulse 
was given, on the other hand, to the Roman Catholic Church in 
the seventeenth century by Richard Simon, who expressed inde- 
pendent views, among other things, with regard to the composition 
of the Pentateuch, etc. (In relation to him see Bernus, Richard 
Simon et son histoire critique du vieux Test., Lausanne, 1869.) The 
dogmatists of both Churches were, however, unceasing in their 
efforts to fill up the way which he had opened, to use Lessing's ex- 
pression, " with floods of rubbish constantly renewed." The criti- 
cism of the text likewise came to an end, after the age had become 
accustomed to regard the textus receptus of the sixteenth century 
as an authority. A new interest in it was excited by Revival of Bib- 

the English scholars Fell, Mill, Bentley, and Kennicott "^fJ criticism 
° , ' ... m the 18th cen- 

(the latter in Old Testament criticism). When Wet- tury. 

stein, having been encouraged by Bentley, was preparing his critical 

edition of the New Testament, about the middle of the eighteenth 

century, he was exposed to severe attacks of opposition (comp. 

Hagenbach in Illgen's Zeitschr. f. hist. Theologie, 1839, 1) ; but 

Bengel nevertheless undertook to perform in behalf of orthodox 

theology what. Wetstein had begun in sympathy with a more scep- 

ticM habit of thought. While these scholars confined their efforts 

more particularly to the department of text-criticism, Semler, on 

the other hand, after the middle of the eighteenth century, excited 

numerous doubts with regard to the genuineness of entire books 

in the Bible by his Free Examination of the Canon, Beginning 

With Semler begins the period of independent re- witb semier of 

& ^ ^ . . the Rational- 

search in this field, but also of abuse and subjective arbi- istic criticism. 

trariness. Sober science, however, continued to pursue its assured 

course in the midst of such fluctuations. On the one hand, diplo- 


matic text-criticism continued to gain in settled principles and in 
historic ground through paleographic researches which were steadi- 
ly prosecuted, through the comparison of MSS., etc., and various 
systems were developed in this direction, upon which the processes 
of criticism rest. (The labours of Hug, Griesbach, Schulz, Scholz, 
Lachmann, Tischendorf.) On the other hand, inquiry was more in- 
telligently directed toward the several parts of the Old and the 
New Testament canon. Single books in either Testament were at 
first attacked, without the recognition of any definite principle, but 
rather under the influence of the personal impressions of critics; 
but the investigation gradually secured firmer points of connexion 
with historical facts. The inquiry has been chiefly directed upon 
the Pentateuch, the Books of Chronicles, the Prophets, (the second 
part of Isaiah, Daniel,) the Psalms, and the writings of Solomon in 
the Old Testament, and the Gospels, (their origin and relation to 
each other,) the Pastoral epistles and the second epistle to the Thessa- 
lonians, the epistle to the Hebrews, Second Peter, and the Apocalypse 
in the New. Such fragmentary operations do not cover the whole 
ground that has been gone over, however; but after the latest spec- 
The Tiibinsen ulative (Tubingen) school, Baur, Zeller, Schwegler, et 
tendency critics, (^i ^ jj^d attempted an historical construction of Chris- 
tianity from its principles, it involved the entire canon of the New 
Testament books in the critical process of disintegration connected 
with that attempt, assigning most of them to a later date, and, at 
the same time, charging them with subserving tendencies which 
are not always reconcilable with the purity of purpose belonging 
to an apostle. It can be confidently aflirmed that despite the bold, 
though often widely divergent, conclusions of the more recent 
critics, (Hilgenfeld, Volckmar, Holsten, Overbeck,) genuine science 
can still hold an assured footing for a further advance in the service 
of truth. 

The leadership in biblical criticism was successfully maintained 
by English scholars in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries for 
eighty years (IGSY-lYsV). The fifth volume of Brian Walton's 
London Polyglot contained the text of the New Testament in six 
languages, with a large collection of various readings. He did not, 
however, undertake to form a revised text. Bishop Fell (1625- 
1686) added much to this stock of critical material, and was besides 
the friend and patron of Dr. John Mill (1645-1707.) Thirty la- 
borious years were spent by Mill on his Greek Testament. He re- 
collated all the codices used by Walton for the London Polyglot, 
and accumulated a mass of readings from many sources, which he 
exhibits in his prolegomena. " Of the criticism of the New Testa- 


ment in the hands of Dr. John Mill," says Scrivener, " it may be 
said that he found the edifice of wood and left it marble." Rich- 
ard Bentley (1662-1742) projected a revision of the text of the 
New Testament, which he never completed. We can readily con- 
jecture what his extraordinary critical sagacity would have accom- 
plished in this field. From the time of Bentley little was done by 
English scholars in New Testament criticism for more than a hun- 
dred years. Samuel Prideaux Tregelles issued from 1857 to 1872 his 
Greek Testament from the most ancient MSS. and from ancient 
versions. Tregelles bases his text on a small number of manuscripts. 
Frederick Henry Scrivener has contributed a valuable Introduction 
to the Criticism of the New Testament (Cambridge, 1861, 1874). 
Messrs. Westcott and Hort have, since the appearance of the revised 
English Testament, published a text which has been long in prepa- 
ration, and also a companion volume containing an appendix and 
introduction to their work. Although the revisers of the English 
Testament have not attempted " to construct a continuous and 
complete Greek text," the text adopted by them has been published 
by their secretary, E. Palmer. (Oxford, 1881.) 

1. Critically revised portable editions of the Old Testament of recent date} 

♦Biblia hebraica manualia ad praestt. editt. edita a Joh. Simonis. Halle, 1752, 1767, 
1822, 1828. Various books of this edition (Genesis, Psalms, Isaiah, etc.) have 
also been separately published. 

* Biblia hebraica digessit et graviores lect. variett. adj. J. Jahn. Vien., 1806. 4 voU. 

Ed. 4., 1839. 
Biblia hebr. ad Eb. v. d. Hooght ed. no v., recogn. et emend, a Judah d'Allemand. 
Lond., 1825. 

* Biblia hebraica ad optim. editt. fidem summa diligentia ac studio recensa. Basileae, 

1837. (Largely after van der Hooght.) 

^ With regard to the history of the text and other critical apparatus for the Old Test. comp. 
Franke, p. 96, sqq. ; Rosenmiiller's Handbuch, and the Introductions to the Old Test, (de Wette's, 
§. 76, sqq.) ; Strack, Prolegomena critica in Vetus Test. Hebr., quibus agitur, I. de codicibus et 
deperditis et adhuc exstantibus, II. de textu bibliorum hebr. qualis talmudistarum temporibus 
fuerit. Lips., 1873. Ancient versions : a) Greek (the Alexandrian of the so-called seventy trans- 
lators, and those by Aquila, Symmachus, Theodotion, etc.) ; b) Oriental (the Syriac [Peshito], 
Ethiopic [ed. by Dillmann], Egyptian, Arabian, Armenian, Georgian) ; c) Latin (ante-Hierono- 
mian [Itala], Vulgate) ; d) Slavic ; e) Chaldee Paraphrases ; comp. de Wette, §. 39, sqq. Concern- 
ing the Hexapla of Origen comp. ibid., §. 45, sqq. : F. C. Tischendorf, Anecdbta sacra et profana 
ex oriente et occidente allata sive notitia codicum graecorum, arabicorum, syriacorum, etc., 
cum excerptis multis maximam partem graecis et 35 scripturarum antiquissimarum exemplis. 
Lips., 1861. 4. 

Older, and usually large, editions of the Old Testament : (de Wette, §. 95. Rosenmiiller, I, 
189 ff. Benj. Kennicott, dissertationes super ratione textus hebr. V. T. in libris editis. Latine 
vertit et auxit W, Abr. Teller. Lips., 1757-65. 2 voll.) : von Soncino (1488-94), in der complu- 
tens. Polyglotte (1514-17), Bomberg I. (1518-21), Bomberg II. (1525), S. Miinster (Froben, 1536), 
R. Stephan I. (1539-i3), R. Stephan II. (1544-46), Plantinus (1566-71-84), E. Hutter (1587), J. Bux- 
torf (1611-18, 1619, etc.), J. Athias (1561), Jablonsky (1699, Handausg.), van der Hooght (1705. 
Lond., 1822, Handausg.), Opitz (1709), Michaelis (1720, Handausg.), Houbigant (1753), Kennicott 
1776, 80), Reineccius (1725, Handausg.), Doderlein u. Meisner (1793). 


D*!3''J13*l D''t<^!13 rrrin- Blblla hebr. sec. editt. Athiae, J. Leusdeni, Jo. Simonis, impr. 
Eberh. van der Hooght rec, A. Hahn. Ed. ster. Lips., 1831-39, 

Biblia hebr. ad optimas editiones, imprimis Eb. van der Hooght ex rec. A. Hahnii im- 
pressa (cur. K, W. Landschreiber ; praef. est E. F, K, Rosenmiiller), Ed. stereot. 
Lips., 1834-38. 12. 

D*3^nD1 D''X'^3J min. BiWia hebr. ad optimas editt. expressa. Curavit et indices 
nee non clavem masoreticam add. C. G. Giul. Theile. Ed. stereot. Lips., 1849. 
(Genesis, Psalms, Job, Isaiah, etc., also published separately.) New ed. 1859. 

Testament utrumq. edd. Theile et Tischendorf (V. T. hebr. ; N. T. gr.) Lips., 1850. 
2d ed., 1862. 

K^lpn 1SD. Vien., 1852. 

* Polyglottenbibel, Zum prakt. Handgebranch. Prepared by Dr. Rud. Stier and Dr. 
K. G. W. Theile. A. u. N. T. Bielef., 1846-55. 5 vols. 3d ed. of the 0. T. and 
4th ed. of the N. T., 1863-64. (Embraces the Original, the LXX, the Vulgate, 
Luther's translation, and the most important various readings of ancient and mod- 
ern versions.) 

Separate portions of the Old Testament. 

Pentateuchus in usum scholarum academicarum ex editione utriusque testament! 

Tauchnitziana separatim edendum curavit C. G. G. Theile. Lips., 1861. Ed. ster. 
Liber Geneseos sine punctis exscriptus curaverunt E. Muehlau et Aem. Kautzsch. 

Lips., 1868. 
Liber Genesis. Textum Masorethicum accuratissime expressit, e fontibus Masorae 

varie illustravit, notis criticis confirmavit S. Baer. Praefatus est Fr. Delitzsch. 

Lips., 1869. 
Jesajae, Liber. H^V^J^^ "ISD- Textum Masorethicum accuratissime expressit, e fontibus 

Masorae varie illustravit, notis criticis confirmavit S. Baer. Praefatus est Fr. 

Delitzsch. Lips., 1872. 
Liber Psalmorum hebraicus. Textum Masorethicum accuratius quam adhuc factum 

est expressit, brevem de accentibus metricis institutionem praemisit, notas criticas 

adjecit S. Baer. Praefatus est Fr. DeUtzsch. Lips., 1861. 

a) Large Editions of the Septuagint : 
V. T. ex versione LXX interprr. — post Grabe et Lee ed. J. J. Breitinger. Turic, 

1730-32. 4 voll. 4. 
V. T. graecum, cum. var. lectt. edd. R. Holmes et Parsons. Ox., 1798-1827. 5 voll. f. 

b) Manual Editions : 
V. T. Graec. ex versione LXX una cum libris apocr. ed. Ch. Rheineccius. Lips., 

V. T. gr. juxta LXX interprr, cur. L. v. Ess. Lips., 1824. Ed. nova, 1855. 
V. T. gr. juxta LXX interprr. ed. J. N. Jager. Par., 1834. 
V. T. gr. juxta LXX int. Textum Vatic, emendatius ed., argumenta et locos N. T. 

parall. notavit, lect. var. subj., comment, isag. praetexuit C. Tischendorf. Lips., 

1850. 2 voll, Ed. 4. 1869. Ed. 5. 1875. 
For the history of this version : Aristeae historia LXXII interprr. ; gr. et lat. Oxon., 

1692. (New ed. in Merx' Archiv I, 3. 1868.) Comp. the works of Hody, van 

Dale, Ussher, Voss, u. A. Comp. Winer, Handb. d. theol. Lit. P. 49. 
L. T. Muecke, de origine vers. LXX interprr. Zullich., 1789. 
Thiersch, de Pentateuchi versione Alexandrina. Erl., 1841. 


Editions of the Vulgate : 

Biblia S. vulg. edit, ad cone. Trid. praescriptum emend, et a Sixto Y. recogn. Rom., 
1590. 'fol. 

Biblia S. vulg. ed. Sixti V. jussu rec. et ausp. dementis YIII. ed. Rom., 1593-4. 

Portable editions by L. van Ess (Tiib., 1822-24. 3 Bde.), J. H. Kistemaker (Miinst., 
1828^6), B. Galura (Innsbr., 1834-35. 3 Bde. 4.), B. Loch (Regensb., 1849. 2. Aufl., 
ebend., 1867 ff.), J. F. v. Allioli (Landsh., 1853), Fleck (Xeues Test. Lpz., 1840). 

Important for critical purposes : Codex Amiatinus. X. T. latine interprete Hieronymo, 
ex celeberrimo cod. Amiatino omnium et antiquissimo et praestantissimo nunc 
primum ed. Const. Tischendorf. Lips., 1850-54. Codex Fuldensis. Novum Testa- 
mentum latine interprete Hieronymo ex manuscripto Victoris Capuani edidit. pro- 
legomenis introduxit, commentariis adornavit Ernest. Ranke. Marb., 1868. 

The Gothic version by Ulfilas, with parallel Greek and Latin versions, by H. Mass- 
mann. Stuttg., 1855. 

2. Editions of the New Testament} 
Novum Testamentum graece, recogn. atque insign. lectt. varietat. et argument, notat. 

subjunxit G. Chr. Knapp. Halle, 1797, 1813, 1822, 1830. Ed. 5. 1840. 
* N, T. graece. E rec. Griesb. nova vers. lat. illustr., indice brevi praecip. lectt. et in- 

terprett. diversitatis indice instr., auct. H. A. Schott. Lips., 1805, 1811, 1825. 

Ed. 4. 1839. 
N. T. graece. Ad fidem optimor. librr. rec. J. A. H. Tittmann. Ed. ster. Lips., 

1820. 28. Ed. noy. cur. A. Hahn, 1840; 1861. 
N. T. textum gr, Griesb. et Knappii denuo recognovit, delectu variet. lectt. testim. 

confirm., adnott. turn criticis tum exegeticis, indicibus, etc., instruxit J. S. Yater. 

Halle, 1824. 
N. T. graece. Ex rec. C. Lachmanni. Ed. ster. Berol., 1831. 
N. T. graece nova versione lat. donatum ed. F. A. Naebe. Lips., 1831. 
N. T. graece et latine. Ex rec. Knappiana adjectis variis Griesb. et Lachm. lectioni- 

bus ed. A. Goeschen. Lips., 1832. 
N. T. ad optt. librr. fidem rec. A. Jaumann. Miin., 1832. 
N. T. graece, ex recogn. Knappii emendatius ed., C. G. Guil. Theile. Ed. ster. Lips., 

1841. Ed. 7., 1858. Ed. 8. 1865. Ed. 11. 1875. Also in Greek and Latin 

(Yulg.) 1854, and Greek and German, 1852, by the same publishers. 
N. T. gr. et lat. (Yulg.) ed. F. X. Reithmayr. Miin., 1847. 
*N. T. graece. Textum ad fidem antiquorum testium recensuit, brevem apparatum 

criticum una cum var. lectt. Elzeviriorum, Knappii, Scholzii, Lachmanni subjunxit 

C. Tischendorf. Lips., 1841, 1848, 1849. 7th ed., 1859. 8th ed., 1869-72. 

Editio stereotypa. Lips., 1850. Ed. nova, 1873. (A good manual edition.) 

N. T. gr. Par., 1842. 12; gr. et lat., ed. Jager et Tischendorf, Par., 1842. 

'H Katvh Scad^TjKjj. N. T. graece, recens. inque usum academicum omni modo instruxit 

C. Tischendorf. Lips., 1855, 1861. 16. Edit. 5., ibid., 1867. Ed. 9. 1876. 
H. A. W. Meyer, das N. T. griechisch, nach den besten Hiilfsmitteln kritisch revidirt, 

mit einer deutschen Uebersetzung (see Commentaries). 

^ For the history of the N. T. text comp. de Wette, II, §. 27, sqq. ; with regard to versions, see 
§. 10, aqq. Polyglotts : a) the Comphitenslan (1514-17) ; b) Antwerp (1569-72) ; c) Paris (1645) ; 
d) London (by Walton, 1657). Comp. Franke, p. 139, sqq. With regard to the different classes of 
editions (1. such as exactly reproduce the text of a given JtS. ; 2. such as are based upon several 
MSS. and other helps ; and 3. such as merely reproduce earlier editions with unimportant 
changes) ; and also, with reference to the so-called Textus Receptus (vulgaris) of the ELze\Tr edi- 
tion, comp. Danz, §. 19, and the works there mentioned, Franke, p. 161, sqq. 


N. T. graece ad fidem potissimum cod. Vat. rec, Phil. Buttmann. Lips., 1856, 1862. 

Edit. 3., ibid, (without date). 
Testamentum novum ti'iglottum, graece, latine, germanice . . . ed. Tischendorf. Lips., 

1854. 4. Edit. 2., 1865. 
N. T. tetraglottum. Archetypum graecum c. versionibus vulgata latina, germanica 

Lutheri et anglica authentica, in usum manualem edend. curaverunt C. G. G. Theile 

et R. Stier. Bielef., 1855. Edit. 2. 1858. 
*H Kaivri dLttT^T/KT]. Nov. Test, ad fidem Codicis Vaticani ediderunt A. Kuenen et C. G. 

Cobel. Lugd. Bat., 1860. 
Novum Testamentum Vaticanum. Post Angeli Maii aliorumque imperfectos labores 

ex ipso codice edidit. Tischendorf. Lips., 186*7. 
Bibliorum sacrorum graecus codex Vaticanus studiis Caroli Vercellone et Josephi 

Cozza editus. Tom. V, (contains the N. T.) Pol. Rom., 1869. 
Testamentum Nov. post Lachmannum et Tischendorfium ad fidem optimorum librorum 

denuo diligenter recognovit lectionumque varietatem notavit Aug. Hahn. Edit. 

ster. Lips., 1861. 
* Bibliorum Codex Sinaiticus Petropolitanus. Auspiciis aug. Imperatoris Alexandri 

11. ex tenebris protraxit, in Europam transtulit, ad juvandas sacras htteras ed. 

Constantinus Tischendoi"f. 4 voll. Petrop., 1862. (A costly library edition.) 
A cheaper edition is Testamentum Novum Sinaiticum s. Nov. Test, cum epist. Bar- 

nabae et fragmentis Pastoris ex codice Sinaitico, etc. Lips., 1863.^ 8vo. 1864. 
E. Reuss, Bibliotheca Novi Testamenti Graeci, Brunsvigae, 18*72, gives a descriptive 

list of all the published editions of the New Testament. 


Synopsis evv. Matth., Marc, et Luc, una cum iis Jo. pericopis, quae hist. pass, et 

resurr. Chr. complectt. ; textum recogn. etc., J. J. Griesbach. Hal., 17*76-97-1809. 

St. John's Gospel is wanting in the 1st ed., 17Y4. 
Synopsis ew., etc. ; ex rec. Griesb. edd. W. M. L. de Wette et P. Luecke. Berol., 

1818, 1841. 4. 
Synopsis Mt., Mc. et Luc. c. Jo. peric. parallelis, ed. M. Roediger. Hal., 1829-39. 
R. Anger, Synopsis evv. Mt., Mc, Lc cum locis qui supersunt parall. literarum et tra- 

ditt. evv. Irenaeo antiquiorum. Lips., 1851. Ed. 2, 1868. 
C. Tischendorf, syn. ev. ex 4 evv. ord. chron. concinnata. Lips., 1851 ; ed. 4, 1878. 
J. H. Friedlieb, quatuor evv. in harmoniam redacta. Vratisl., 1847. 
H. N. Clausen, quat. evv. tabulae synopticae. Havn., 1829. 
Sevin, die drei ersten Evangelien synoptisch zusammengestellt. Wiesb., 1866. 
Synopses in German by H. Planck (Gott., 1809), Pr. A. Beck (Berl., 1826), G. C. R. 

Matthai (Gott., 1826), J. Gehringer (Tiib., 1842), P. J. Sindler (Augsb., 1852). 
A Harmony of the Gospels by Sevin, 1867. 
Upon the whole of this richly endowed branch of literature comp. Hase, Leben Jesu 

(4th ed. Lpz., 1854), pp. 20-26. 

1 Older editions of the New Test., aside from those contained in the Polyglotts : (Comp. 
de Wette, §. 41, sqq.) ; 5 by Erasmus (1516, 1519, 1522, 1527, 1535), 3 by Robert Stephens (1546, 1549, 
1565), 4 larger eds. by Theodore Beza, (published by Stephens, 1565, 1582, 1589, and 1598), and 
6 smaller, 1556-91 ; upon the 3d ed. of Stephens, as improved by Beza, depends the authority of 
the so-called Textus Receptus ; John Fell (following the London Polyglott, 1675), John Mill 
(1707), Kiister (1710-23), J. A. Bengel (1734 ; republished in manual eds. 1739, 1753, 1762, 1776, and 
by his son, Ernst Bengel, in 1790), J. J. Wetstein (1751 ; new ed. by Lotze, Botterd., 1831). Larger 
critical editions of more recent date: *J. J. Griesbach (Halle, 1774, 1775, 2 vols. ; Leips., 1803, 
1807, 4 vols.), Chr. Fr, Matthai (1783-88), F. C. Alter (1786, 1787), Andr. Birch (1788, 1801), David 
Schulz (Griesb. T. Berl., 1827), M, A Scholz (Lpz., 1830), K. Lachmann u. Ph. Buttmann, (Berl., 
1842, 1850. 2 Bde.), E. v. Muralt (Hamb., 1846, 1848), W. Greenfield u, J. P. Engles (Philad., 1851). 


3. TTieoretical works on Criticism and Critical Helps} 
L. Cappelli Critica sacra s. de vaiiis quae in sacris V. T. libris occurrunt lectionibus 

libri VI. Rec. multisque animadverss. auxit G. J. L. Vogel. Vol. 1. Hal., 1775 

Voll. 2, 3, ed. J. G. Scharfenberg., 1778, 1786. 
J. J. Griesbach, symbolae criticae ad suppl. et corrig. variarum N. T. lectt. collec- 

tiones. Hal., 1785-93. 2 voll. 

Commentarius criticus in textum graec. N. T. Jen., 1798-1811. 

J. G. Reiche, commentarius crit. in N. T. 3 Tom. Gott., 1853-62. 

* F. Schleiermacher, Hermeneutik u. Kritik mit bes. Beiziehung auf N. T., published 

by Liicke. Berl, 1838. (Vol. 2 of the Nachl. zur Theol.) 
f J. M. A. Lohnis, Grundziige d. bibl. Hermeneutik und Kritik. Giessen, 1839. 
Convenient for students : "^ Quellensammlung zur Geschichte des neutestamentlichen 

Kanon bis auf Hieronymus, published by J. Hirchhofer. Ziirich, 1844. 


1. Critical Editions of the Old Testament in Hebrew. 

An Interlinear Hebrew-English Psalter. The Book of Psalms in Hebrew, with a 
closely literal English Translation under each word. 8vo, pp. 240. London, 

Davidson, Samuel. Revision of the Hebrew Text of the Old Testament. Synopsis 
of Readings, Revised from Critical Sources. 8vo, pp. 234. London, 1882. 

Hahn's Hebrew Bible. New ed. Revised by Isaac Leeser and Joseph Jaquett. 8vo. 

Hebrew and English Psalms. The Hebrew Text of Van der Hooght, with the Au- 
thorized Translation of 1611. In parallel columns. 8vo, pp. 100. London, 

Hebrew Psalter. 32mo. Andover, 1864. 

Hughes, Joseph. The Prophecy of Joel. The Hebrew Text printed Metrically, with 
a new English Translation and Critical Notes. 8vo. London, 1882. 

Letteris,' Myer Levi. The Hebrew Bible, Revised and carefully Examined. With a 
Key to the Masoretic Notes. 8vo, pp. 1404. New York, 1872. 

Modern Polyglot Bible in Eight Languages. Giving the Hebrew Text, the Septuagint, 
and the Vulgate, and a Series of the best European Translations. To which is 
added the Peshito-Syriac New Testament, with Tables of the various Readings of 
the Hebrew, the Septuagint, the Greek, and Syriac New Testaments, etc. Crown 
folio, 2 vols. London, .1882. 

D vnn "IQD- The Book of Psalms, in Hebrew and English. Arranged in Paral- 
lelisms. Andover, 1862. 

The Hebrew and English Scriptures of the Old Testament. Consisting of the Orig- 
inal Hebrew Text, and the Authorized English Version. With Appendices and 
Clavis to the Masoretic Notes. 4to, small. London, 1882. 

' See the more general critical and philological works of Valesius (1740), Heumann 
(1747), Morell (1768), J. Clericus (1778), Beck (1791), in Ast (in the work mentioned 
under Hermeneutics, at the end). " A barely sufficient guide (to New Test. Criticism) 
is found partly in the prolegomena to the critical editions (by Bengel, Wetstein, etc.) 
and is partly contained in that alia podrida to which the title of Introduction to the 
New Test, is commonly applied." Schleiermacher, §. 123, note. Hence comp. the 
literature under Introduction, su^ra. 


The Hebrew Bible of the Polyglot Series. The Text after Van der Hooght. Also 

the various Readings of the Samaritan Pentateuch. 8to, pp. 635. London, 

Walton's Polyglot. Biblia Sacra Polyglotta. Edidit Brianus Waltonus. 6 vols., 

folio. With Castell's Lexicon Heptaglotton, Hebrew, Chald., Syr., Samar., etc. 

2 vols., folio. Together, 8 vols., folio. 1657-69. 
Wright, C. H. H. The Book of Genesis in Hebrew ; with a Critically Revised Text, 

various Readings, and Grammatical and Critical Notes. 8vo. London, 1859. 

2. Critical Editions of the Septuagint. 

Hexaglot Bible ; compising the Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments in 
the Original Tongues ; together with the Septuagint, the Syriac, (of the New 
Testament.) the Vulgate, the Authorized English and German, and the most 
approved Erench Versions, arranged in parallel columns. Vols. I, II, III, (to be 
completed in 6 vols.) 4to. London, 1871-3. 

Septuagint Text, with Variorum Readings. 5 vols., folio. London, 1880. 

The Greek Septuagint. With an English Translation in parallel columns. 4to. 
London, 1882. 

The Septuagint according to the Vatican edition. Together with the real Septuagint 
Version of Daniel and the Apocrypha, including the Fourth Book of Maccabees, and 
an Historical Account of the Septuagint and of the Principal Texts in which it is 
Current. 8vo, pp. 958. London, 1882. 

The Septuagint Version of the Old Testament. Tables of the Various Readings 
of the Alexandrine Text, and the Septuagint according to the Vatican Text. 8vo, 
pp. 689. London, 1882. 

Tischendorf, Constantinus. Vetus Testamentum Graece Juxta LXX. Interpretes. 
8vo. Leipsic, 1869. 

Vetus Testamentum, Graece. Juxta LXX. Interpretes. Pp. 1088. Oxford, 1859. 
(Gives the Hebrew and Greek Texts in parallel columns.) 

3. Editions of the Vnlcfate. 

The Latin Bible. Biblia Sacra Vulgata Editionis Sixti V. et dementis VIIL 8vo, 

pp. IIS. London, 1882. 
The Vulgate New Testament, compared with the Douay Version of 1582. Parallel 

columns. Small 4to. London, 1882. 

4. Critical Editions of the New Testament. 

Alford, Henry. The Greek Testament, with a Critically Revised Text ; a Digest of 
various Readings, etc., and a Critical and Exegetical Commentary. 4 vols., 8vo, 
pp. civ, 924 ; Ixxxvii, 723 ; cxxix, 435 ; cclxxxviii, 750. London, 1868. 

Greek Testament with English Notes. Abridged by B. H. Alford, 8vo. Lon- 
don, 1869. 

Bagster's Large Print Greek Testament, wuth various Readings from Griesbach, 
Scholz, Lachmann, and Tischendorf, and references to Parallel Passages. 8vo. 

Critical New Testament, Greek and English, containing the Greek Text of 

Scholz, with Readings, both Marginal and Textual of Griesbach, and variations of 
Stephens, Beza, and the Elzevir. 16mo, pp. 624. New York, 1868. 

Bloomfield, S. T. The Greek Testament with English Notes, Critical, Philological, 
and Exegetical. 2 vols., 8vo, pp. 629, 631. Philadelphia, 1868. 


Buttz, Henry A. The Epistle to the Romans in Greek, etc. With References to 

the New Testament Grammars of Winer and Buttman. 8vo, pp. 42. New York, 

Cambridge Greek Testament. Ex Editione Stephani Tertia, 1550. 12mo. Cam- 
Codex Vaticanus. Novum Testamentum Graece ex Antiquissimo Codice Vaticano 

edidit Angelas Mains S. R. E. Card. Ad fidem Editionis'Romanae Accuratius 

Impressum. Svo, pp. 502. London, 1859. 
Cowper, B. H. Codex Alexandrinus, H KAINH AIABHKH, etc. Ad Fidem Ipsius 

Codicis Denuo Accuratius edidit. Svo. London. 1866. 
Dobbin, Orlando T. The Codex Montfortianus. A Collation of this Celebrated 

MS. throughout the Gospels and Acts, with the Greek Text of Wetstein, and with 

certain MSS. in the University of Oxford. Svo, pp. 280. London, 1882. 
Fairbairn, P. The Pastoral Epistles; the Greek Text and Translation. 12mo. 

New York. 
Green, T. S. The Twofold New Testament. A newly-formed Greek Text, with 

new Translation into English. In parallel columns. 4to, pp. 466. London, 

Grinfield, E. V. Novum Testamentum Graecum, Editio Hellenistica. Scholia 

Hellenistica in Novum Testamentum. 4 vols., Svo. London, 1843-48. 
Hahn, A. Greek Testament, edited by E. Robinson. 12mo, pp. 536. New York, 

Hansell, E. H. The New Testament. The most Ancient MSS. of the Original Greek, 

printed in parallel columns, with a Collation of the Sinaitic Codex. 3 vols., Svo. 

London, 1880. 
Major, J. R. The Gospel According to St. Mark, in the Original Greek, with a Digest 

of Notes from various Commentators. 16mo. London, 1871. 
New Testament, Griesbach's Text, vt^ith the various Readings of Mill and Sholz, 

Marginal References, and Parallels, and a Critical Introduction. 12mo, pp. 650. 

London, 1859. 
Novum Testamentum Textus Stephanici, A. D. 1550. Accedunt variae Lectiones 

editionum Bezae, Elzeviri, Lachmannii, Tischendorfii, et Tregellesii. Curante F. H. 

Scrivener. ISmo. Cambridge, 1872. 
Scrivener, F. H. An Exact Transcript of the Codex Augiensis, a Oraeco-Latin MS. 

of St. Paul's Epistles, etc., etc. With a Critical Introduction. Svo. Cambridge. 

A Full Collation of the Codex Sinaiticus, with the Received Text of the 

New Testament; to which is Prefixed a Critical Introduction. 16mo. London, 

Bezae Codex Cantabrigiensis, being an exact copy, in ordinary type, of the cele- 
brated Uncial Graeco-Latin MS. of the Four Gospels and Acts, etc., etc. With a 

Critical Introduction, etc. Svo. Cambridge, 1864. 
Novum Testamentum Graecum. ISmo. New York. 

Stuart, C. E. Textual Criticism of the New Testament, for English Bible Students. 
2d ed. Revised and Corrected. The Authorized Version compared with Critical 
Texts. Svo. London. 1882. 

The Codex Zacynthius. Edited by S. P. Tregelles. Folio. London, 1882. 

The Englishman's Greek New Testament. Giving the Greek Text of Stephens, 1550 : 
With various Readings of Elzevir, 1624, Griesbach, Lachmann, Tischendorf, Tre- 
gelles, Alford, and Wordsworth; with an Interlinear Literal Translation. To 
which is added the Authorized Version of 1611. Crown Svo. London, 1882. 


The Greek Testament. With the Readings adopted by the Revisers of the Author- 
ized Version. 16rao, pp. 560. Oxford, 1881. 
The New Testament. Greek and English, in parallel columns. Edited by J. Schole- 

field. New edition with Marginal References. By Dr. Scrivener. 16mo. London, 

The New Testament. Greek Text. Ex Editione Stephani Tertia. 16mo. London, 

Tregelles, S. P. A Collation of the Critical Texts of Griesbach, Sholz, Lachmann, 

and Tischendorf, with the Received Text. 8vo, pp. 96. London, 1882. 
The Greek New Testament, edited from Ancient Authorities. 5 parts, 4to. 

London, 1879. 
Westcott, B. F., and Hort, F. J. A. The New Testament in the Original Greek. 

With an Introduction by Philip Schaff. 12mo, pp. 580. New York, 1881. 
Wordsworth, Chris. The New Testament in the Original Greek. With Notes and 

Introductions. 2 vols., 8vo. London, 1866. 

5. Synopses and Harmonies. 

Alexander, Wm. Lindsay. The Connection and Harmony of the Old and New Testa- 
ments. 12mo. London, 1853. 

Andrews, Samuel J. The Life of our Lord upon Earth. Considered in its Historical, 
Chronological, and Geographical Relations. 8vo, pp. xxiv, 624. New York, 
1868. (A harmony of the Gospels with each other, and with contemporary 

Buck, D. D. The Closing Scenes of the Life of Christ. Being a Harmonized Com. 
bination of the Four Gospel Histories of the last Year of the Saviour's Life. 12mo, 
pp. 293. Philadelphia, 1869. 

Calvin, John. A Harmony of Matthew, Mark, and Luke. Translated by Rev. 
W. Pringle. 3 vols., 8vo. Edinburgh, 1845. 

Clark, George W. A new Harmony of the Four Gospels in English, according to the 
Common Version. 12mo, pp. 365. New York, 1870. 

Fuller, J. M. The Four Gospels, arranged in the form of a Harmony from the Text 
of the Authorized Version ; with four maps. 12mo. New York, 1875, 

Gardiner, Frederick. A Harmony of the Four Gospels in Greek, according to the 
Text of Tischendorf, with a Collation of the Textus Receptus, and of the Texts 
of Griesbach, Lachmann, and Tregelles. Revised ed., 8vo. Andover, 1882. 

A Harmony of the Four Gospels in English, according to the Authorized Ver- 
sion. 8vo, pp. 287. Andover, 1871. 

Piatessaron. The Life of our Lord in the Words of the Gospels. 16mo, pp. 

259. Andover, 1871. 

Greswell, Edward. Dissertations upon the Principles and Arrangement of a Har- 
mony of the Gospels. 2d ed., 4 vols., 8vo, pp. 618, 654, 708, 930. Oxford, 1837. 

Haley, John W. An Examination of the Alleged Discrepancies of the Bible. With 
an Introduction by Alvah Hovey. 8vo, pp. xii, 473. Andover, 1882. 

Macknight, James. Harmony of the Gospels v/ith Paraphrase and Notes. 2 vols., 
8vo. London, 1819. 

Robinson, Edward. A Harmony of the Four Gospels in Greek, according to the 
Text of Hahn; newly arranged, with Explanatory Notes. 8vo. Boston, 1868. 

Harmony of the Four Gospels in English. 12mo. Boston, 1868. 

Strong, James. Harmony of the Gospels in Greek of the Received Text, for the 
use of Students and Others. 12mo, pp. 406. New York, 1854. 

Harmony and Exposition in English. 8vo, pp. 569. New York, 1852. 


Stroud, Will. A new Greek Harmony of the Four Gospels, comprising a Synopsis 
and a Diatessaron ; together with an Introductory Treatise, and numerous Tables, 
Indexes, and Diagrams. 4to, pp. 602. London, 1853. 

The Gospels Consolidated. The Four Gospels Consolidated into one Continuous Nar- 
rative. 4to, London, 1882. 

The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge. A Selection of more than 500,000 Scripture 
References and Parallel Passages ; together with a Harmony of the four Evan- 
gelists. 8vo. London, 1882. 

Wiesler, Karl. Chronological Synopsis of the Four Gospels. Translated by E. Yen- 
ables. 8vo, pp. 459. London, 1864. 

6. Helps to the Study of Criticism. 
Barrett, Richard. Synopsis of Criticisms upon those Passages of the Old Testament 

in which Modern Commentators have differed from the Authorized Version. 5 vols., 

8vo. London, 184Y. 
Birks, F. R. Essay on the Right Estimation of Manuscript Evidence in the Text 

of the New Testament. London, 1880. 
Boyce, W. B. The Higher Criticism of the Bible. A Manual for Students. 12mo, 

pp. xxi, 473. London, 1881. 
Burgon, John W. The last Twelve Yerses of the Gospel according to St. Mark 

Yindicated against Recent Critical Objectors and Established. 8vo. Oxford, 18*71. 
Crowfoot, J. R. Observations on the Collation in Greek of Cureton's Syriac Frag- 
ments of the Gospel. 4to. London, 1872. 
Davidson, Samuel. A Treatise on Biblical Criticism, exhibiting a Systematic Yiew of 

that Science. 2 vols., 8vo, pp. 463, 484. Boston, 1853. 
Gerard, Gilbert. Institutes of Biblical Criticism ; or, Heads of the Course of Lect- 
ures on that Subject, read in the University of King's College, Aberdeen, Svo. 

Boston, 1823. 
Green, Thomas S. A Course of Developed Criticism on Passages of the New Testa- 
ment materially affected by various Readings. 8vo, pp. 202. London, 1882. 
Hammond, C. E. Outlines of Textual Criticism applied to the New Testament. 

(Clarendon Press Series.) i6mo, pp. 146. Oxford, 1872. 
Horsley, Samuel. Biblical Criticism ; or, the First Fourteen Historical Books of the 

Old Testament ; also the First Nine Prophetical Books. 2d ed., 2 vols., Svo, pp. 

484, 511. London, 1845. 
Milligan, William, and Roberts, Alexander. The Words of the New Testament, as 

Altered by Transmission and Ascertained by Modern Criticism. 12mo, pp. 262. 

Edinburgh, 1873. 
Porter, J. S. Principles of Textual Criticism. 8vo. London, 1848. 
Roberts, Alex. Companion to the Revised Yersion of the English New Testament. 

12mo, pp. viii, 213. New York, 1881. 
Sargent, Frederick. A Compendium of Biblical Criticism on the Canonical Books 

of the Holy Scriptures ; Revised and Enlarged. Svo. London, 1871. 
Schaff, Philip. Companion to the Greek Testament and English Yersion. New 

York, 1883. 
Scrivener, F. H. Lectures on the Text of the New Testament and the Ancient MSS. 

which contain it. Crown Svo. New York. Third ed., London, 1883. 
Stuart, C. E. Textual Criticism of the New Testament for English Students. ISmo. 

Stuart, Moses. Critical History and Defence of the Old Testament Canon, Timo, 

pp. 454. Andover, 1871. 


Tregelles, S. P. An Account of the Printed Text of the Greek New Testament ; 

with Remarks on its Revision upon Critical Principles. 8vo, pp. 3H. London, 

Turpie, David M'C. The Old Testament in the New. A Contribution to Biblical 

Criticism and Interpretation. 8vo, pp. 279. London, 1868. 

7. Concordances. 
Brown, John. A Concordance to the Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testa- 
ments. A new ed., carefully revised by Samuel Ives. Thick 24mo. London, 

Companion to the Bible, and Supplement to the Comprehensive Commentary ; being 

a Concordance to the Holy Scriptures. Royal 8vo. Philadelphia, 1854. 
Cruden, Alexander. A Complete Concordance to the Holy Scriptures. Royal 8vo. 

New York, 1871. 

Condensed ed. 8vo. Boston. 

Davidson, B. Hebrew Concordance of the Hebrew and Chaldee Scriptures. 2 vols., 

royal 8vo. London, 1882. 
Eadie, John. An Analytical Concordance to the Holy Scriptures ; or, the Bible 

Presented under Distinct and Classified Heads or Topics. Royal 8vo. Boston, 

A new and Complete Concordance on the Basis of Cruden. Crown 8vo. Lorn 

don, 1870. 
Englishman's, The, Greek Concordance of the New Testament ; being an Attempt at 

a Verbal Connection between the Greek and the English Texts. 4to, pp. 482. 

New York, 1879. 
Englishmen's Hebrew and Chaldee Concordance, The, of the Old Testament. 2 vols., 

royal 8vo. London, 1866. 
Henderson, William. A Dictionary and Concordance of the Names of Persons and 

Places, and of Terms which occur in Scripture. 8vo, pp. 689. Edinburgh and 

New York. 
Hudson, Charles F. A Critical Greek and English Concordance of the New Testa- 
ment. Revised and Completed by Ezra Abbot. 24mo, pp. 510. Boston, 1870. 
Schmidt, Erastus. A Greek Concordance to the New Testament. A Concordance of 

the Words of the Greek New Testament, with their Context. 8vo, pp. 283. 

London, 1882. 
Student's Concordance to the Revised Version of 1881. (Shows changes in all words 

referred to.) New York, 1883. 
Thorns, John Alexander. A Complete Concordance to the Revised Version of the 

New Testament. Published under the Authorization of Oxford and Cambridge 

Universities. 8vo. New York, 1883. 
Wigram, G. V. The Hebraist's Vade Mecum ; a first attempt at a Complete Verbal 

Index to the Hebrew and Chaldee Scriptures. London, 1867. 
Young, Robert. Analytical Concordance to the Bible. Every word in alphabetical 

order, with Hebrew or Greek Original. Edinburgh and New York, 1881. 

8. Biblical Dictionaries and Cychpmdias. 
Abbot, Lyman. A Dictionary of Religious Knowledge. New York, 1875. 
Ayre, John. The Treasury of Bible Knowledge ; being a Dictionary of the Books, 

Persons, Places, Events, etc., in the Holy Scriptures. 18mo. New York, 1866. 
Barnum, Samuel W. A Comprehensive Dictionary of the Bible. Abridged from 

Smith, with Additions. 8vo, pp. 1219. New York and London, 1868. 


Blunt, John H. A Dictionary of Doctrinal and Historical Theology. By various 
Writers. Royal 8vo. Philadelphia, 1870. 

Dictionary of Sects, Heresies, Ecclesiastical Parties, and Schools of Religious 

Thought. Royal Svo. Philadelphia, 1874. 

Brown, John. A Dictionary of the Bible, etc. Svo. London, 1868. 

Cassell's Bible Dictionary. Illustrated with nearly six hundred Engravings. 2 vols, 
in one. 4to, pp. 1159. London, 1869. 

Darling, James. Cyclopasdia Bibliographica : a Library Manual of Theological and 
General Literature, and Guide to Books, etc. 2 vols., royal 8vo. Vol. I, Authors; 
columns, 3,338. Vol. II, Subjects, Holy Scriptures ; columns, 1,920. London, 

Davidson, D. Pocket Biblical Dictionary, Condensed from Calmet, Brown, Clarke, 
Jones, and the most Recent Sources of Information. New ed., 24mo. London, 

Eadie, John. A Biblical Cyclopaedia ; or. Dictionary of Eastern Antiquities, Geogra- 
phy, Natural History, Sacred Annals, etc. 13th ed., Svo, pp. viii, 690. London, 

Encyclopaedia of Religious Knowledge ; or. Dictionary of the Bible. Theological, 
Religious, Biographical, etc. Royal Svo. Philadelphia, 1870. 

Fairbairn, P. The Imperial Bible Dictionary. Historical, Biographical, Geograph- 
ical, and Doctrinal, etc. Illustrated. 2 vols., royal Svo, pp. x, 1007, 1151. 
London, 1866. 

Farrar, John. A Biblical and Theological Dictionary ; Illustrative of the Old and 
New Testaments. 3d ed., 12mo, pp. 663. London, 1852. 

Fausset, A. R. The Englishman's Critical and Expository Bible Cyclopaedia. 
Illustrated. 4to. London, 1878. 

Herzog's Protestant, Theological, and Ecclesiastical Encyclopaedia ; -with Additions 
by J. H. A. Bomberger, assisted by distinguished Theologians of various Denom- 
inations. 2 vols., royal Svo. Philadelphia, 1858-60. (This translation was never 

Inglis, James. The Bible-Text Cyclopaedia : a Complete Classification of Scripture 
Texts in the form of an Alphabetical Index of Subjects. Post Svo, pp. 528. 
London, 1861. New ed., 1865. 

Journal of Sacred Literature. Edited by Drs. Kitto, Burgess, etc. The Five Series 
complete. 40 vols., Svo. London, 1848-60. 

Kitto, John. A Cyclopaedia of Biblical Literature. Edited by W. L. Alexander. 

3 vols., Svo, pp. 872, 876, 872. Edinburgh, 1862-66. 

Malcom, Howard. Theological Index. References to the Principal Works in every 
Department of Religious Literature. Royal Svo, pp. 488. Philadelphia, 1870. 

M'Clintock and Strong. Cyclopaedia of Biblical, Theological, and Ecclesiastical Lit- 
erature. Svo, 10 vols. New York, 1867-80. 

Schaff, Philip. A Religious Encyclopaedia ; or. Dictionary of Biblical, Doctrinal, and 
Practical Theology. 8vo, 3 vols. New York, 1882. 

Smith, William. Dictionary of the Bible. American ed. by Hackett and Abbot. 

4 vols., Svo. New York, 1867-70. The same Abridged. 1 vol., Svo. Boston, 1865. 
Dictionary of Christian Antiquities. Svo, 2 vols. Hartford, 1876-80. 

Dictionary of Christian Biography. Svo, 3 vols. Boston, 1877-1883. (To be 

completed in 4 vols.) 

Staunton, Wm. An Ecclesiastical Dictionary, containing Definitions of Terms per- 
taining to the History, Ritual, Discipline, Worship, Ceremonies, and Usages of the 
Christian Church. Svo. New York, 1861. 




ti. Seyffarth, uber Begriff, Anordnung imd Umfang der Henneneutik des N. T. (Lpz. 1824), 
womit jedoch zu vergleichen die Recens. in Winers und Engelhardts Journal Bb. 4. S. 324 ff. 
A. Tholuck, iiber den Mangel an Ueberelnstimmung unter den Auslegern des N. T. (theol. 
Studlen und Kritiken Jahrg., 1832, S. 325) . Planck's Sacred Philology and Interpretation, trans- 
lated by Turner ; Kitto's Cyclopaedia, vol. li, p. 20. For a very lull history and bibliography, 
see Terry's Hermeneutics, Part IIL 

Biblical Hermeneutics treats of the principles on wMch Scripture 
is to be explained. These principles are, upon the whole, the same 
Deflnition of that aj)ply to any work of human origin, and Hermen- 
Hermeneutics. eutics, as a theological science, differs from the science 
in its general (philosophical and philological) character simply with 
regard to the object upon which it is employed. In this connexion 
the peculiarly religious character of the Bible certainly demands 

Hermeneutics from egfirjvevo) (which is to be traced back to the 
Hermes of the ancients^) is, in Schleiermacher's language, an art- 
doctrine ; "for the complete understanding of a discourse or writ- 
ing is a work of art, and requires a technical apparatus." ^ It 
Distinguished Stands in an inverted relation to rhetoric, in so far as 
from rhetoric, -(^j^g latter is dependent on logic ; for while the logical 
part of rhetoric furnishes the laws by which our thoughts are to be 
connected, arranged, and presented, Hermeneutics teaches how to 
apprehend the given discourses or writings of another person, and 
how to follow and interpret them. In proportion as the logically 
ordered thinking in a discourse or book becomes clear, as it will 
when the matter to be imparted is developed before the mind of 
the hearer or reader in a well-arranged style, will the need of ex- 
planation and .of an art of explanation be small ; for which reason, 
e. g., purely mathematical lectures need no hermeneutics if defini- 
tions are first understood. But when the logic is hidden in the dis- 
cussion, and when the words do not represent mere formulas and 
figures (the expression of magnitudes), but are, according to the 
nature of the subject under consideration, the not fully adequate 
signs of a profoundly apprehended original, when they are the 
bearers, borrowed from the world of sense, of ideas which are in- 
visible, there arises the need of an interpreter who shall know 
how to trace back to the original idea the letter w^hich was first 
correctly apprehended through the mechanical processes of gram- 
mar, and who shall thus restore the written or spoken word, so 

* See Creuzer, Symbolik, i, pp. 9-15 : 365 sqq. ; ii, p. 617. 
2 Schleiermacher, § 132. 


that it becomes for the reader or hearer what it was to the 
writer or speaker from whom in the freshness of its originality it 

For this reason the ancients already joined divination to her- 
meneutics ; and this likewise indicates why an exposition according 
to rules of art is more necessary with poets, epigrammatists, and 
poetizing philosophers, than with simple prose-writers.^ Works, 
moreover, that belong to a distant age, and are written causes which 
in a language which has itself passed through many his- '^^^^ berme- 
torical vicissitudes, are more likely to engage the atten- sary. 
tion of hermeneutics than writings and discourses belonging to our 
own times, whose meaning is more apparent to us by reason of their 
nearness. And, lastly, the allusions contained in a discourse or 
writing will need a key to their interpretation, in proportion as they 
bear upon individual matters, which is especially the case in episto- 
lary compositions. If we apply these considerations to the Bible, 
it will appear that it needs the art of hermeneutics in each of 
these regards. Few books, in the first place, in the form of expres- 
sion, fall so much behind their wealth of contents, and r^^^ reasons 

few, accordingly, belong so fully to the class of pregnant why the Bihie 

-, ^^ T.I ^ J- needs care in 

writmgs, as do these modest envelopments oi supreme its interpreta- 

ideas. Luther strikingly likens them to the swaddling- *^°°- 

clothes in which the Christ-child lay, and the great Reformer 

was led to use the expression that the words in Scripture are not 

merely "written words, but living words," whence it becomes a 

frequent necessity to read between the lines. But the Bible at the 

same time shares with all works of antiquity, including the less 

pregnant also, the fortune of having been written in times, and 

among a people, into whose circumstances we must enter and live, 

and in languages with whose spirit and expression we must become 

familiar, if we desire to accurately understand what is written.* 

* " There is no lack of examples in our own experience of an author's mind being, 
e. ff., exalted to such an intuitive penetration of its object as to be enabled to speak 
of it with an unusual pregnancy of word and meaning which his own reflection is un- 
able to resolve into details ; it even happens that when he descends from his intuitive 
center-point to hie ordinary level of thought, his own work will appear like a strange 
object, respecting the development of whose meaning he finds as much difficulty as 
do others." — J. T. Beck, Enil. in das Syst. d. Chr. Lehre, p. 253. An example is found 
in Hamann. 

^ " He who would interpret, needs, by drawing as near as may be possible, to de- 
Bcend to the condition of the first readers and hearers." — Lutz (Hermeneutic). " Pour 
ne pas errer sur le sens que nous appelons exterieur, il faut avoir une idee precise do 
la langue des auteurs, je veux dire de la valeur des signes et des formes de cette 
langue, compares aux formes et aux signes correspondants de notre propre langue. 


How thoroughly individual, too, is the Bible, never dealing in ab- 
stract generalities, always singling out the concrete instance, the 
special condition and its needs, the disposition and mode of culture 
of persons and communities ! ^ How natural, then, that we should 
seek to obtain a key ! This can be no magic key, however, which 
some angel must bring down from the third or the seventh heaven, 
or whose possession is restricted to a sacred caste ; but, generally 
The key to sp( aking, the same art has its application here, which 
fouiS'^in^he^- must be employed, according to the natural laws of a 
meneutics. historico-logical method of estimating the past, upon 
every work that requires explanation. This art belongs to the 
higher department of the science of language, of philology, and 
hence of applied philosophy. 

Biblical her- ' It is a theological science merely in its special appli- 
meneutics a cation to this obiect,^ for every rule established by the- 

hranch of gen- i . , , . ^ , . . <• i o • 

erai herme- ological hermeneutics tor the exposition oi the bcript- 
nentics. ^ jn^ig^ \yQ based upon the general principles of her- 

meneutics or deducible from them, and all that can be done in the 
interest of the Bible is that such principles be properly applied. 
Arbitrary departure from them, or making so-called " exceptions to 
such rules," is never beneficial. When the latter course is fol- 
lowed the proper inference is that the general law itself has not 
been apprehended, or that confusion or a misconception is in- 
volved. Should a one-sided, scanty legislation confine the inter- 
pretation of the Scriptures to the purely external meaning of the 
letter so exclusively as, while considering the notation of the let- 
ter (the grammar), to forget the notation of the spirit, should it 
designedly seek to blot out the individuality and originality of an 
author, in order to put in the place of the forms which reveal a rich 
fulness of ideas, the vaguely outlined shadows of abstract common- 
places, it will of course be exposed to the danger of seeing those 
who are not content with such meagre fare forsake its school and 
submit themselves to the impression of an undefined feeling. This 
is a result the more likely to come to pass because of the failure 

En d'autres termes, il faut savoir a quel taux il faut prendre le mots principaux, qui 
reviennent le plus souvent et entrent dans le passages les plus importants." — Vinet 
(Homiletique), p. 124. 

1 Comp. Schleiermacher, § 135 : " The explanation of the New Testament Scriptures 
is especially difficult, both on account of . the nature of their contents, and by reason 
of external conditions." 

' Schleiermacher, § 13Y, sq. It is evident that within this specifically biblical her- 
meneutics, another and yet more special (Old and New Test., Pauline, Johannean, etc.) 
may be conceived of and wrought out. Comp. ib., § 136. 


of such teachers to instil the scientific principles sought at their 

If hermeneutics has regard to the deeper psychological fea- 
tures of the writers to be explained, whether they occupy the field 
of poetry, philosophy, or religion, and if it establishes as the lead- 
ing principle that he only is competent to correctly appreciate an 
author whose mind possesses elements related and analogous to that 
author's, or, at least, who has learned how to think himself into the 
mental state of his author,^ it certainly has also the right to require 
an unconditional submission to its rules on the part of the expositor 
of the Bible. All the wanderings of the so-called allegorical in- 
terpretation find their excuse in narrow hermeneutics, whether of 
the orthodox or the rationalist letter, and may be corrected and 
finally laid aside by the application of the true science of spiritual 

The science of hermeneutics could not be formed before frequent 

experiments in interpretation had been made, and such ^ , , 
•1-1 11-1 Gradual 

practice had resulted m the more or less conscious ap- growth of her- 
plication of the laws of interpretation which w^ere de- ™^^^^*^cs- 
veloped in the way of practical exposition. Even then it remained 
" an aggregate of separate, often valuable and praiseworthy, obser- 
vations," ^ rather than a systematic art, " whose precepts would con- 
stitute a system resting upon clear principles deduced from the 
nature of thought and of language." This experience belongs 
alike to general and biblical hermeneutics. 

' *' Who will the poet understand must journey into poet-land." Luther already 
observed that the Eclogues of Yirgil are thoroughly plain to him alone who has lived 
with shepherds, and that he alone can properly understand Cicero's epistles " who has 
served twenty years in a first-class regiment." Lutz observes similarly (in Herme- 
neutik\ " The contents (of the Scripture) are understood only by him who apprehends 
and values them in the spirit of one who is saved by Christ and out of interest for 
the Christian Church." Comp. also Schenkel, Dogmatik, i, p. 32*7, and Krauss, Be- 
deutung des Glaubens fur die Schriftausleg%mg. 

2 Diestel {infra), p. 778, justly observes, in opposition to one-sided tendencies in 
exegesis, that only an all-sided illumination can do justice to the object to be ex- 
plained. He designates (1) the rational, (2) the historico-philosophical, and (3) the 
religious principles, as elements which must interpenetrate each other in any truly 
theological method of investigation. At the same time we are to remember that " an 
absolute knowledge of the religion of the people of God will continue to be a far-off 
goal that twinkles in the distance, so long as human development shall continue ; and 
in the same measure, even as Christianity likewise can never be exhausted, and the 
knowledge of it, in its depth and fulness can only represent a constant approxima- 
tion toward the highest ideal." 

^ Schleiermacher, Outline of Theology, § 133. See also the succeeding paragraphs 
to 8 140 inclusive. 


1. General Hermeneutics.^ 
G. F. Meier, Versuch einer allgemeinen Auslegekunst. Halle, 1756. 
J. J. G. Scheller, Anleitung zur Erklarung der alten Schriftsteller, mit Vorrede von 

Ch. A. Klotz. Lpz., 1783. 
Ch. D. Beck, commentatt. academ. de interpret, vett. scriptorum. Lips., 1791. 
F. Ast, Grundlinien der Grammatik, Hermeneutik und Kritik. Landsh 1808 

S. 105. ff. 

F. A. Wolf, Darstellung der Alterthumswissenschaf t. Published by S. F. W. Hoff- 
mann. Lpz., 1833. S. 23 f. 27. 

2. Its application to the Bihle."^ 

Mth. Flaccii clavis s. scripturae. Bas., 1537. 2 voll. f. Neue Auffl. von J. Musaus. 

Jen., 1674. Lpz., 1695, etc. 
S. J. Baumgarten, Ausf. Vortrag der bibl. Hermeneutik ; published by J. C. Bertram. 

Halle, 1769. 4. 

G. A. Bauer, Entw. einer Hermeneutik des A. und N. T. Lpz., 1709. 

G. W. Meyer, Versuch einer Hermeneutik des A. T. Liib., 1799, 1800. N. T. Lpz., 

1812. (Each in 2 vols.) 
J. H. Pareau, Instit. interpr. Y. T. Ultraj., 1822. 8. 
Ernesti, Institutio interpr. N. T. ad usum lectionum. Ed. 1-3. Lips., 1761-75 ; ed. 4. 

observatt. auct. cur. C. F. Ammon, 1792 ; ed. 5, 1809. 8. 
S. F. Nth. Morus, Super hermeneutica N. T. acroases academ. Ed. et additamentis 

instr. H. C. A. Eichstaedt. Lips., 1797-1802. 2 voll. 
Ch. D. Beck, Monogrammata hermen. librr. JST. T. Lips., 1803. 
K. G. Bretschneider, Die historisch-dogmatische Auslegung des N. T. nach ihren Prin- 

cipien, Quellen und Hiilfsmitteln dargestellt. Lpz., 1806. 
A. G. Keil, Lehrb. der Hermeneutik des N. T. nach Grundsatzen der gramm.-histor. 

Interpretation. Lpz., 1810. (Lat. by Emmerling. Ibid., 1811.) 
J. J. Griesbach, Yorlesungen iiber die Hermeneutik des N. T., published by J. E. S. 

Steiner. Niirnb,, 1815. 
Fr. Liicke, Grundriss der neutestamentl. Hermeneutik und ihrer Geschichte, zum Ge- 

brauche fur akadem. Yorlesungen. Gott., 1817. 
G. Ph. Ch. Kaiser, Grundr. eines Systems der neutestamentl. Hermeneutik. Erlang., 

F. H. Germar, die panharmonische Interpretation der heiligen Schrift. Schlesw., 1821. 
Beitrag zur Allgemeinen Hermeneutik und zu deren Anwendung auf die theolo- 

gische. Altona, 1828. 
H. Olshausen, Ein Wort uber tiefern Schriftsinn. Konigsb., 1824. 
Die biblische Schriftauslegung ; noch ein Wort iiber tiefern Schriftsinn. Hamb., 

R. Stier, Andeutungen fiir glaubiges Schriftverstandniss im Ganzen und Einzelnen. 

Konigsb., 1824. (See Winer and Engelhardt's Journal, No. 4, p. 422 sqq.) 

' Older works in Danz, p. 226 ; to which add, Rudorff, Diss, de arte interpretandi scriptores 
veteres profanos. Lips., 1747. 

2 Much that applies here may also be found in the above-mentioned works (under Grammar, 
Introduction, Criticism, etc.) by Glassius (Philologia sacra), Richard Simon, etc. Here, too, 
Semler opened the way in part : Apparatus ad liberal. V. T. interpret. Hal., 1773. Ad N. T. 
1767. Neuer Versuch, die gemeinniitzige Auslegung und Anwendung des N. T. zu befor- 
dern, 1786. Individual forerunners : Rambach, Pfeififer, Wolke, Carpzov, etc., see Danz. uM 


E. F. Hopfner, Grundlinien zu einer fruchtbaren Ausleguiig der heil. Schrift. Lpz., 

G. Chr. R, Matthai, Neue Auslegung der Bibel, zur Erforschung und Darstellung 

ihres Glaubens, begriindet mit Charakteristik der neuesten theologischen Grund- 

satze, Richtuugen und Parteien. Gott., 1831. Comp. Likke in Studien und Krit- 

iken, 1833. 2. 

* Schleiermaelier und f Lohnis. See above under Criticism. 

H. Nic. Clausen (auch Klausen), Hermeneutik des N. T. From the Danish, by Schmidt- 

Phiseldeek. Lpz., 1841. 
C. G. Wilke, Die Hermeneutik des N. T. systematisch dargestellt. Lpz., 1843-44. 

2 Bde. 
Kuenen, Critices et hermeneutices librorum Xovi Foederis lineamenta. Lugd. Bat., 


* J. L. Lutz, Bibl. Hermeneutik, published by A. Lutz. Pforzh., 1849. 2d ed., 1861. 
f J. Kohlgruber, Hermeneutica bibl. generalis. Oenip., 1850. 

•{•J. B. Guentner, Hermen. bibl. generalis; ed. alt. Vien., 1851. 
t Setwin, Hermeneuticae biblicae institutiones. Yindabonae, 1872. 
A. Immer, Hermeneutik des N. T, Wittenb., 1873. 

Historical : 
J. G. Rosenmiiller, hist, interpret, librr. sacrr. in eccl. christ. Hildb. et Lips., 1795- 

1814. 5 roll. 
G. W. Meyer, Geschichte der Schrifterklarung seit der Wiederherstellung der Wissen- 
schaften. Gott., 180^-1808. 5 vols. 

For the History of the Exposition of the Old Testament : 

* L. Diestel, Geschichte des Alten Testaments in der chritl. Kirche. Jena, 1869. 

R. Siegfried, die Aufg. der Gesch. der Alttest. Auslegung in der Gegenwart. Jena, 

1. Hermeneutics. 

Alexander, Archibald. Principle of Design in the Interpretation of Scripture. 

Biblical Repertory and Princeton Review for July, 1845. 
Apthorp, East. Discourses on Prophecy. Warburtouian Lectures. 2 vols., 8vo. 

London, 1786. (One of these Lectures is on the Canons of Interpretation.) 
Arnold, Thomas. Sermons chiefly on the Interpretation of Scripture. New ed. 

London, 1878. 
Barrows, E. P. A Xew Introduction to the Study of the Bible. Part IV, Biblical 

Interpretation. 8vo. London. 
Blunt, J. H. Key to the Knowledge and Use of the Holy Bible. 8vo. London, 

1873. 16mo. Philadelphia, 1873. 
Bosanquet, S. R. Interpretation ; being Rules and Principles assisting to the Read- 
ing and Understanding of the Holy Scriptures. 12mo. London, 1874. 
Campbell, George. The Four Gospels, with Preliminary Dissertations, 4 vols., 8vo. 

Boston, 1811. (Dissertation IV is on the right method of proceeding in the 

critical examination of the New Testament.) 
Cellerier, J. E. Biblical Hermeneutics, chiefly a Translation of the Manuel D'Her- 

meneutique Biblique, par J. E. Cellerier. By Charles Elliott and William J. 

Harsha. 8vo. New York, 1881. 
Conybeare, J. J. An Attempt to Trace the Hist^^ry and to Ascertain the Limits of 

the Secondary and Spiritual Interpretation of Scripture. Bampton Lecture for 

1824. 12mo, pp. xii, 331. Oxford, 1824. 


Conybeare, W. D. An Elementary Course of Lectures on the Criticism, Interpreta- 
tion and Leading Doctrines of the Bible. 12mo. London, 1836. 

Davidson, Samuel. Sacred Hermeneutics Developed and Applied ; including a His- 
tory of Biblical Interpretation from the Earliest of the Fathers to the Reforma- 
tion. 8vo, pp. 760. Edinburgh, 1843. 

Dixon, Joseph. A General Introduction to the Sacred Scriptures in a Series of Dia 
sertations, Critical, Hermeneutical, and Historical. 2 vols., 8vo. Dublin, 1852. 
2 vols, in one, 8vo. Baltimore, 1853. (A Roman Catholic work.) 

Dobie, David. A Key to the Bible, being an Exposition of the History, etc., of Sa- 
cred Interpretation, 12mo. New York, 1856. 

Doedes, J. J. Manual of Hermeneutics for the Writings of the New Testament. 
12mo, pp. 141. Edinburgh, 1867. 

Ellicott, C. J. Scripture and its Interpretation. One of the Essays in Aids to Faith. 
Replies to Essays and Reviews. 8vo. London, 1863. 

Ernesti, J. J. Principles of Biblical Interpretation. Translated from the Institutio 
Interpretis, by Chas. H Terrot. 2 vols., 12mo. Edinburgh, 1832. 

Fairbairn, Patrick, Hermeneutical Manual ; or, Introduction to the Exegetical 
Study of the New Testament. 8vo, pp. 492. Edinburgh, 1858. Philadelphia, 1859. 

Prophecy Viewed in Respect to its Distinctive Nature, Special Function, and 

Proper Interpretation. 8vo. New York, 1866. 

The Typology of Scripture ; Viewed in Connection with the Whole Series of 

Divine Dispensations. 5th ed., 2 vols., 8vo, pp. 504, 555. Edinburgh, 1870. 
New York, 1877. 

Home, Thomas Hartwell. Introduction to the Study of the Holy Scriptures. 2 vols., 
8vo. Philadelphia, 1841. Thirteenth ed., 4 vols., 8vo. London, 1872. (Part II, 
vol. i, treats of interpretation.) 

Immer, A. Hermeneutics of the New Testament. Translated from the German by 
Albert H. Newman. 8vo, pp. xvii, 395. Andover, 1877. 

Irons, W. J. The Bible and its Interpreters. Miracles, and Prophecies. 2d ed. 
London, 1869. 

Jones, Wm. Course of Lectures on the Figurative Language of the Scriptures. 8vo. 
London, 1789. (Also in Vol. IV of Theological and Miscellaneous Works. 1810.) 

Jowett, Benjamin. On the Interpretation of Scripture. One of the Essays in Essays 
and Reviews by eminent English Churchmen. 8vo. London, 1861. 

Lamar, J. S. The Organon of Scripture; or, the Inductive Method of Biblical In- 
terpretation. 12mo. Philadelphia, 1860. 

Lee, Samuel. The Study of the Holy Scriptures. 8vo. London, 1830. (Contains a 
dissertation on the interpretation of prophecy.) 

Macknight, James. Concerning the Right Interpretation of the Writings in which 
the Revelations of God are Contained. (Essay VIII, appended to his Transla- 
tion and Commentary on the Apostolic Epistles. Many eds.) 

Maitland, Chas. The Apostles' School of Prophetic Interpretation, with its History 
to the Present Time. 8vo, pp. 472. London, 1849. 

Maitland, S. R. Eight Essays on the Mystical Interpretation of Scripture, etc. Svo. 
London, 1852. 

Marsh, Bishop Herbert. Lectures on the Criticism and Interpretation of the Bible, 
with the History of Biblical Interpretation. 8vo. London, 1828, 1838, 1842. 

M'Clelland, Alexander. Manual of Sacred Interpretation, for the Special Benefit of 
Junior Theological Students. 12mo. New York, 1842. 

A Brief Treatise on the Canon and Interpretation of the Holy Scriptures. New 

York,1850. (Above book enlarged.) 


Muenscher, Joseph. Manual of Biblical Interpretation. 16mo, pp. 318. Gambler, 

Ohio, 1865. 
Pareau, John Henry. Principles of Interpretation of the Old Testament. Translated 

by P. Forbes. 2 vols., 16mo, pp. 369, 319. Edinburgh, 1835. 
Pierce, B. K. The Word of God opened. Its Inspiration, Canon, and Interpretation 

Considered and Illustrated. New York, 1868. 
Planck, G. J. Introduction to Sacred Philology and Interpretation. Translated 

from the Original German by Samuel H. Turner. Edinburgh, 1834. 16mo, pp. 

288. New York, 1834. 
Sawyer, Leicester A. The Elements of Biblical Interpretation ; or, an Exposition of 

the Laws by which the Scriptures are capable of being correctly Interpreted. 

]2mo. New Haven, 1836. 
Scott, J. Principles of New Testament Quotation Established and Applied to Bib- 
lical Science. Edinburgh, 1875. 
Seller, G. F. Biblical Hermeneutics ; or, the Art of Scripture Interpretation. From 

the German. 8vo. London, 1835. 
Smith, John Pye. Principles of Interpretation as Applied to the Prophecies of Holy 

Scripture. London, 1829. 2d ed., 1831. 
Stuart, Moses. Hints on the Interpretation of Prophecy. 12mo. Andover, 1842, 
Terry, M. S. Biblical Hermeneutics ; a Treatise on the Interpretation of Scripture. 

8vo, pp. 787. New York, 1883. 
Tholuck, Augustus. On the Use of the Old Testament in the New, and especially 

in the Epistle to the Hebrews. Translated by J. E. Ryland. Vol. XXXIX of 

Biblical Cabinet. 16mo. Edinburgh, 1842. 
Hermeneutics of the Apostle Paul, with Special Reference to Gal. iii, 1 6. Vol. 

XXXIX of Biblical Cabinet. 
Hints on the Interpretation of the Old Testament. Translated by R. B. Patton. 

Vol. II of Edinburgh Biblical Cabinet. 16mo. Edinburgh, 1833. 
Turner, S. H. Thoughts on the Origin, Character, and Interpretation of Scriptural 

Prophecy. 12mo. New York, 1860. 
Turpie, David M'C. The Old Testament in the New. A Contribution to Biblical 

Criticism and Interpretation, etc. Royal 8vo. London, 1868. 
Van Mildert, William. An Inquiry into the General Principles of Scripture Interpre- 
tation. Bampton Lectures for 1814. 8vo. Oxford, 1815. 8d ed. London, 1838. 
Wemyss, Thomas, A Key to the Symbolical Language of Scripture, etc. 16mo, pp. 

520. Edinburgh, 1835. 
Winthrop, Edward. Premium Essays on the Characteristics and Laws of Prophetic 

Symbols. 12mo. New York, 1860. 
Whitaker, William. On the Interpretation of Scripture. Cambridge, 1849. 
Whittaker, John William. A Historical and Critical Enquiry into the Interpreta- 
tion of the Hebrew Scriptures. London, 1819. 
Whitby, Daniel. Dissertatio de SS. Scripturarum Interpretatione, secundum Patrum 

Commentarios. 8vo. London, 1714. (Elicited by the Arian Controversy.) 
Wordsworth, C. On the Interpretation of Scripture. An Essay in Reply to Essays 

and Reviews. 8vo. London, 1862. 

2. Lispiration. 
Alexander, Archibald. Evidences of the Authenticity, Inspiration, and Canonical 

Authority of the Holy Scriptures, 12mo, pp. 308. Philadelphia. 
Atwell, W. E. Pauline Theory of the Inspiration of the Holy Scriptures. Svo. 

London, 1878. 


Bagley, Benjamin. An Essay on Inspiration. 8vo. London, 1*707. 2d ed. 

1Y08. ' 

Bannerman, James. Inspiration : the Infallible Truth and Divine Authority of the 

Holy Scriptures. 8vo, pp. 595. Edinburgh, 1865. 
Barry, William. An Inquiry into the Nature and Extent of the Inspiration of the 

Apostles and other Writers of the New Testament. 8vo. London, 1191. 2d ed., 
Bayler, Joseph. Verbal Inspiration the True Characteristic of God's Holy Word. 

12mo. London, 1870. 
Boyle, W. R. A. The Inspiration of the Book of Daniel, and other Portions of 

Scripture. 8vo. London, 1863. 
Burgon, John W. -Inspiration and Interpretation; Seven Sermons before ihe 

University of Oxford. 8vo. London, 1874. 
Calamy, E. The Inspiration of the Holy Writings of the Old and New Testament 

Considered and Improved. 8vo. London, 1710. 
Coleridge, Samuel Taylor. Confessions of an Inquiring Spirit. 16mo, pp. 129. 

Boston, 1841. (Also in his collected works.) 
Curtis, S. E. The Human Element in the Inspiration of the Sacred Scriptures. 12mo, 

pp. 386. New York, 1867. 
Dewar, Daniel. Divine Revelation : its Evidences, External, Internal, and Collateral. 

Together with its Canonical Authority and Plenary Inspiration. 2d ed., 8vo. 

London, 1859. 
Dick, John. An Essay on the Inspiration of the Holy Scriptures. 4th ed., Svo. 

Glasgow, 1840. 
Doddridge, Philip. A Dissertation on the Inspiration of the New Testament, etc. 

In works, vols, iv and viii. 
Elliott, Charles. A Treatise on the Inspiration of the Holy Scriptures. Edinburgh 

and New York, 1877. 
Findlay, Robert. The Divine Inspiration of the Holy Scriptures asserted by St. Paul. 

2 Tim. iii, 16. London, 1803. 
Fowle, F. W. The Reconciliation of Religion and Science, being Essays on Immor- 
tality, Inspiration, Miracles, and the Being of Christ. 8vo. London, 1882. 
Garbett, E. God's Word Written : the Doctrine of the Inspiration of Holy Scripture 

Explained and Enforced. 12mo, pp. 365. Boston, 1867. 
Gaussen, S. R. L. Theopneusty ; or, the Plenary Inspiration of the Holy Scriptures. 

From the French, by E. N. Kirk. 12mo, pp. 343. New York, 1842. 
Given, .John James. Truth of Scripture in Connection with Revelation. Inspiration 

and the Canon. Edinburgh, 1881. 
Gloag, Paton J. Introduction to the Pauline Epistles. Svo, pp. xvi, 480. Edin- 
burgh, 1874. 
Haldane, J. A. The Inspiration of the Scriptures. 1 2mo. Boston. 
Hannah, J. The Relation between the Divine and the Human Element in the Scrip- 
ture. Bampton Lectm^es for 1863. Pp. xix, 364. London, 1863. 
Henderson, Ebenezer. Divine Inspiration ; or, the Supernatural Influence exerted in 

the Communication of Divine Truth, etc. Svo. London, 1836. 4th ed., 1852. 

(A work highly commended for impartiality.) 
Hinds, Samuel. An Inquiry into the Proofs, Nature, and Extent of Inspiration, and 

into the Authority of Scripture. 8vo. Oxford, 1831. 
Home, Thomas Hartwell. Introduction to the Study of the Holy Scriptures. Svo, 

2 vols. Philadelphia, 1841. (The opening chapters, iv to vi, both inclusive, treat 

of inspiration.) 


Jamieson, Robert. The Inspiration of the Holy Scriptures. Baird Lectures for 

1873. 12mo. Edinburgh, 1874. 
Lee, William. The Inspiration of the Scriptures. Its Nature and Proof. 8vo, pp. 

478. New York, 1876. 
Lewis, Tayler. The Divine Human in the Scriptures. 12mo, pp. 400. New York, 

1860. (Holds that the language of the Bible is, in a certain sense, inspired, and 

yet rejects verbal inspiration.) 
Liber Librorum : its Structure, Limitations, and Purpose. 16mo, pp. 232. New 

York, 1867. (Holds that reason enlightened by the Spirit is the verifier of rev- 
Lord, Eleazar. The Plenary Inspiration of the Holy Scriptures. 12 mo. New York, 

1858. (Takes an extreme view.) 
Lowth, Wm. A Vindication of the Divine Authority and Inspiration of the Writings 

of the Old and New Testaments. 8vo. Oxford, 1692. (An answer to Le 

Mahan, Milo. Palmoni ; or, the Numerals of Scripture a Proof of Inspiration. A 

Free Inquiry. 12mo. New York, 1863. 
M'Caul, Alexander. Testimonies to the Divine Authority and Inspiration of the 

Holy Scriptures, as Taught by the Church of England. 12mo. London, 1862. 
M'Leod, Alexander. Yiew of Inspiration. 12mo. Glasgow, 1827. 
Moore, James Lovell. Inspiration of the New Testament. 8vo. London, 1793. 
Morell, J. D. The Philosophy of Religion. 12mo, pp. 359. New York, 1849. 

(Chapter vi treats of inspiration.) 
Noble, S. Plenary Inspiration of the Scriptures Asserted. 8vo. London, 1856. 
Owen, John. The Divine Original and Plenary Inspiration of Scripture. Works, vol. 

ix. Philadelphia, 1871. 
Rennell, Thomas. Proofs of Inspiration ; or. Grounds of Distinction between the 

New Testament and the Apocryphal New Testament. 8vo. London, 1822. 
Rowe, C. A. The Nature and Extent of Divine Inspiration. 8vo, pp. 439. London, 

Ryle, John Charles. Bible Inspiration. Its Reality and Nature. 2d ed. London, 

Smith, J. A. The Spirit in the Word ; or. Letters to a Bible Class on the Canon of 

Scripture and its Interpretation. 16mo. Chicago, 1865. 
Spring, G. The Bible not of Man ; Divine Origin of Scripture drawn from the Scrip- 
tures themselves. 12mo. New York, 1847. 
Warington, George. The Inspiration of Scripture ; its Limits and EfPects. 16mo, 

pp. 284. London, 1867. 
Whytehead, Robert. The Warrant of Faith ; or, a Hand-Book to the Canon and 

Inspiration of the Scriptures. 12rao. London, 1854. 
Woods, Leonard. Lectures on the Inspiration of the Scriptures. 12mo. Andover, 

Wordsworth, Christopher. On the Inspiration of Scripture ; or, the Canon of the 

Old and New Testaments and the Apocrypha. 8vo, pp. 447. London, 1851. 



Exegesis, as an art product, accomplislies that for which herrae- 
Deflnition of neutics, the theory, lays down the rules, and toward 
exegesis. which the other auxiliary sciences direct their efforts, 

namely, the exposition of holy Scriptures, based on comprehension 
of the languages and antiquities involved. 

Reference must be made for the sake of clearness to the terms 
in common use, though in this as in many other instances the usage 
is arbitrary. The words kpiirjvela and e^riyqaLg have at bottom the 
^. ^. . ^ ^ same meaninpT : but exeo^esis has come to denote the 

Distinguished ^ o ' * ^ 

from herme- action of the expositor himself, and hermeneutics the 

" ^^' theory of the art of exposition. 

In the broad sense of the term, exegesis includes both the inter- 
inciudes both pretation and the explication of Scripture. The former 
interpretation of these confines its endeavors solelv to the apprehend- 

and explica- . „„ ^ ^ ■,"('-,' 

tion. mg 01 tacts narrated by an author, or oi doctrmes pre- 

sented by him, in a purely objective light; while the latter brings 
them into relation with other facts or doctrines, or possibly with 
the judgment of the expositor himself with respect to the facts as 
stated, or the doctrines as presented. Mere interpretation will, ac- 
cordingly, be less susceptible to influence from the individual views 
of the expositor than explication, which is more open to the infu- 
sion of elements derived from his subjectivity. The former cor- 
responds to translation, and is its authentication; the latter finds its 
expression in paraphrases. 

We follow the accepted usage, though it might well be reversed, 
since the expositor in fact does nothing more than simply explain 
the meaning and throw light upon what is dark, while the inter- 
preter still further subdivides and spreads out the matter that has 
been explained.^ Thus it is said of a preacher that he knows how 
to interpret a text when he not only clears up what is dark to the 
mind, but when he at the same time develops in every direction 
what has been made plain, for the purpose of a fuller understand- 
ing of it. In the terminology of the science, however, the words 
have come to bear the above signification. The work of the inter- 

'Comp. Eberhard, Synon. Handworterhuch, s. v. erklaren, auslegen, deuten, p. 101 ; 
Ast, p. 184: "To explain is to develop and lay down the meaning; for explanation 
presumes understanding and rests upon it, since only what has been rightly conceived 
and comprehended, what is understood, can be imparted and explained as such to 


pres is ended when the author's meaning has been simply stated/ 
e. a., when it has been shown that he records a mir- 

111 1 • 1 • rx^^ ^^® functions 

acle, or that ne teaches a certain doctrme. Ihe com- of the inter- 

mentator, however, ffoes further, seeking: to understand FJ?^^ ^^^ ^^ 
' ' <-' ' o tne commen- 

how the author came to narrate and teach as he does, tator dis tin- 
He compares him with himself, with his contempora- ^"^^ 
ries, with the spirit of the time in which he lived (historical, as 
contrasted with merely grammatical exposition), and he finally 
brings practically what he has ascertained into connexion with 
the sum total of tlie facts possessed. This will indicate the extent 
to which it is possible to speak of pure objectivity in connection 
with exegesis. Interpretation must certainly remain independent 
of every existing dogmatical system,^ and it has become interpretation 
increasingly so in recent times. Rationalism especially should be mde- 
has ceased to dispose of miracles, by perverting them, dogmatical sys- 
in the way of an exegesis framed to favor its system. *^°^^- 

It would even appear that the negative tendency of the present 
day finds, in connection with its so-called avoidance of predisposi- 
tion, a special pleasure in placing a greater burden in this respect 
on the biblical writers than is admitted to belong to rj^g so-caiied 
them by an unprejudiced exegesis, in order, however, avoidance of 
it must be admitted, to afterward throw overboard the sition" aprej- 
whole, as being without substance and meaning^. But ^^^^^' 
this very absence of predisposition is governed by a prejudice, that 
of "modern culture," and this has its influence upon exposition, 
even though the interpretation may not be affected thereby. In- 
stead of quietly, and with unbiassed spirit, entering upon the sub- 
ject in hand, the exposition assumes a hostile attitude toward the 
writer at the beginning, and treats him with injustice. The school 
which occupies the purely grammatical and historical point of ob- 
servation, and abstains from judging at all, avoids such impas- 
sioned courses, and its position is certainly more worthy of respect 

^ On the distinction between sense, signification, and understanding, see Schleier- 
macher, HermeneutiJc.^ p. 41. 

^ " To ascertain the contents of Scripture in obedience to the accepted views of the 
Church remains, despite all exceptions and provisos, a dishonest procedure from the 
outset, by which we have before we seek, and find what we already have." — Meyer, 
preface to Krit.-exeget. Handh., 2 ed., p. 12, sq. " Seek to discover the real meaning 
of your author by the use of all proper means at your command ; lend him nothing 
that is yours, but take nothing from what is his. Never insist upon what he should 
say, but never be alarmed at what he does say." — Riickert (see Rheinwald, Repert, 
1839, 5. p. 97). Comp. Kling in Stud. u. Krit, 1839. Bengel cries to the expositor 
of the Scriptures, in similar language, " Non timide, non temere," and adds the 
counsel, " Te totum applica ad textum et totum textum applica ad te." 


in both a moral and a scientific light. But is it satisfactory? 
Does not the ultimate and really scientific profit consist 

A religious dis- . „ . ■, ^ t-t it t 

position essen- m transformmg whnt learned mdustry has discovered 

Tightinterpre- ^^^^ ^ possession of the mind? Why concern myself 
tation of the about an author who is nothing to me, and who confers 
^^^^^' nothing upon me, and with whom I am not inwardly 

conscious of being in any wise connected ? As only a poetic intel- 
lect is capable of interpreting a poet, so is a religious disposi- 
tion the only one that can apprehend and understand a religious 
writer, or, more particularly, only a Christian intellect can cor- 
rectly render a Christian author. And as the letters of an ab- 
sent member of the family are understood in their profoundest 
meaning at home, while the stranger finds in them a mere surface 
matter too tedious for consideration, so is it with these writings of 
^ .... the sfift conferred by love divine.' The exegete will 

The spirit of * -^ • i • i 

the true exe- accordingly rcA^eal the bottom of his heart m the man- 
^®*®* ner in which he explains his author, and his subjectivity 

will be a disturbing element so long only as it remains out of har- 
mony with the key tone of the spirit of the Bible. ^ This does not 
imply that the exegete must, from the first, make an unconditional 
surrender of his own thoughts. He should retain suflScient men- 
tal independence and freedom from prejudice to properly esti- 
mate the personal peculiarities of his author, and whatever may 
belong to his individual culture, his relations to his age, etc. He 
may, in one respect, occupy a position above his author, while in 
another he must be subordinate to him. Here, too, a living inter- 

' " Verily I say unto you that Lord Byron would, with a scanty knowledge of the 
Hebrew language, have given a rendering of the chief penitential psalm of David 
(the fifty-first) superior to that of many of the most celebrated grammarians." Um- 
breit (Review of Tholuck's Comment zu d. Psalm^en^ in Stud. u. Krit.^ 1845, 1, p. 

2 " He who lacks a profound apprehension and a living conception must, with every 
degree of technical skill for interpreting Nature or the holy Scriptures of the New as 
well as the Old Testament that he may possess, remain a bungler who gnaws away at 
the shell and never penetrates to the intellectual heart in which the idea sparkles in 
its everlasting truth." Umbreit in Stud. u. Krit.., 1832, No. 3, p. 656. Usteri ( Comm. uber 
d. Brief, an d. Galater, p. vi) expresses a similar opinion : " It appears to me that the 
grammatico-historical principle is merely the conditio sine qua non, or the negative rule 
of interpretation ; the positive task of the exegete seems to me to require, so to speak, 
that he should sink himself wholly into the spirit of the author, in order that the 
picture drawn in the Scripture, with its accessories of time and place, may afterward 
be held up before the reader's eye in the light of his researches in language and 
matters of fact." Comp. Billroth, Comm. r,u d. Briefen a. d. Corinther., p. v. ; Liicke 
in Stud. u. Krit, 1834, 4, pp. 769-71 ; Schleiermacher, Herm., p. 50; Bunsen, (rO« in 
d. Geschichte., p. 122, .'iqq. ; Krauss, supra. 


action, a sympathetic yielding to the spirit of the work, and an 
incorporation of the results of the inquiry with what before existed, 
are needed to further the exposition/ It is apparent, as a general 
truth, that exegesis is not finished at one effort. He who complete exe- 
reads an author for the tenth time, and the hundredth ^®f^ ^®.p!:°^: 

' ent on spintual 

time, will explain him otherwise than he who reads but growth. 
once.^ Such multifarious intellectual activity in the work of exegesis, 
such harmonizing of the grammatico-historical with the higher, ideal, 
and sympathetically religious interpretation, has been termed panhar- 
monic interpretation, (Germarus), and subsequently the name pneu- 
matic has come into favor (Beck). The word is of no importance; 
but our age largely feels and acknowledges that while the human 
standpoint must be retained in the explaining of the human ele- 
ment in the Scriptures (which will ever be the necessary barrier 
against all the perversions of superstition), the Holy Spirit himself 
must in the final instance be the real interpreter of his words, the 
angelus interpres who opens for us the meaning of the Bible. ^ 


The application of the Scriptures finally should carefully be 

distinguished from both the interpretation and the 

P . . . ^ . Scnpture,when 

exposition ; for while it is based upon the former, it interpreted, to 
yet belongs, according to its nature, to a different de- appiied^^*^^^^^ 
partment — the practical. 

The holy Scriptures were at first explained for devotional pur- 
poses — the Old Testament by the writers of the New, and both 
the New and the Old by the Church fathers, although some among 
the latter already began to distinguish between practical and sci- 
entific exposition. It is still the office of exegetical study to pro- 
duce fruit for the benefit of the Church, of the exegesis of the 
schools to serve the exegesis of the pulpit, a principle practical exe- 

often overlooked from a spirit of scientific supercilious- gesis the re- 
t:» . • • . • /• • . -.IP/- ,1 suit of the sci- 

ness. i3ut IS scientmc exegesis to govern itseli from the entiflc. 

^ So Liicke also speaks of a mental disposition on the part of the exegete to im- 
met'se himself in, and to emerge from, the spirit of the work he seeks to explain 
Comp. Herm. Sehultz, Uber doppelf., Schriftsinn, {Stud. u. Krit., 1866, 1, p. 37). 

^ Thus Luther boasts that he had read the Bible through twice a year for several 
years, and that he had each time beaten off a few more fruits from its branches and 

^ Accopding to Luther (comp. Liicke's Supplement to Neander in his N. T. Herme- 
netitik), or, according to Flaccius, "In order that God himself should remain the 
supreme Lord and Judge in all controversies and debated questions." In Pelt, p. 



outset by the demands of the pulpit, so as to accept from the start 
the idea that the interpretation which will best promote the work 
of edification is the true one ? Or is a special kind of interpreta- 
tion (with Kant '), the churchly-practical (or, in his language, the 
moral), to be established beside the scientific in such a way that both 
shall remain independent of each other ? Neither of these. Prac- 
tical exegesis must result from scientific, and a conscientious 
preacher will present no interpretation to the people which cannot 
be scientifically justified. Such an interpretation could lay no 
claim to the title " moral," but would be thoroughly immoral, like 
every thing that is not of the truth. The preacher should, how- 
ever, bring the truth of Scripture to bear in every direction 
upon the religious needs of the age and congregation. He should 
Process by eliminate, from the immediate surroundings in which 
r^mad^^^ra^^ ^^ ^^ found by the exegete, the passage of Scripture 
ticai. upon which his remarks are based, and without doing 

violence to its original meaning, should endeavor, now to generalize 
its teaching, and again to apply it to the most individual and spe- 
cial matters, so as to transform what is outwardly and historically 
given into a picture of inward states, and into an exponent of the pres- 
ent situation; for w^hat was said to the Churches at Rome, Corinth, 
Philippi, etc., is still said by the Spirit to the Churches of to-day. 

It would, however, be a serious confounding of different de- 
partments for scientific exegesis to apprehend the statements im- 
mediately in their subjective application to human conditions," as 

^ Religion innerhalh d. Grenzen d. hlossen Vernunft, Konigsb., 2 ed., 1794, p. 158, 
.sqq. ; per contra^ Rosenmiiller's B'emerkiingen^ Erl., 1794. 

'^ This applies especially to the Old Test., Avhere it is the task of exegesis to appre- 
hend the writer from out of his own age, and to comprehend even the so-called Mes- 
sianic sections in their immediate historical surroundings. While it furnishes the 
threads which lead over into the New Test., it must yet refer their connection to other 
'branches, and never should " Old Test, exegesis in its known scientific and artistic 
limitations be confounded with the retrogressive Christian inquiries which have their 
starting-point in the New Testament," (Umbreit, supra, against v. Meyer and his 
school). A different view in Kurtz, Gesch. des Alien Bundes, p. 8 : " The nature of 
prophecy is entirely misunderstood when its principal importance is found in the 
service it renders to Christianity — in which, of course, all prophecy comes to its ful- 
filment — by attesting its divine origin. Christianity would be in an unfortunate pre- 
dicament, were it still unable to dispense with the attestation derived from the actual 
fulfilment of predictions, and it would be even worse for prophecy were it to remain 
without meaning and significance until hundreds or thousands of years should have 
passed away. Prophecy is designed — every other signification is secondary and sub- 
ordinate to this — to open up the understanding of the present, its position and its duty, 
not only the immediate present in which it was first given, but also everi/ subsequent 
present (?) to the extent to which the latter has substantially the same basis, the same 
needs, and the same task." 


the preacher is authorized to apprehend them, or for the preacher 
to timidly content himself with the most immediate and apparent 
meaning of the letter.* The scientific expositor may likewise 
explain the writer to the edifying of his hearers; but this is assur- 
edly not done by entering upon edifying observations, or by con- 
structing a patchwork of passages taken from ancient and modern 
ascetics. He must rather proceed by a quiet stating and unfolding 
of the sense of Scripture which confines itself within self-imposed 
limitations, and in this he resembles and excels the mathematician, 
who is able, by the cogency of his proofs, even to excite the feelings 
of persons who attentively follow his demonstration. Hints rela- 
ting to the further practical development may be given in connec- 
tion with scientific exegesis,'^ but the practical work, in the proper 
sense, and for homiletical j)urposes, belongs to practical theology. 
It follows, accordingly, that interpretation, exposition, and appli- 
cation, reach over into a further theological field, the interpreta- 
tion into history, exposition into dogmatics, and application into 
practical theology. 



In the carrying forward of exegesis it may be handled either 
cursorily or statedly. Both modes of instruction are to be united. 
The use of learned commentaries will be of real value coj^mentaries 
to him only who has tried his own powers in the way not to be too 
of exposition ; for too many aids rather confuse than 
guide aright, and the beginner needs to be on his guard against 
reiving upon the authority of others as greatly as against a mis- 
taken striving after originality. A moral and religious earnest- 
ness when approaching the holy Scriptures, and a mind decidedly 
devoted to the cause of the Bible and Christianity, will be the 
most efficient aids to preserve him from error and to secure that 
self-renunciation without which no work of real greatness can be 

^Rosenkranz, Encykl, 1 ed., p. 125: "The distinction between popular and scien- 
tific exposition lies in the reference to the original limitation of the sense. The 
former must be governed by the principle of treating the sense of Scripture in as 
fruitful and manifold a way as is admissible : it may freely make every addition to 
the text that it will bear, avoiding only what is strained and directly perverted. The 
latter, on the other hand, is to ascertain the sense of Scripture which it was origin- 
ally designed to bear." Comp. Vinet, Homiletics, pp. 146, ff., who distinguishes 
between amplification and paraphrase, so that the former would be suitable for prac- 
tical use, but not the latter. Comp., too, Hagenbach, Pref. to Festpredigten, Basle, 
1830, ix-xi. 

' De Wette, Prakt. Erkldrung der Psalmen. 


Before entering upon theology the student should have read his 
Bible through many times, and especially the New Testament, 
while the more important parts should, have been perused in the 
dent's ^i'ig^"^l- Private reading should be also regularly 
self-training in continued while the course of theological study is pur- 
exegesis. sued ; for we are to live in the Scripture, as it were to 

arise and lie down in it. Thus only can we receive living impres- 
sions from it; while if it be regarded solely as the object of purely 
scientific inquiry it will remain external to our minds, and not be 
inwardly assimilated with our being. Let, furthermore, the thought 
be banished, that it is necessary from the beginning to intrench 
one's self behind a wall of commentaries. This has the appearance 
of greater thoroughness than is warranted by the truth, and it often 
becomes impossible to see the forest because of the mass of trees. 
It is better to practice the writing of translations of the section to 
be explained, and it may be well even for instructors to precede or 
follow their expositions with an English or Latin translation. 
The latter will be more suitable in proportion as the version par- 
takes of the nature of a paraphrase, the former {i. e., the writ- 
ing by the student,) as it is confined to a mere verbal rendering, 
which itself needs further explanation. It will be also useful to 
look up and compare the parallels adduced in connection with 
the lecture, and carefully to compare the quotations in the New 
Testament from the Old with the original and the LXX. before 
entering upon the use of commentaries. It is a grave error to 
suppose that the task of exegesis is confined to the selection of one 
from among the different versions which already exist, rather than 
to engaging in personal investigation and examining with an inde- 
pendent eye.^ 

When, however, additional helps are employed it will still be 
Additi advantageous to consult those chiefly which, after the 

1 ^^s to self- manner of the scholiasts, afford grammatical and Ijis- 
training. torical aid (Schoettgen, Lightfoot, Grotius, Wolf, Ben- 

gel), and only subordinately those which develop the writer's train 
of thought in his peculiar fashion.'^ The latter should form the 

^ In harmony with this, Melanchthon, Postillell, 626, ah-eady counsels, " Amate doc- 
triham et scripta Pauli et saepe legite ; id magis proderit, quara si legatis magnos 
acervos commentariorum. Qui ordinem observat in Epistolis Pauli et saepe relegit, 
plus discit, quam qui multos evolvit commentarios." Gaussenius, diss. 1, p. 26 : 
" Atque illud est, quod soleo studiosis usque ad fastidium ineulcare, ut ad commen- 
tarios non adeant, quin prius illis aqua haereat neque ultra possint in loci examine 
proprio remigio pergere." 

^ " Caeterum, cum commentarios dico, eos intelligo, qui scripturam brevibus ad 
seusum literalem accommodatis observationibus illustrant ; non qui occasione scrip- 


crown of the industrious research. On the other hand, the false 
ambition to construct new and independent expositions will be less 
prevalent where the number already extant is not known (if 
known it could now excite nothing more than a desire to add an- 
other one to the many already in existence), and the confirmation 
given by an approved exegete, who is afterward consulted, to the 
results obtained by our own independent effort, will only serve to 
increase our satisfaction. This does not mean, however, that in 
every instance the support of some learned authority is necessary 
to warrant confidence in the explanation arrived at by independent 
effort; for we must, as Protestants, admit that hew expositions, 
that is to say, such as are more thoroughly sustained by the lan- 
guage and historical data, are always possible, in proportion as 
philology and historical studies advance among us, although dis- 
trust of our own powers of observation, which cannot be too 
highly recommended, should lead us in such matters to apply the 
strictest and most searchinoj tests. In this regard, too, a straig^ht- 
forward, simple disposition is often able to discover the best 
method.^ Woe to him who converts the Bible into a medium for 
exhibiting his vanity ! To him truth in its pureness will certainly 
not be disclosed, even though he should succeed in extracting some 
particulars which cover him with an ephemeral distinction. But 
blessed is the exegete by whose side, as by that of the picture of 
St, Matthew, the evangelist, the angel stands with a face of infan- 
tile innocence and unprejudiced acceptance of the truth! 

Sketch of the History of Interpretation. 

Comp. Diestel, s^ipra. 

The exposition of the Bible, as has already (sec. xx) been remarked, 

was at first intended to meet a practical want. It was j^rst exposi- 

of primary importance to master the contents of the sa- ^^n^ ^whoJi^ 

cred books. To settle their original form, and distinguish practical. 

turae suas, quas locos communes vulgo vocant (ihre Dogmatik) in medium protru- 
dunt, quibusque adeo libri sacri non tarn sunt commentariorum argumentum, quara 
praejudiciorum loci quidam atque indices." — Gaussenius 1, 1, p. 21. 

' " Certe, quemadmodum vina, quae sub primam calcationem moUiter defluunt, sunt 
suaviora, quam quae a torculari exprimuntur, quoniam haec ex acino et cute uvae 
aliquid sapiant, similiter salubres admodum et suaves sunt doctrinae, quae ex Scrip- 
turis leniter expressis emanant, nee ad controversias . . . trahuntur." — Baco Verul. 
de augraentis scientiar. IX, p. 488. Sam. Werenfels, in the Dissertation mentioned 
below, likewise warns against those who rather seek their argutiolas, allegoriolas, 
allusiunculas, etc., in the Scriptures than the direct and simple meaning. The sim- 
ple lay-mind occasionally finds the true goal more readily than the vision of the 
learned exegete befogged with the vapors of the school. 


the consciousness of the time of their origin from that of a later 
period was reserved to become the task of a subsequent reflective 
age. (Comp. Rothe, Zmv Dogmatih, p. 186, sqq.) But after the 
Jews, particularly those of Alexandria, became acquainted with 
the wisdom of the Greeks, they were, above all, concerned to show 
that the divine, with which they believed themselves here also to 
be in contact, was grounded in the Scriptures, and to discover the 
germs of a profound gnosis beneath its humble guise ; on the other 
hand, their Palestinian brethren held fast to the historical inter- 
pretation. The former tendency led to the allegorical method,* 
Rise of the which must be regarded as a stage in the natural de- 
an egoricai velopment of the history of Bible exposition, rather 
terpretation!"^' than as the arbitrary invention of certain persons. 

When Christianity had been introduced into the world, and the 
prophecies and expectations of former times had thus been realized, 
it was natural that an age, yet wholly under the influence of the 
mighty impression which the appearance of Christ had left behind, 
should find the Messiah everywhere in the Old Testament, and 
should discover traces of his beinp^ in the most incidental matters. 
"The brighter and more glorious the light which Jesus shed over 
the Old Testament at large and as a whole, for the Israelites who 
had learned to believe in him, the more confident were they that 
every particular in the sacred book, however dark, would receive 
light from the same source." (Rothe, p. 196.) Every red cord 
became a type of the blood that was shed, and every thing that 
even remotely resembled a cross was held to prefigure the cross on 
Calvary. (Comp. Barnabas, Justin Martyr, et al.) This was the 
case even before Origen (f A. D. 254). He was not the discoverer 
Origeu the of the allegorical interpretation, but the first among 

chief of the al- Qj^ristians '^ to raise it into a canon, and to assign to it 
legoncal inter- ^ , ' ® . 

preters. a place approved by science, beside the grammatico- 

historical method. The contrast between the allegorical and the 
grammatico-historical methods now became apparent, and Origen 
sought to harmonize this contrast.* He taught a threefold sense in 

^ The word aXTirj-yopelv^ from aA/lo and ayopeveiv, is found in Gal. iv, 24 (part): 
" The most hurtful diversion in this direction is the cabalistic interpretation, which, 
in the effort to find every thing in every thing, turns to particular elements and their 
signs." Schleiermacher, Hermeneutik, p. 23. It likewise originated among the Jews 
after the captivity (the book Sohar), and passed over from them to the Christian 
world. Comp. Z. Frankel, JEinJiuss d. Palaest. Exegese auf d. A lezandr. Hermeneutik, 
Leips. 1851, and Hirschfeld, J)ie Halachische Exegese, Berl. 1840 ; Die Hogedische 
Exegese, Berl., 1847. 

* Among the Jews, Philo had previously made a conscious distinction between the 
esoteric and the exoteric sense. 


Scripture (answering to the body, soul, and spirit in man) — the 

literal, the moral, and the spiritual. Whatever cannot ^ . 

' ' ^ Ongens three- 

be justified by the letter, as derogatory to the honor fold sense of 

of God and the Bible, is to be explained allegorically. ^^^''^Pt'^^e. 

The anagogical and the tropological are related to the allegorical 

(with reference to which further particulars are given in connection 

with the history of herraeneutics). This Origenistic- Alexandrian 

hermeneutics was opposed in the fifth century, however, r^j^^ school of 

by the more sober school of Antioch, whose representa- Antioch. 

lives, as opposed to the fanatical Cyril, were Diodorus of Tarsus, 

Theodore of Mopsuestia, John Chrysostom, Ephraem Syrus, and 


From this time the historico-theological method, which had 

been employed at an earlier date, however, was cultivated side 

by side with the allegorical. Amon^ Latin teach- ^^ 

•^ .... The exegesis 

ers Jerome and Ambrose were distinguished in exege- of the Latin 

sis ; while Augustine owed his fame less to exegetical ^ ^^^' 
learning and precision than to the originality and depth of intel- 
lect with which he dominated his age. He, too, was partial to al- 
legorizing, and held to a fourfold sense in Scripture. Gregory the 
Great (f 604), the Bishop of Kome, was allied to Augustine. In- 
dependent research now gradually began to give way before the 
cmthority of the Church, and in proportion as people became accus- 
tomed to believe the Gospel through the Church, the traditional 
and churchly method of interpretation became general, and must 
be considered another stage in the development. Nearly all the 
expositors during the Middle Ages held to this method. Middle Age ex- 
Collections of what good things and less good things egesis. 
had been said by the Church teachers about the Scriptures (oelgai, 
catenae patrum) ^ constituted the generally accepted authorities ; 
and, besides these, the mystics especially practised a fanciful alle- 

The neglect of the study of the Bible and ignorance of the orig- 
inal languages deprived scholastic theology of an assured Scrip- 
tural basis. Importance attaches, however, to the Jewish Old Testa- 
ment exjoositors in the Middle Ages, especially after the eleventh 
century, e. g., the rabbins Jarchi, Aben Ezra, David and Moses Kim- 
chi, Maimonides (R. Mose Ben Maimon, abbreviated Rambam), 
and others. Christian exegesis likewise began to appear after the 
study of Hebrew had been renewed among Christians through the 
influence of Nicholas Lyra (f 1340), Laurentius Yalla (f 1457), and 
Reuchlin (f 1522), and after the spread of Greek literature conse- 
^ On these exegetical collections see Herzog, Encykl., iv, p. 282, sqq. 


quent upon the capture of Constantinople (1453). The stability of 
a traditional and Church interpretation, and the arbitrariness of a 
fanciful allegorical method, were again threatened by a sober, taste- 
ful, and philologically grounded exegesis as developed by Erasmus, 
which was adopted by the more intelligent minds of the century; 

but a still broader rans^e was ffiven to exep:esis by the 
Effect of the . tit t • 

Reformation Reformation. Luther directed attention to the deeper 

on exegesis. elements of the Scriptures, and prepared the way for 
the spiritualizing (pneumatic) mode of interpretation. His posi- 
tion as a translator of the Bible for the people is unique (Comp. 
note 9, infra. — Drs. M. Lutheri exegetica opera latina, curaverunt 
J. M. Irmischer et Hy. Schmidt, vol. xxii, Francof., 1860); but it 
should be remembered that he was aided by the more exact lin- 
guistic learning of Melanchthon and others. Zwingle, whose clas- 
sical training was of great value to him, proceeded with a more 
measured pace; but Calvin (see Tholuck, Verm. Schriften, part 2) 
was distinguished above all others for exegetical keenness and pre- 
cision. His pupil, Theodore Beza, proved a not unworthy associate 
in this work. 

The study of the Holy Scriptures was prosecuted, upon the 

whole, more generally in the Reformed Church than 
Reformed ' & j 

and Lutheran in the Lutheran, the latter giving larger attention 
exegesis. ^^ systematic theology; and Lutheran exegesis, more- 

over, again became dependent on the confessional teaching of the 
Church, thereby contradicting the principles of Protestantism; "for 
it is a fundamental proposition in the writings of the reformers 
that the interpretation of the Scriptures is independent of the dic- 
tum of the Church and of all human authority whatsoever." (Clau- 
sen, IlermeneutiJc, p. 230.) The orthodoxy of the Reformed 
Churches likewise was exposed to the danger of establishing a 
The Remon- ^^^^^^^^ exegesis ; but the Remonstrants (Arminians) 
strants — Gro- who had come out of the Reformed Church, and among 
them especially Grotius, advocated the grammatico- 
historical principle, though often with a regard for facts that was 
but one sided. In opposition to that principle Cocceius defended 
the doctrine that a pregnant meaning lies everywhere in the Scrip- 
tures, which was applied with special fulness in the search for Mes- 
sianic features in the Old Testament. Sam. Werenfels, on the 
other hand, developed very sound hermeneutical principles in his 
Ernesti there- ^'^^^ ^^ scopo interpretis^ printed in the Opuscula. 
storer of sound Ernesti (f 1781 ) is regarded in the German Lutheran 
exegesis. Church as the restorer of a grammatical and historical 

method of interpretatwa, independent of dogmatics. The adher- 


ents of this method continually increased in numbers; it recom- 
mended itself to the spirit of the times, which yearned for emanci- 
pation from the yoke of orthodoxy. That spirit itself, however, 
succeeded only too speedily in enlisting the services of exegesis in 
its own behalf, and proceeded to vaunt its expositions Riseof neoioo-- 
as timely in proportion to their shallowness. Neology icai exegesis. 
— whether because it retained a remnant of respect for the author- 
ity of Holy Scripture, or because of fraudulent intentions — had 
long accustomed itself to find its system taught in the Bible. 
Miracles and mysteries, a number of which had been unnecessarily 
explained into the Bible by a former age, were now explained out 
of it and interpreted away by every conceivable art, often in oppo- 
sition to the most explicit language. The rationalists were not 
alone liable to this charge, however, for the supernaturalists, acting 
in the interests of apologetics, understood how to fit much of the 
Bible to their views, and in point of fact taught the rationalists this 
lesson (false and impracticable attempts at constructing harmonies). 
Kant endeavoured to restrain such indecorous behav- Kant's separa- 
iour by severing scientific (theological) from practical IcTroiB^etwcai 
(ethical) interpretation. The Church, however, could exegesis. 
not long support this unnatural separation, which, as has already 
been observed, even depends upon an immoral principle. The age 
strove to effect a reconciliation between science and life. The 
rationalistic school was purged by the influence of thorough exe- 
getical studies, and the loose methods of procedure in vogue were 
ended by a thorough philological discipline, such as Rise of the 
De Wette and Gesenius introduced in the Old Testa- ^^^^^^ ^^^ ^l 
ment field, and Winer in the New. The conflict of senius. 
parties was relegated to the domain of dogmatics and the philoso- 
phy of religion, and the territory occupied by exegesis became 
neutral ground. The neutrality could not, however, be observed 
with entire strictness, for reasons developed above. The orthodox 
party again directed attention to the underlying sense of Scripture, 
which was not, however, to be ascertained by the setting aside of 
grammatical and historical facts, but by ascending to a loftier and 
more far reaching point of view. A glance over the exegetical 
literature of the most recent decades will, in fact, reveal a gratify- 
ing progress in this regard, even though there has been no lack of 
errors and deplorable lapses into the devious courses of former 
times. ^ 

' See articles on Interpretation in Kitto's Cyclopaedia, and the Biblical and Theo- 
logical Cyclopaedia of M'Clintock and Strong; also title "Interpretation," in Index 
of the Bibliotheca Sacra, p. 116. 




* Ch. K. Josias Bunsen, Vollstandiges Bibelwerk fiir die Gemeinde (Part L The Bible, 

translation and exposition ; Part 2. Bible records ; Part 3. History of the Bible). 
9 vols. Lpz., 1858-70. (Oomp. Bahring, Bunsen's Bibelwerk nach seiner Be- 
deutung fiir die Gegenwart beleuchtet, Lpz,, 1861). 2d ed. Lpz., 18*70. 


* Kurzgefasztes exeget. Handb. zum A. T. Lpz., 1841 ff. (No. 1. the Minor Proph- 

ets, by Hitzig. 2d ed., 1852. 3d ed., 1863. 2. Job, by Hirzel. 2d ed., by Olshausen, 
1852. 3d ed., by Dillmann, 1869. 3. Jeremiah, by Hitzig, 1841. 2d ed., 1866. 
4. Samuel, by Thenius, 1842. 2d ed., 1864. 5. The Prophet Isaiah, by Knobel, 
3d ed., 1861. 4th ed., by L. Diestel, 1872. 6. Judges and Ruth, by Bertheau, 
1845. 7. Proverbs, by Bertheau, and Ecclesiastes, by Hitzig, 1847. 8. Ezekiel, 
by Hitzig, 1847. 9. Kings, by Thenius, 1849. 2d ed., 1873. 10. Daniel, by Hit- 
zig, 1850. 11. Genesis, by Knobel, 2d ed., 1860. 3d ed., by Dillmann. 1875. 
12. Exodus and Leviticus, by Knobel, 1857. 13. Numbers, Deuteronomy, and 
Joshua, by Knobel, 1861. 14. Psalms, by Olshausen, 1853. 15. Chronicles, by 
Bertheau, 1854, 2 Aufl., 1873. 16. Solomon's Song, by Hitzig, and Lamentations, 
by Thenius, 1855. 17. Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther, by Bertheau, 1862.) 
C. F. Keil and Fz. Delitzsch, Biblischer Commentar iiber das A. T.. I, II, 3 ; III, 1,4; 
IV, 1, 2. Lpz., 1863-1873. 


J. Ch. Wolf, Curae philologicae et criticae. Hamb., 1741. 5 voll. 4. (Hamb. 1725- 
41.) Basel, 1741. 5 vols. 

* J. A. Bengel, Gnomon N. T. Tub., 1742-49, 1773. 4. 3d ed., by Steudel. Tiib., 

1855. Stuttg., 1860. 2 Bde. 
J. G. Rosenmueller, Scholia in N. T. Norimb., Ed. 1-4, 1777-94; ed. 5, 1801-7, 

5 voll; ed. 6, 1815-31. 
J. J. Stoltz, Erlauterungen zum N. T. fiir geiibte und gebildete Leser. Hannov. Nos. 

1-4. 1st and 2d eds., 1796-1800. 3d ed., 1806-9. Nos. 5, 6. (1799-1801.) 1802. 
J. B. Koppe, N. T. graece, perpetua ahnotatione illustratum. Gott., 1810-32, 1809-28. 

Various editions, 10 vols. The whole unfinished, confused in arrangement, and by 

diiferent authors : Heinrichs, Ammon, Pott, Tychsen. 
H. Olshausen, biblischer Commentar -iiber sammtliche Schriften des N. T. Fortges., 

von Ebrard und Wiesinger. Konigsb., 1830-62. I, II, 1-3 ; III, IV, V, 1, 2 ; VI, 

1-4 ; and VII. 

* Kurzgef asztes exegetisches Handb, zum N. T. von W. M. L. de Wette. Lpz., 1836- 

48. 3 Bde. in 1 1 parts. 

* H. A. W. Meyer, Das N. T. griechisch, nach den besten Hiilfsmitteln krit. revidirt, 

mit einer neuen deutschen Uebersetzung u. einem krit. u. exeget. Commentar. 

Gott., 1832. ff. 
C. G. G. Theile, Commentarius in N. T. (vol. xviii: Epist. Jacobi; vol. xiii: [auct. 

Holemann] Epist. ad Phillipp.) Lips., 1833, 1839. 
J. Ch. K. V. Hofmann, Die h. Schrift des N. T. zusammenhangend untersucht. Nord- 

lingen, 1862 ff. 



1. Old Testament. 

1) Historical Books. 

Pentateuch: Vater (1802-5. 3 Bde.). Ranke (1834-40. 2 Bde.). Herheimer (1853- 
54. 3d ed., 1865). Baumgavten (1843, 2 vols.). Stahelm (1843). Hengstenberg, 
die Authentic des Pent. (2 vols., 1836, 1839). Graf, die Geschichtl, Biichei- des 
A. T. (1866). De Lagarde, Materiahen zur Krit. u. Geschichte d. Pent. (186*7). 
Noldeke, Untersuchung zur Krit. des A. T. (1869). Kayser, das vorrexil. Buch der 
Urgeschichte Israels (1874). Wellhausen, die Composition des Hexateuchs, (Jahr- 
biich. fiir deutsche Theol., 1876). A. Kuenen, (in the hoU. theol. Tijdsehr., 18'7'7). 
Ryssel (1878). Konig (1879). 

Genesis: Schumann (1829). v. Bohlen (1835). Theile (1836). Critical: Hengstenberg, 
(die Echtheit des Pent., 1836-39). Bleek, v. Bohlen, (in the Commentary). Ber- 
theau, (die 7 Gruppenmos. Gesetze, Gott., 1840). Stahelin (1830, 1843). Hupfeld 
(1853). Bohmer (1860-62). Schrader, Studien zur Krit. u. erkl. derbibl. Urgesch. 
(1863). Ewald (in the Einl. zur Gesch. des Volks Israel). Lengerke (in Kenaan). 
Calvin (ed. Hengstenberg, 1838). * Tuch (1838, 2d ed., by Arnold and Merx, 1871). 
Kurtz (1846). Sorensen (1851). * Knobel (1852; 2d ed., 1860). * Delitzsch 
(1851; 2d ed., 1853; 4th ed., 1872). Hupfeld (1853); in Lange's Bibelwerk (1864). 

Deuteronomy : Schultz (1859). Kleinert (1872). Riehm, die Gesetzg. Mosis im Lande, 
Moab (1854). Joshua: Maurer (1834). Keil (1847). Critical: Hauff (1843). 
Judges: Studer (1835). Bertheau (1845). Bachmann (1868). Ruth; Maurer, 
Bertheau (1845). 1st and 2d Samuel; Maurer and * Thenius (1842). Kings: 
Thenius (1849). 

Chronicles. Critical: Gramberg (1823). f Movers (1834). Bertheau (1854). De 
Wette, Beitr. zur Einl., 1., 1806; Keil, 1833; Movers, 1834. 

On the remaining historical books comp. Winer, Handbuch der Lit., p. 202, und Pelt, 
p. 196. 

Ezra, Nehemiah, and Esther : Neteler (1877). Esther: Cassel (1878). 

2) Poetical Books. 

Luther's Psalmenauslegung. A Commentary on the poetical books of the 0. T., by 
Eberle. Stuttg., 1874-79. 3 vols. 

* Ewald, Die poetischen Biicher des A. T. 4 Bde. (Part 1 : General matter ; new 
ed., 1866. Part 2 : Psalms ; 3d ed., 1866. Part 3 : Job; 2d ed., 1867. Part 4: 
Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and additions). Gott., 1839. (New ed. entitled "DieDich- 
ter des alten Bundes." Gott., 1854. 2d ed., 1866-67). 

Psalmen: Lutheri scholiae ineditae ed. Seidemann (1876). De Wette (4th ed., 1836, 
with translation; 5th ed., by G. Baur, 1856). Hitzig (1835; Psalmen iibersetzt 
und ausgelegt ; 2 Bde., Leipzig, 1863-65). Koster (1837). Tholuck (1843 ; 2d ed., 
1873). Vaihinger (1845; 2. Aufl., 1856). Lengerke (1847). Aigner (1805). 
Hengstenberg (2. Aufl., 1850-52, 4 Bde.). Ewald (see above). Olshausen (1853). 
Hupfeld (4 Bde., 1855-62 ; 2d ed., 1867-71, von Riehm). De Mestral (Tom. I, 
French, 1856). f Reinke (1857 ; 1. Die messianischen Psalmen; 2. 1858). De- 
litzsch (1859-60, 2 Bde. ; new ed., 1867). Bohl (12 messianische Psalmen, 1862). 

Job: Schultens (1737, 1748). Umbreit (2d ed., 1832). Hitzig (1874). Zschokke 
(1875). Ewald (see above). Practical : Tholuck (1 843). * Hirzel (1839 ; 2d ed., by 
Olshausen, 1852). Vaihinger (1842; 2d ed., 1856). Stickel (1842). Hosse (1859). 
*Schlottmann (1851). Magnus (1852). Hahn(1851). Metrical version, by Spiess 


(1852). Hengstenberg (1856; a discourse). Elster (1858). Rohling (ISTQ). 

Ebrard (1858). Berkholz (1859). *Merx (1871). Zschokke (1875). Hansen 

(1877). Kemmler (1877). Rogge, (1877). Critical: Budde (1876). 
Proverbs: Kleuker (Salom. Schriften., 1777-85 ; 3 Bde.). Umbreit (1826). Schultens 

(1748). Gramberg (1828). L5wenstein(1838). Stier (1849-50). Bertheau (1847). 

Delitzsch (1873). 
Eeclesiastes : Umbreit (1818). Kleinert (1864). Bloch (1872> Veith (Koh. u. 

Hohes Lied, 1877). Kaiser (1823). Knobel (1836). Ewald (see above). Hitzig 

(1847). Elster (1855). Wangemann (1857; practical). Hengstenberg (1859). 

Hahn (1860). 
Canticles: Hengstenberg (1853). Meyer (1854). Friedrich (1855). Hitzig (1855). 

Holemann ("Die Krone des hohen Liedes," 1859). * Translation, by Th. Hirzel 

(1840-50). E.Renan (Par., 1860). Friedlander (1867). Altscliul(i874). Sachse 

(1875). Schafer (1876). Kampf (1877). 

3) Prophetical Books. 
Translations and introduction by Eichhorn (1816-19, 3. Bde.) by Fr. Riickert (1831, 1. 

Bd.). * Ewald, Die Propheten des A. T. (1840-41, 2. Bde. 2d ed., 3 vols., 1867). 

* Hitzig, Die Prophetischen Biicher des A. T. (Translation.) Lpz., 1854. 
* Praktischer Commentar iiber die Propheten d. A. T., by Umbreit. (1st vol., lesaiah, 

1842; 2d ed., 1846. 2d vol., Jeremiah, 1842. 3d vol., Ezekiel and the Minor 

Prophets (To Jes., Jer., Ez.), by Le Hir. (Par., 1877.) 
Isaiah: Gesenius (1821 ; trans. 2d ed. 1829). Hitzig (1833). Knobel (2d ed., 1854; 

3d ed., 1861). Hendewerk (1838-43, 2 vol). Drechsler (3 parts, 1844-57 ; Vol. 

n, 2 ; and HI, by Delitzsch and Hahn ; vol. I in 2d ed., 1865). Critical : M5ller 

(1825). Kleinert (1829, against Gesenius). Hengstenberg (Christologie des A. T. 

comp. lit. on § 62). Stahelin (Stud, und Krit., 1831, 3). Havernick (in Introduc- 
tion). Caspari (jesaianische Studien, in the Zeitschr. of Rudelbach and Guericke, 

1843, 2.) fSchegg (1850, 2 Bde.). Meier (1st Part, 1850). Stier (Jes. 44-66, 

kein Pseudo-Jes., 1850-51). Eljakim (Visions d'Esaie, 1854; French metrical 

version, with exposition), f G. Mayer (1860). Delitsch (1866; 2d ed., 1869). 
Jeremiah: Hitzig (1841 ; 2d Aufl., 1866). * Umbreit (Prakt. Commentar, see above). 

Nagelsbach (1850). Neumann (2 Bde., 1856-58). Graf (1862 and 1863). Scholz 

(der masor. Text u. die LXX-Uebersetzg des B. Jer., 1875). 
Lamentations : Hetzel (1854). Thenius (1855). Engelhardt (1867). Gerlach (1868). 
Ezekiel: Havernick (1843). Hitzig (1847). Kliefoth (1864-65). Hengstenberg 

Daniel: Bertholdt (1806-8, 2 Bde.). Havernick (1832). Lengerke (1835). Hitzig 

(1850). Auberlen (1854, having reference to the Apocalypse; 2d ed., 1856). 

Kranichfeld (1868). Fuller (1868). Mayer (1866). Kliefoth (1868). Critical: 

Ziindel (1861). Hilgenfeld (Ezra und Daniel, 1863). Caspari (1869). Rohling 

(1877). Doprez(Dan. and John, 1879). 
The Minor Prophets : * Theiner (1828). f Ackerman (1839). Hitzig (2d ed., 1852; 

3d ed., 1863). f Schegg (1854). Schr5der (Part I, 1829). Schher (2d ed., 1876). 
Hosea: Bockel (1807). Stuck (1828). Krappe (1836). De Wette (Stud, und Krit., 

1832, 4). Simson (1851). Kurtz (iiber Hos. I-HI, 1859). Wiinsche (1867-8). 
Joel: Credner (1831). Meier (1841). Wiinsche (1872). Karle (1877). Merx 

(1879). Amos: Vater (1810). G. Baur (1847). Obadiah: Hendewerk (1836). 

Caspari (1842). Jonah: Krahmer (1839). Jager (1840). Kaulen (1862). 

Micah: Caspari (1852). Reinke (1874). Nahum: Holeraan (1842). Strauss (1853). 

Habakkuk: Baumlein (1840). Delitzsch (1854). f Gumpach (1860). Reinke 


(1870). Haggai: Scheibel (1822). Kohler (1860). Reinke (1868). Zecbariah : 
Baiimgarten (" Nachtgesichte," 1854-55; new ed., 1858). Neumann (1860). 
Kliefoth (1862). Bradenkamp (18*79). Critical: Ortenberg (1859). Malachi: 
f Reinke (1856). Kohler (1865). 

2. New Testament. 
1 ) Historical Books (Gospels and Acts of the Apostles). 

Ewald, Die drei ersten Evangelien, iibersetzt und erklart. Gott., 1850. New ed. en- 
titled : Die drei ersten Evangelien und die Apostelgeschichte, 2 vols,, 1871-2. 

Baumgarten-Crusius, Exeget. Schriften zum N. T. Part I : Matth., Mark, Luc ; pub- 
lished by Otto, Jena, (1844). 

* Fr. Bleek, Synoptische Erklarung der drei ersten Evangelien, publ. by Heinr. Holtz- 
mann, Lpz., 1862, 2 vols. 

Scholten, Das alteste Evangelium. Kritische Untersuchung, etc., der Evangelien nach 
Matthaus und Marcus. Transl. from the Dutch. Elberfeld, 1869. 

K. Wieseler, Beitr. zur richt. Wiirdig der Evv. und der evang. Geschichte. Gotha 

Matthew (comp. above) : f Mayer (1818). f Gratz (1821, 1823). * Baumgarten-Crusi- 
us (publ. by Otto, 1844). Critical; SiefPert (1832). Klenert (1832). Olshausen 
(1835; new ed. by Ebrard, 1853). Nabe (1837). Assmann (1874). B.Weiss 
(Matth. u. Lucasparal, 1876). Wiehelhaus (publ. by Zahn, 1876). Keil(1877). 
Zittel (Matth. u. Marc, 1880). Pract. : Dieffenbach (1876). Sommer (1877), and 
others. Comp. Baur, iiber die samratlichen Evangelien. Tiib., 1847. Wilke, der 
Frevangelist. Lpz., 1838. G. Miiller, die Entst. der 4 Evv. u. der Br. des Ap. 
Paulus. 2d ed., Berlin, 1877. G. Meyer, la question synoptique. Par., 1878. 
Pierre Victor, les evangiles et I'histoire. Paris, 1879. 

Mark : Keil (Mark u. Luc, 1879). Critical : Saunier (1825). Knobel (1831). Wilke 
(1837). Hilgenf eld (1850). Baur (1851). Klostermann (1867). f Schegg(2 Bdc, 
1869-70). Volkmar (1870). Weiss (1872). 

Luke: Bornemann (Scholia, 1830). Critical: Schleiermacher (1817, and in Sammt- 
lichen Werken), and in opposition, H. Planck (1819), f Schegg (3 Bde., 1861-65). 
Godet (French, 1871 ; German, 1862). Critical : Scholten (Het Paulinisch evan- 
gelic Leiden, 1870). 

John : * Liicke (Commentar iiber die Schriften des Johannes ; the Gospels in vols. 1 
and 2; Epistles, vol. 3; 3d ed., 1856; Apokalypse, Introd., vol. 4; 1, new ed., 
1851-52). Tholuck (7th ed., 1857). Baumgarten-Crusius (Theol. Auslegung der 
Johann. Schriften, 1 Bd., Evang. Johann., 1843). f Klee (1829). Herwerden 
(Holland, 1851). Lnthardt (1852 f., 2 parts ; 2d ed., 1875). Hengstenberg (1 861 f., 
2 parts). Ewald (1861 fF., 3 vols.) Baiimlein (1863). Godet (French, 1864 f.. 2 
vols.; 2d ed., 1876 f.; German, 1869; 2d ed., 1876-78). f Haneberg (publ. by 
Schegg, 1878). 

Acts of the Apostles : Heinrichs (N. T. Koppii, vol. III). Hildebrand (1824). Borne- 
mann (1848). Beelen (2 Tom., Lovan, 1850 f.). Stern (1872). Andrea (1876 
f., 2 parts). Schnecke];jburger (1841). Schwanbeck (1847). Baumgarten (1851- 
52, 2Bdc,2ded., 1859). Lekebusch (1854). Zeller (1854). Trip (1866). f Konig 
(1867). Oertel (1868). 

2) Pauline Epistles, and Epistle to the Hebrews. 

J. Calvin, Commentarii in omnes Pauli Ap. epp. atque in ep. ad Hebraeos, ad ed. R. 
Steph., accuratissime exscripti; ed. A. Tholuck. Hal., 1831. 2 voll. 


J. Calvin, Commentarii in epistolas N. T. catholicas, ad ed. R. Steph., accuratissime 
exscr.; ed. A. Tholuck. Hal, 1832. 

Baumgarten-Crusius, Exeget. Schriften zum N. T., vol. II (Rom., Gal., published by 
Kimmel, 1844 ff.). Vol. II, (Eph., Col, Philippians, Thess. ; published by Kimmel 
and Schauer, 1845-48). 

Epistle to the Romans :^' Tholuck (1824, 1828, 1831 ; 5th ed., 1856 ; with the result- 
ant dispute with Fritzsche). Flatt (Tiib., 1825). f Klee (1830). Benecke (1881). 
Ruekert (1831-39). Reiche (1833-34, 2 Bde.). Glockler (1834). Kollner (1834). 
Nielsen (1841 ; German by Michelsen, 1834). f Stengel (publ by Beck, 1836-46). 
Fritzsche (1836-43, 3 Bde.). Krehl (1845). Philippi (1848; 2d ed., 1856; 3d 
ed., 1866). Steinhofer (publ by Bock, 1851). Bisping (1855). Van Hengel 
(1854, 1859). Umbreit (on the basis of the 0, T., 1856). Th. Schott (1858). 
F. G. Jatho (2 Bde., 1858-59). Critical: Mangold (1866). Hebrew Version, by 
Delitzsch (1870). Diedrich (1873). Manoury (French; Paris, 1878). Godet 
(French, I, Paris, 1879). Rugge Holl, Romer und Cor., 1879). 

Epistle to the Corinthians: Neander (Ed. by Beyschlag, 1859). Burger (2d Epistle 
1859-60). Comp. Bleek, in the Stud. u. Krit., 1830-33, and Goldhorn in Illgeus 
Zeitschrift fiir hist. Theol 1840-42. On the 1st and 2d Epistle: Osiander 
(Stuttg., 1847 u. 1858). Van Hengel (1 Cor. xv; 1851). A. Maier (1857-65.) 
Kloppel (exeg. Krit. Untersuchung, on the 2d Epistle, 1869). 

Epistle to the Galatians : Schott (1834 ; with Thessalonians ; see above). Fritzsche (on 
single passages ; 1833-34). Hermann (do., 1834 ; comp. Schulthess, 1835). Mol- 
ler (1830, Danish), f Windischmann (1844). Hilgenf eld (1851). Muller (1853, 
1861). Jatho (1856). Wieseler (1859). Matthies (1865). Reithmayr (1865). 
Vomel (1866) Brandes (1869 ; New Titelausg., 1871). 

Bphesians: Harless (1834; 2d ed., 1858). Matthias (1834). Riickert (1884). Baum- 
garten-Crusius (1847). Stier (1848). Auszng. (1859). Schenkel (in Lange's Bi- 
belwerk, 1862; 2d ed., 1867) Bleek (publ. by Nitzsch, 1865). Ewald (Sieben 
Sendschreiben des N. B., 1870). Ernst (pract., 1877). Hahn (1878). Holtzmann 
(critical, 1872). Koster (Holl, 1877). Luther's Exegesis, by Eberle ^1878). 

Philippians: Rheinwald (1827). Flatt (Phil, Col, Thess., Philem., 1829). Matthies 
(1835). Van Hengel (1888). Rilliet (Geneve, 1841). Holemann (1839 ; comp. 
above). Baumgarten-Crusius (publ. by Schauer, 1848). Bruckner (1848). Wies- 
inger (Olshausen, v, 1, 1850). Weiss (1859). Schenkel (ubi supra). Jatho 1857), 

Colossians: Junker (1828). Bahr (1883). Bohmer (Theol Auslegung, 1835; 
Isagoge, 1829). Steiger (1835). Huther (1841). Dalmer (1858). Critical : Mey- 
erhoff (1838). Schenkel, ubi supra. Bleek (publ by F. Nitzsch, 1865). Thom- 
asius (Practische Auslegung, 1869). Holtzmann (critical, 1872 ; see above to 

Thessalonians: Schott (comp. Galatians). Pelt (1830). Baumgarten-Crusius (see 
Philippians). Koch (1849). Liinemann (see above). Auberlen und Riggenbach 
(see ab(5ve, Lange's Bibelwerk). 

Pastoral Epistles : Heydenreich (1826-28; 2 Bde.). Flatt (1837). Matthies (1840). 
f Mack (1836, 1841). Leo (on 1st and 2d Tim., 1837; 1850). Huther (1850). 
Wiesinger (1850). Ewald (Sieben Sendschreiben des N. B., 1870). Plitt (Prak- 
tische Ausleg., 1872). Bahnsen (2 Tim., 1876). Beck (2 Tim. ; publ. by Linden- 
meyer, 1879). Holtzmann (1880). Critical: Eichhorn (Einleit. ins. N. T.). Schlei- 
ermacher (against the authenticity of 1 Tim., 1807; per conti'a : Planck, 1808, 
und Wegscheider, 1810). Ferd, Baur (1885; denying authenticity in general). 
Defenders : Baumgarten (1837), and Bottger (1838 u. 1840). Baur in reply in the 
Tiib. Zeitschrift. Comp. Liicke in the Stud. u. Krit., 1830 ; 2 S., 422. 


Philemon: Schmid (l^SG). Hagenbach (1829), ad fidem versionum oriental, ed. Peter- 
mann (1844). Demme (1844). Koch (1845). Wiesinger (1850). Kiihne (1852 
ani 1856, 2 vols., Bibelstunden.) Bleek (by F. Nitzsch, 1865). 

Hebrews: Morus (1786). Storr (1789, 1809). Dav. Schulz (1818). Bohme (1825). 
* Bleek (1828-40, 3 Bde., by Windrath, 1868). Kuinol (1831). Paulus (18?.3). 
Tholuck (3d ed., 1850). f Klee (1833). Stein (1838). Critical: f Stanglein 
(1835). Thiersch (1848). f Stengel (publ. by Beck, 1849). Ebrard (Olshausen, 
V, 2; 1850). Bisping (1854; 2d ed., 1864). Liinemann (1856 ; 2d ed., 1861; 3d 
ed., 1867). Delitzsch (1857). Riehm Lehrbegriff, 1858-59). Adalb. Maier (1861). 
Wieseler (Krit. Unters., 1861). Kluge (1863). Reiiss (French, 1862). Andrea 
(practical, 1866). Kurtz (1869). Ewald (Hebraer and Jacobus, 1870). Stier 
(1842 ; 2 vols.). Werner (1876). Biesenthal (1878). 

3) Catholic Epistles and Apocalypse. 

August! (Lemgo, 1801-8, 2 Bde.). f Nickel (1852). Grashof (1830). Jachmann (1838). 

Pott (X. T. Koppii, vol. IX). 

Ewald (Sieben Sendschreiben des Neuen Bundes. Gott., 1870. 1 and 2 Peter, Jude, 
Ephesians. Tim., Titus, Pastoral Epistles). 

f Bisping, Erklarung der sieben katholischen Brief e. 1871. 

Epistles of St. Peter : Steiger (1 Brief Petri, 1832). 1 and 2 Peter and Jude : Huther 
(1852; 2d ed., 1859; 3d ed., 1867). Critical: Mayerhoff (1835). In reply: 
f Windischmann (Vindiciae Petrinae, Ratisb., 1836). On 2d Ep. of Peter: Ull- 
mann (1821). Dietlein (1855). Wiess (1855). Wiesinger (1862; in Olshausen). 
Schott (1 Petri, 1861 ; 2 Petri und Juda, 1863). Steinfass (2 Petri; 1863). 

Epistles of St. John: Liicke (3d ed., 1856, by Bertheau). Paulus (Die 3 Lehrbriefe, 
des Joh., 1829). Rickli (Predigten iiber 1 Joh. ; Luz., 1828). Mayer (1851). 
Wolf (1851). Neander (1851). Sander (1851). Diisterdieck (1852-56). Huther 
(1856; 2d ed., 1861, in Meyer). Erdmann (Primae Joh. ep. argument, nex. et 
consil. 1855). Haupt (Der Erste Brief des Johannes, Colberg, 1869). Stock- 
raeyer (1873). Rothe (publ. by Miihlhauser, 1878). 

Epistles of James to Jude: Herder (Briefe zweener Briider Jesu, 1774), Scharling 

James und 1 Peter : Hottinger (1825). 

James: Schulthess (1825). Gebser (1828). Schneckenburger (1832). Theile (1833). 
Kern (1838). Jacobi (Predigten, Berl., 1835). Wiesinger (1854, in Olshausen). 
Huther (see above). Wold. Schmidt (Lehrgehalt, 1869). Blom (De Brief van Ja- 
cobus, critical, Dort., 1869). Ewald (Hebraer u. Jacobus, 1870). Weiffenbach 
(iiber Jac. ii, 14-26 ; Giessen, 1871). 

Jude: Stier (1850). Huther (see s. v. Epistles of Peter). Arnaud (1851). f Rampf 

Apokalypse: Tinius (1839). De Wette (1848; 2d ed., 1854; 3d ed., 1862). Heng- 
stenberg (1849-51, 2 Bde. ; 2d ed., 1861). Dressel (1850). Holzhauser (1850). 
Stern (1851). Ebrard (1858). Rink (1853). Auberlen (see Daniel). Bohmer (on 
the date of composition, etc., 1855). Graber (Hist. Erklarung, 1857). Stier (Re- 
den des Herrn Jesu, etc., 1859). Diisterdieck (see above). Bleek (publ. by Hoss- 
bach, 1862). Volkmar (1862). Kienlen (Paris, 1870). Fiiller (1874). Kliefoth 
(1874). Harms (2d ed., 1874). Burger (1877). L'Hote (French ; Paris, 1877). 
London, 1879). Kratzenstein (pract., 1879). 



L Cominentaries on the Wliole Bible. 

Bible Commentary, The. Explanatory and Critical. With a Revision of the Trans- 
lation, by Bishops and Clergy of the Anglican Church. Edited by F, C. Cook, 
M.A. lOvols., 8vo. New York, 1872-80. 

Calvin, John, Commentaries. 45 vols. Edinburgh : Calvin Trans. Society. 

Clarke, Adam. The Holy Bible, containing the Old and New Testaments. The 
Text carefully printed from the most correct Copies of the present Authorized 
Translation, including the Marginal Readings and Parallel Texts, with a Com- 
mentary and Critical Notes. 6 vols., 8vo, pp. 884, 829, 902, 865, 920, 1070. New 
York, 1832. 

Jenks, Wm. The Comprehensive Commentary on the Holy Bible, containing the 
Text of the Authorized Version ; Scott's Marginal References ; Matthew Henry's 
Commentary, condensed, etc. 6 vols., supplement with Cruden's Concordance. 
Philadelphia, 1848. 

Lange, John Peter. A Commentary on the Holy Scriptures, Critical, Doctrinal, and 
Homiletical, with special reference to Ministers and Students. Translated from 
the German, and Edited with Additions, Original and Selected, by Philip Schaff, 
in Connection with American Divines of Various Evangelical Denominations. 25 
vols., 8vo. New York, 1865-78. 

Poole, Matthew. Annotations upon the "Whole Bible. 3 vols., royal 8vo, pp. 1030, 
1008. New York, 1880. 

Whedon, D. D. A Commentary on the Old and New Testaments. Intended for 
Popular Use. 13 vols., 12mo. New York, 1866. (Old Testament not yet com- 

2. Commentaries on the Old Testament. 

Hengstenberg, E. W. Christology of the Old Testament, and a Commentary on the 
Messianic Predictions. 4 vols., 8vo, pp. 523, 474, 410, 410. Edinburgh, 1854-59. 

Keil, C. F., and Delitzsch, F. Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament. 25 vols., 
8vo. Edinburgh, 1864-78. 

3. Commentaries on the New Testament. 

Alford, Henry. New Testament for English Readers ; containing the Authorized 
Version, with a Revised English Text ; Marginal References, and a Critical and 
Explanatory Commentary. New ed., 4 parts, or 2 vols., 8vo, London, 1868. 

Barnes, Albert. Notes, Explanatory and Practical, on the New Testament, Designed 
for Sunday-School Teachers and Bible Classes. 25th ed., revised and corrected. 
11 vols., 12mo. New York, 1859. 

Bengel, John Albert. Gnomon of the New Testament. 3d ed., 5 vols., Svo. Edin- 
burgh, 1860. Also 2 vols., Svo. Philadelphia, 1874. 

Doddridge, Philip. The Family Expositor ; or, a Paraphrase and Version of the 
New Testament. 8vo, pp. 1242. London, 1829. New ed., 1862. 

Meyer, Heinrich August Wilhelm. Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the New 
Testament. From the German, with the sanction of the Author. 12 volumes, 
Svo. Edinburgh. Also, in preparation, an American edition in Svo. New York, 

Olshausen, Hermann. Biblical Commentary on the New Testament. First American 
ed., by A. C. Kendrick, to which is prefixed Olshausen's Proof of the Gen- 
uineness of the Writings of the New Testament, translated by D. Fosdick, Jr. 
6 vols., Svo, pp. 621, 624, 615, 586, 624, 624. New York, 1858. 


Schafi, Philip. A Popular Commentary on the New Testament, by English and 
American Scholars of Various Evangelical Denominations. In 4 vols., royal 
8vo. Profusely Illustrated. New York, 1878. 

4. Commentaries on Particular Books. 
I. Old Testament, 
(a) Historical Books. 

Alford, Henry. The Book of Genesis and part of the Book of Exodus ; a Revised 
Version, with Marginal References, and an Explanatory Commentary. 8vo. 
London, 1872. 

Birks, T. R. The Exodus of Israel. Its Difficulties Explained and its Truth Con- 
firmed. 8vo. 1863. 

Bush, George. Notes, Critical and Practical, on the Book of Genesis. Designed 
as a General Help to Biblical Reading and Instruction. 26th ed., 2 vols., 12mo, 
pp. XXXV, 838, 444. New York, 1863. Also on Exodus, Leviticus, Joshua, 
Judges, and Numbers, the whole with Genesis in 8 vols. 

Jacobus, M. W. Notes on the Book of Genesis. 2 vols., 12mo, pp. 304, 256. 
New York, 1865. Also on Exodus. 

Murphy, J. G. A Critical Commentary on the Book of Genesis, with a Translation. 
With a Preface by J. P. Thompson, D.D. 8vo, pp. 535. ^ndover, 1866. Also 
on Exodus, pp. 385, and Leviticus, pp. 318, both 8vo. 

(b) The Poetical Books. 

Alexander, Joseph Addison. The Psalms, Translated and Explained. 6th ed., 3 
vols., pp. xvi, 436, 349, 316. New York, 1866. 

Augustine. Exposition of the Psalms. Translated, with Notes. 6 vols., 8vo. Ox- 
ford, J. H. Parker, 1848. 

Barnes, Albert. Notes, Critical, Illustrative, and Practical, on the Book of Job. 
With a New Translation and an Introductory Dissertation. 2 vols., 12mo, pp. 
cxxvi, 311, 384. New York, 1857. New^ ed., 1881. Also on Psalms, 2 vols., 

Ewald, Heinrich. Commentary on the Book of Job. Translated from the German 
by J. F. Smith. London, 1882. 

Ginsburg, Christian. Coheleth, or Ecclesiastes ; translated with a Commentary. 8vo, 
London, 1857. 

Hengstenberg, E. W. Commentary on the Psalms. 4th ed., 3 vols., 8vo, pp. 539, 
479, 647. Edinburgh, 1860, Also on Ecclesiastes, with Appended Treatises ; 
8vo, pp. 448. Edinburgh, 1860. 

Hibbard, F. G. The Psalms Chronologically Arranged, with Historical Introduc- 
tions. 8vo. New York, 1856. 

Noyes, G. R. A Translation of Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and Canticles, with Explana- 
tory Notes. 12mo. Boston, 1846. Also a volume on the Psalms. Boston, 

Perowne, J. J. Stewart. The Book of Psalms ; a New Translation, with Introduc- 
tion and Notes, Critical and Explanatory. New ed., 2 vols., 8vo. pp. 534, 477. 
Andover, 1876. 

Spurgeon, Chas. H. The Treasury of David : Containing Original Expositions of the 
Book of Psalms. 8vo, 7 vols. New York, 1880. 

Stuart, Moses. A Commentary on the Book of Proverbs. 12mo, pp. 432. New 
York, 1852. Also on Ecclesiastes. 12mo. Andover, 1864. 


Tholuck, Augustus. A Translation and Commentary of the Book of Psalms, for the 
Use of the Ministry and Laity of the Christian Church. Translated from the 
German by J. Isidor Mombert. 12mo, pp. xv, 49V. Philadelphia, 1858. 

Umbreit, D. F. W. New Version of the Book of Job, with Expository Notes, 2 vols., 
12mo. Edinburgh, 1836-37. 

(c) Prophetical Books. 
Alexander, Joseph Addison. The Prophecies of Isaiah. Translated and Explained. 

2 vols., 8vo. New York, 1847. Revised ed., pp. 507, 482. 1869. 
Auberlen, Carl A. The Prophecies of Daniel and the Revelation of St. John. Viewed 

in their Mutual Relation. 8vo. Edinburgh, 1856. 
Barnes, Albert. Notes on Isaiah. 2 vols., 12mo. New York, 1881. Also on 

Daniel. 1 vol., 12mo. New York. 
Ewald, Heinrich. Commentary on the Prophets of the Old Testament. Translated 

from the German by J. F. Smith. 5 vols. London, 1875-81. 
Fairbairn, Patrick. Ezekiel and the Books of his Prophecy. An Exposition. 2d 

ed., 8vo, pp. 512. Edinburgh, 1851. 

Jonah: Life, Character, and Mission. 12mo. Edinburgh, 1849. 

Hengstenberg, E. W. The Prophecies of Ezekiel, Elucidated. Translated by A. C, 

and J. G. Murphy. Svo, pp. 545. Edinburgh, 1869. Also on Daniel. 1 vol., 

8vo. Edinburgh, 
Moore, T. V. The Prophets of the Restoration ; or, Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi. 

A new Translation, with Notes. 8vo, pp. vii, 408. 1856. 
Pusey, E. B. Daniel th<» Prophet. Nine Lectures delivered in the Divinity School 

of the University of Oxford. With Copious Notes. 2d ed., 8vo, pp. 755. Ox- 
ford, 1868. Also on the Minor Prophets. 4to. Oxford, 1871. 
Smith, R. Payne. The Authenticity and Messianic Interpretation of the Prophecies 

of Isaiah Vindicated, in Sermons before the University of Oxford. 8vo. London, 

Wright, C. H. H. Zechariah and his Prophecies. 12mo, pp. Ixxv, 614. Bampton 

Lectures for 1878. London, 1874. 

II. The New Testament. 

(a) Gospels and Acts. 

Alexander, Joseph Addison. The Gospel According to Matthew, Explained. 12mo, 

pp. 460. New York, 1867. Also Mark. 1 vol., 12mo. New York, 1874. 
Baumgarten, M. The Acts of the Apostles ; or, The History of the Church in the 

Apostolic Age. From the German. 8vo, 3 vols., pp. 457, 459, 383. Edinburgh, 

Gloag, P. J. A Commentary, Exegetical and Critical, on the Acts of the Apostles. 

Svo, 2 vols., pp. 439, 456. Edinburgh, 1870. 
Godet, F. Commentary on the Gospel of St. John, with a Critical Introduction. 

From the French. 3 vols., pp. 462, 413, 366. Edinburgh, 1877. 
Hackett, H. B. A Commentary on the Original Text of the Acts of the Apostles. 

New ed., revised and greatly enlarged. Svo, pp. 480. Boston, 1866. 
Hengstenberg, E. W. Commentary on the Gospel of St. John. 2 vols., Svo, pp. 480, 

541. Edinburgh, 1865. 
Lisco, F. G. Parables of Jesus Explained and Illustrated. Svo, pp. 414. Edinburgh, 

Ifaurice, Frederick Denison. The Gospel of St. John. A Series of Discourses. Svo. 

London, 1867. 


Nast, William. A Commentary on the Gospels of Matthew and Mark ; Critical, 
Doctrinal, and Homiletical, etc. 8vo, pp. 760. Cincinnati, 1864, 

Stier, Rudolph. The Words of the Lord Jesus. Translated from the Second Re- 
vised and Enlarged German Edition. 9 vols,, Svo, pp. -425, 429, 542. 484, 521, 
522, 513, 460, 505. Edinburgh, 1855-58. 

Tholuck, August. Commentary on the Gospel of John. Translated from the Ger- 
man by Charles P. Krauth. 8vo, pp. viii, 440. Philadelphia, 1859. 

Commentary on the Sermon on the Mount. Translated from the 4th Revised 

and Enlarged German Edition by R. L. Brown. 8vo, pp. 451. Edinburgh, 1869. 

Tittman, K. C. Sacred Meditations ; or, an Exegetical, Critical, and Doctrinal Com- 
mentary on the Gospel of St. John. 2 vols., crown 8vo, pp. 398, 474. Biblical 
Cabinet. Edinburgh, 1844. 

Trench, Richard Chenevix. The Sermon on the Mount. An Exposition Drawn from 
the Writings of St. Augustine. With an Essay on his Merits as an Interpreter 
of Holy Scripture. 3d ed., enlarged. 8vo. London, 1869. 

Notes on the Parables and Miracles of our Lord. Svo. 2 vols. 1850, 1852. 

Studies in the Gospels. 8vo, pp. vii, 326. New York, 1872. 

Van Oosterzee, J. J. John's Gospel : Apologetical Lectures. Translated with Ad- 
ditions by J. F. Hurst. 12mo, pp. xiv, 256. Edinburgh, 1869. 

Vaughan, Charles J. Lectures on the Acts. Svo, 3 vols. London, 1864. 

(b) The Epistles and the Apocalypse. 

Adam, John. An Exposition of the Epistle of James, with an Appendix of Disser- 
tations. Svo, pp. 448. Edinburgh, 1867, 1871. 

Adams, Thomas. Commentary on the 2d Epistle of Peter. New ed., revised. Impe- 
rial Svo. London, 1862. 

Calvin, John. Commentaries on the Epistle of Paul to the Romans. Translated and 
Edited by John Owen. Svo, pp. 592. Edinburgh, 1849. 

Candlish, Robert. The First Epistle of John Expounded. 2 vols., 12mo. Edinburgh, 
1870. Also on Ephesians. Ed. 1875. 

Chalmers, Thomas. Lectures on Romans. 4 vols., Svo. 1827. Edinburgh, 4 vols. 
12mo. 1854. 

Eadie, John. A Commentary on the Greek Text of the Epistle of Paul to the Colos- 
sians. Svo, pp. xlvi, 303. London, 1856. Also on Thessalonians, Philippians, 
and Ephesians. 

Ellicott, C. J. Commentary, Critical and Grammatical, on St. Paul's Epistles to the 
Galatians. Svo, pp. 183. Andover, 1867. Also on Ephesians, Thessalonians, Pas- 
toral Epistles, Philippians, Colossians, and Philemon. 4 vols., Svo, Andover. 

Elliot, E. B. Horae Apocalypticae ; or, a Commentary on the Apocalypse, Critical 
and Historical, etc. New ed., 4 vols., Svo. London, 1869, 

Fairbairn, Patrick. The Pastoral Epistles. Greek Text and Expository Notes. 1 2mo, 
pp. ix, 451. 1876. 

Forbes, John. Analytical Commentary on the Epistle to the Romans, tracing the 
train of thought by Parallelism. Svo. Edinburgh, 1868. 

Gebhardt, Hermann. The Doctrine of the Apocalypse, and its Relation to the Doc- 
trine of the Gospel and Epistles of John. Translated from the German by J. S. 
Banks. 2 vols., Svo. Edinburgh. 

Haldane, Robert. Exposition of the Epistle to the Romans, with Remarks on the 
Commentaries of Macknight, Stuart, and Tholuck. Svo, pp. 752. New York, 


Hengstenberg, E, W. The Revelation of St. John, Expounded for those who Search 

the Scriptures. Translated from the Original by Patrick Fairbaim. 2 toIs., 8vo, 

pp. 487, 508. Edinburgh, 1851-52. 
Hodge, Charles. Commentary on the Epistle to the Romans. New ed., revised and 

in great measure rewritten. 8vo, pp. 716. Philadelphia, 1856. Also on Ephe- 

sians, 1st and 2d Corinthians. 3 vols., 12mo. 
Leighton, Robert. A Practical Commentary on the First Epistle General of Peter. 

With a Brief Memoir of the Author. 2 vols. Philadelphia, 1864. 
Lightfoot, J. B. St. Paul's Epistle to the Galatians. A Revised Text, with Intro- 
duction, Notes, and Dissertations. 2d ed., Svo, pp. 396. Andover, 1870. Also 

on Philippians, Colossians, and Philemon. 2 vols., 8vo, New York. 
Lillie, John. Lectures on the Epistle of Paul to the Thessalonians. 8vo, pp. 585. 

New York, 1860. Also on 1st and 2d Peter. 8vo, pp. xi, 536. New York, 

Liicke, Fried. Commentary on the Epistle of St. John. 12mo. Edinburgh, 1837. 
Luther, Martin. A Commentary on St. Paul's Epistle to the Galatians. Svo, pp. 

575. New York, 1845. 
Neander, Augustus. The Epistle of Paul to the Philippians. Practically Explained. 

Translated from the German by Mrs. H. C. Conant. 12mo, pp. xvii, 123. New 

York, 1851. Also on James and 1st John. 2 vols., 12mo. 
Pond, Enoch. The Seals Opened; or, The Apocalypse Explained. 12mo, pp. xi, 211. 

Portland, 1871. 
Robertson, Frederick W. Expository Lectures on First and Second Corinthians. 1 2mo. 

London, 1870. Also New York, 1881. 
Shedd, William G. T. A Critical and Doctrinal Commentary on the Epistle of 

St. Paul to the Romans. Svo, pp. 439. New York, 1879. 
Stanley, A. P. The Epistles of St. Paul to the Corinthians, with Critical Notes and 

Dissertations. New ed., 2 vols., Svo, pp. 356, 434. London, 1862. 4th ed., 

Steiger, Wilhelm. Exposition of the 1st Epistle of Peter. Translated by Dr. Fair- 
bairn. 2 vols., 18mo. Edinburgh, 1836. 
Steward, George. The Argument of the Epistle to the Hebrews. A Posthumous 

Work. Svo. Edinburgh, 1872. 
Stuart, Moses. A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Epistle to the Romans. 

3d ed. Edited and Revised by R. D. C. Robbins. 12mo, pp. 544. Andover, 

1851. New ed., 1876. 
Tholuck, Augustus. Commentary on the Epistle to the Hebrews. Translated by 

James Hamilton. 2 vols., Svo. Edinburgh, 1842. New ed., 1869. 
Expositions of St. Paul's Epistle to the Romans ; with Extracts from the 

Exegetical Works of the Fathers and Reformers. Translated from the Original 

German by Robert Menzies. 2 vols, Svo. Edinburgh, 1848. 
Trench, R. C. Commentary on the Epistles to the Seven Churches in Asia. 12mo, 

pp. 312. New York, 1867. 
Vaughan, C. J. Lectures on the Revelation of St. John. 4th ed, 2 vols., Svo. 

London, 1875. 
St. Paul's Epistle to the Romans. The Greek Text, with English Notes. 

3 ed., enlarged. Also on Philippians. 1 vol., 16mo. London, 1880. 
Wardlaw, Ralph. Lectures on Romans. 8 vols., Svo. London, 1861. 




J. G. Dowling, Introduction to the Study of Ecclesiastical History, London, 1838 ; H. J. Rov- 
aards, Oratio de theologia historica cum sacri codicls exegesi rite conjuncta, UtrecM, 1827 : A. P. 
Stanley, Lectures on the Study of Ecclesiastical History. London, 1857. 

The scriptural material for history and doctrine, which is brought 
to light and restored to its pure state by exegetical theology, be- 
comes the very foundation of historical theology. The latter in- 
cludes both the biblical elements (Sacred History) and their devel- 
opment in the Church (Church History and History of Doctrines). 
It, accordingly, reaches back into exegetical theology, and forms, 
at the same time, the bridge for passing over into systematic 

In contrast with modern encylopaedists, we prefer to separate 
exegetical from historical theology. But this is only relative. The 
work of the exegete is historical in the broad sense of searching for 
required sources ; but this is certainly a merely preliminary histor- 
ical task. The exegete may be likened to the miner Relations of 

who descends the shaft in order to bring; into the lig-ht ^^s*o™^\ ^^ 

& » exegetical the- 

of day the gold of pure scriptural truth, while the his- oiogy. 
torian resembles the artificer who melts the masses down, and gives 
them their form and impression. The process of separating the 
gold from the material in which it is held, e. g., the presentation of 
the body of doctrine apart from the ideas of the age in which it 
originated, is also the work of exegesis, although this constitutes the 
line at which exegetical theology transfers its material to historical. 
This, too, is the point at which the researches coincide which have 
generally been prosecuted in distinct and separate fields of inquiry. 
The exposition of the Gospels, for instance, is an exegetical, not a 
historical, task, while a critical representation of the life of Christ, 
upon the basis of the Gospel records, is a historical work, which 
the exegete will regard as the point at which his labours terminate. 
Here, as everywhere else, the one must aid the other. Historical 
theology extends likewise into the pre-Christian, or Old Testament, 


Biblical archaeology is an important aid to exegesis, and, at the 
Biblical archae- same time, an historical science. The exegete needs 
oiogy related it in Order to understand the Bible, for which reason 
sis and churcii some acquaintance with this branch is to be required 
history. ^^^^ presupposed when he enters on his work. But in- 

asmuch as it is the task of history to represent the life and spirit 
of the Israelitish people, historical theology is also entitled to lay 
claim to the service of archaeology as a product of exegesis. Dis- 
putes of this sort about boundaries may, however, be reconciled 
very peaceably, and serve merely to prove the elastic nature of the 
organism of science.^ And while biblical archaeology, separately 
considered, has been treated in a former section as an exegetical 
aid, it will, on the other hand, be proper for us to class the biblical 
history as a whole — which, of course, involves the archaeology as 
well — with the general organism of historical theology. 


Sacred history, like the Bible itself, is divided into Old and New 
The place of Testament, and constitutes the point of transition from 
sacred history, exegetical into historical theology. Hence, what has 
been said with regard to the Bible in general has its particular ap- 
plication to this subject. 

This is the place for historical criticism, involving not merely 
the question whether the book which claims to be a source is de- 
rived from the author in whose name it appears, but also the further 
inquiry whether the author, known or unknown, has aimed to write 
actual history, and in what way he has executed his plan. The 
propriety of historical criticism, when applied to the books of the 
Bible, is, doubtless, open to graver doubts from the standpoint of 
supernaturalism than criticism of the text. But the necessity for 
it will be seen in the fact, that we must guard against its abuse by 
recognizing the spirit and object of the Bible history, its super- 
human and divine plan, and its development under the conditions 
of time. He who derives his standard of measurement directly 
from the history of revelation itself, will naturally decide otherwise 
than will he who applies the foreign standard of ancient or modern 

^ This, too, with reference to the reminders by Pelt (review of the 2d ed.), in 
Bruns and Hafner's Repertorium, xiv, 3, p. 268. 



W. Hoffman, Die gottliche Stuf enordnuug im A. Test. Berl., 1854 ; tGfrorer, Urgeschichte des 
menschl. Geschlechts, SchafEhausen, 1855 ; Pressel In Herzog Encykl., xvii, p. 245, sqq., Art. Volk 
Gottes ; J. H. Kurtz, History of the Old Covenant, 3 vols., Philadelphia, 1859 ; S. Sharpe, History 
of the Hebrew Nation and its Literature, London, 1872 ; A. P. Stanley, Lectures on the History 
of the Jewish Church, 3 vols., New York, 1866-77 ; H. H. Milman, History of the Jews, 3 vols.. 
New York, 1882. 

The history of the nation from which the Founder of Christianity 
came forth to be the Saviour of the world, is of equal value for the 
Christian theologian with the general study of the Old periods of He- 
Testament. The following are the periods of principal brew history, 
religious importance subsequently to the primitive period — from 
Adam to Abraham. 

1. The Patriarchal Age, being the period of the earliest revela- 
tion from God — from Abraham to Moses. 

2. The period of founding the theocracy and subduing the land 
by the theocratic leaders — from Moses to Samuel. 

3. The further development of this theocracy under the law, and 
the theocratical institutions of the priesthood, the sovereignty, and 
the prophetic order, considered both in their positive and their 
negative features — from Samuel to Solomon, and thence to the 

4. The periods of disintegration under the influence of foreign 
rulers and foreign customs, and of transition to a new period dur- 
ing and after the Captivity. 

The history of Israel, in the strict sense, begins with the head of 
the race, and his emigration to Canaan. But the records of pre- 
Abrahamic times are included, as preliminary history, within the 
circle of Old Testament historical studies. The difficulties touched 
upon in exegetical theology, with reference to the age of the his- 
torical documents that have been preserved to our time, and their 
trustworthiness, are also felt in the historical treatment. The prin- 
cipal difficulties attach to the earliest periods. We have not hesi- 
tated to designate them as the time of the earliest ^.^ ,^ 

>=> , ^ Difficulty con- 

revelations, because we share, with Hauff,^ the convic- nected with 

tion, that a belief in revelation does not only admit of, ^^^ ^ ^^"° ' 
but absolutely requires, criticism of the historical books of the 
Bible. If the divine and the human, wonderfully interpenetrating 
each other, impress us anywhere, it is when we are meditating 
upon these oldest of all histories, for whose examination we need, 

^ Comp. his work, cited above, and the Introd., by K. A. Menzel, to his Staats u. 
Religionsgesch. der Konigreiche Israel u. Juda, Breslau, 1853, pp. 8f. 


in harmony with this thought, minds open to childlike conceptions, 
and religiously and poetically inclined, and a judgment and under- 
standing prepared for an unprejudiced investigation, and sometimes 
accessible, among other things, to historical discussion.^ Where 
either of these exists alone, where we apply only the belief in- 
stilled by the lessons of childhood, and seek to retain this in its 
naive directness at the cost of historic truth, or where, perverted at 

, the outset by the so-called modern enlightenment, we 

Necessity of -^ . . * . 

freedom from approach the sacred narratives in order to exercise our 
prejudice. pedantic skill upon them, the result will be that our 
judgment will be speedily formed, since we will either literally ac- 
cept every thing without examination, or reject every thing with- 
out understanding it. In no age has there been so much talk of 
myths as in our own. Every people, like every individual, has its 
childhood history, and we can no more expect to find purely histor- 
ical reminiscences without the golden thread of poesy, in the prim- 
itive history of nations in general, than we can suppose that the 
recollections of an individual can reach back with entire accuracy 
into the twilight in which poetry and fact are intermingled with 
each other.^ The important thing in this connection, is, that the 
ideas of legend and myth be clearly fixed. There is no need of be- 
ing frightened at a word. What does fiv'&og signify ? It is applied 
Meaning of *^ narrative and legend as well as to fable and poem, 
myth. g^t the ancients, already, distinguished between logo- 

graphs and mythographs,^ and modern science has in like manner 
distinguished between historical and philosophical myths (myths 
proper), so as to make the former actually historical legends (Xoyoi), 
even though conceived and developed in a poetic spirit, while the 
latter contain simply doctrines or views clothed in historic garb, or 
presented in the guise of history. It is a well-known fact that a 

^ Comp. Bunsen, Gott in der Gesch. (Part ii, Bibel, Leben, u. Weltgeschichte), p. 
101 : "I assert, that by its internal unity, and the truth of its monotheistic conscious- 
ness, this book (the Bible and its history) has controlled the consciousness of the 
world, including its noblest tribes, during many centuries ; it has realized the noblest 
hopes of mankind and authenticated its holiest anticipations, such as in moments of 
serious consciousness you feel arising in yourself." Also Pressel, supra: "If the 
gods of heathen nations are simply the reflection of the national spirit, Israel, on the 
other hand, is, in its character as the covenant people, an organ for the erection of the 
kingdom of God, a product of the grace of God." 

^ " Go back," says Herder, " in connexion with historical writings, to the infancy 
of the world, to the poverty and needs of the writers. In this poor hovel God dwells ; 
to this childhood the Father speaks." Theophron, Werke x, p. 317. 

2 See Creuzer, Hist. Kunst d. Griechen, (Lpz., 1803), pp. 40 and 1*73, where the 
ancients are quoted. 


controversy exists as to whether historic facts or philosophical 
doctrines in natural history underlie heathen mythology itself. But 
the same question has been raised with reference to the Bible, and 
we are not at liberty to set it aside without investigation. The 
distinction between legend and myth is important even for the Old 
Testament history. The former is more nearly related to actual 
history than the latter ; for the legend, even when poetically col- 
ored, contains a historical kernel, while the kernel enclosed within 
the myth is always a dogma instead of history, a religious concep- 
tion in historic garb. The task of the historian will, accordingly, 
differ as he deals with myths or with legends. In the case of the 
myth, it is needful, from the outset, to ignore the historical germ, 

in the usual acceptation of the word, and to seize upon ^.„ 

^ , . ^ , Difference be- 

the dogmatic germ, which, indeed, presumes a recogni- tween myth 
tion of the historic state of things. In dealing with the ^^ ^^^^ ' 
legend, however, the attempt must be made to strip off the cover- 
ing which was gradually formed about the historic germ, and to 
extract that germ, so far as possible, from the enveloping shell. 
Some critics have gone to the length of including all the older his- 
tory of Israel among myths, so as to leave but little of the historical 
element beyond the theocratic idea that the Israelitish Israelites the 
nation was the people of God, and was described as people of God. 
such in a series of symbolical images.^ But even this extreme ap- 
plication of the myth idea is decidedly different from the ruthless 
transforming of the sacred histories into nature myths, which over- 
looks every religious feature, and by which we are asked, with 
Kork,^ to find astronomical emblems ; or, with Daumer and Ghil- 
lany,^ even the worship of fire and Moloch, in the purely human 
narratives of the Bible. 

Such unnatural mythologizing of history into nature, however, 
rectifies itself. The healthy historic spirit rejects it. But so much 
the more meritorious is the effort, made in the way above indicated, 
to distinguish between myth and legend by means of a thorough 
examination." If the results of such inquiries are not always at 

^ Thus de Wette, in his Beitragre. 

^ Vergleichende Mythologie, etc., Lpz., 1836, and several other works by this writer. 

^Comp. Rheinwald, Repertorium, 1844. Daumer has since done penance, however, 
and has " returned " into the bosom of the Roman Catholic Church. 

* George, Mythus u. Sage ; Vers, einer wiss. Entwicklung dieser Begriffe u. ihres 
Verhaltnisses zum christl. Glauben, Berlin, 1837. "Legend and myth diverge in 
different directions ; the former gives the appearance, and from this we argue back 
to the idea; in the latter, on the contrary, the idea is given, and the appearance is 
deduced therefrom." P. 11. On the distinction in certain cases, which is none the 
less relative only, and on the difficulty of always determining the character of a nar- 


once apparent, they yet lead into the right way, and toward the 
ultimate goal. It is not necessary that we should at once think of 
Poetry not ne- ^^'^^^ ^^^ deceit when poetry, especially of a religious 
cessariiy fraud sort, is mentioned. This is possible only to a worldly- 
wise, petrified understanding, which is incapable of 
suspecting the existence of any higher form of truth in poetry, 
while it is the special work of the latter to represent, if not bare 
and tangible realities, yet the highest form of truth.^ How^ever, the 
greatest prudence is necessary, on the other hand, and it is a question 
whether the word " myth," which always has a reference to the point 
of view occupied by heathenism, ought to have been transferred at 
all to the territory of the Bible.^ The theological standpoint is that 
which regards the Bible narratives as sacred history, as compared 
with profane. Every thing contained therein, whether it be poetry, 
tradition, or actual history, relates to a single grand idea, which 
creatively controls the whole, but which does not remain merely an 
Nature of bib- abstract theory, but moves through this history and be- 
Ucai narrative, comes concrete in it, celebrating its consummation at 
the end in the Revelations of the ISTew Covenant. The student who 
overlooks this feature misconceives the fundamental character of 
the history, whose peculiarity lies in the fact that this is not his- 
tory, whose limitations are fixed by its own nature, but, as one writer 
beautifully observes,^ it is " the history of God from a human point 

rative, comp. ibid., pp. 13, 14, With reference to the New Test., see 0. Bagge, Prin- 
cip. des Mythus im Dienst d. christl. Position, Lpz., 1865 ; comp. also Immer, in/ray 
p. 24 : " Myth and legend, often passing over into each other, have this in common, 
that both have sprung from the unintentionally poetizing spirit of the people, and 
contain, in confused mixture, both idea and history. If the two are to be distin- 
guished from each other, the myth will designate an idea that has become embodied 
history in the mouth of the people, and legend a history which has become involved 
with ideal elements in the fancy and traditions of the people." 

^ " The idea of the unconscious (naive) must necessarily be retained, unless it is de- 
sired to wholly abandon the ground of myths and legends." It is by this feature that 
that field is distinguished from that of "intentional deception and fiction." George, 
supra, P- 15 ; comp. also Hauff in the work referred to above, passim. It is, how- 
ever, apparent that the highest, i. e., the essentially religious, ideas, are represented 
precisely by myths (in case the designation be adopted), while the purely historical 
can claim to be religiously significant only in a secondary way. Comp. Genesis with 
the Books of Kings, Chronicles, Ezra, and Nehemiah. Which is the more distinct- 
ively religious ? 

^ Comp. Schenkel, Dogm., i, p. 307, sq. (referring to Ewald). A similar idea holds 
true of the word oracle as applied to the prophets. The phrase " scriptural myth " 
has also been suggested, in order to avoid the analogy of the heathen myth. 

^ J. G. Mueller, Theophil, p. 246. August!, too, was accustomed to describe Israel- 
itish history as an aira^ leyofievov in the history of the world. Hegel entertained dif- 
ferent views of Jewish history at different times, as may be seen in Rosenkranz, 


of view, and the history of man from the divine point of view." It 
accords, upon the whole, with the laws of human development, that 
the earlier history of a people should bear a partly legendary and 
partly mythical, or epical, character, to a greater extent than the 
later, which falls within the province of historical writings proper. 
The old economical and pedagogical idea, according to which God 
condescended to the level of human ideas, and entered orow-th in sa- 
into the childish apprehensions of men, in order to at- cred history. 
tract them to himself, needs only to be rendered scientifically intel- 
ligible, from a genuinely theistic point of view, in order to approve 
itself as the only tenable one in the practical field. This by no 
means excludes a true pragmatism, which takes the human element 
into account, and treats it with due historical recognition of its im- 
portance, but simply provides for it a proper basis and the neces- 
sary higher aims. 



The sources for Israelitish history are the historical books of the 
Bible, including the historical Apocrypha. For the post-exilian 
period the First Book of Maccabees is especially important. In 
addition, we have Josephus (comp. Archaeology), who is a valuable 
authority for the period extending from the close of that covered by 
biblical sources down to his own time. Philo's Life of Moses has 
little historical value, because of its allegorical tendency. Among 
non-Jewish writers, the Grecian authors Llerodotus, Strabo, and 
Diodorus Siculus, and the Romans Justin and Tacitus,^ deserve 
mention; also the Egyptian Manetho (B. C. 280?), whom Josephus 
cites and controverts, and upon whose existence and trustworthiness 
opinions are still divided. Eusebius, among the Christian fathers, 
treated Israelitish history, in the first books of his Ecclesiastical 
History and the Praep. Evangelica, and others followed in his foot- 
steps. A critical treatment was inconceivable in connection with 
the theory of an exact and minute verbal inspiration, and was first 
introduced by Spinoza (Tractatus theologico-politicus), Richard 
Simon, Clericus, and others. There are other works, more or less 
critical and pragmatical, by Buddaeus (1726), Humphrey Prideaux 
(1715, 1718), Shuckford (1728-38), Ilolberg (1747), and Lange 
(1775), being supplemented in later times by the following : 

Leben Hegels, p. 49, where it will also appear how " it violently repelled him. and 
again engrossed him, and gave him life-long trouble as a dark riddle " ( ! ). 

^ Comp. J. G. Mueller in Stud. u. Krit., 1843, and F. C. Meier, Judaica seu veterum 
scriptorum profanorum de rebus judaicis fragmenta, Jena, 1832. 


J. J. Hess, Gesch. der Israel, vor d. Zeiten Jesu. Ziir., lllQ-88. 12 vols. 

G. L. Bauer, Handb. der Gesch, der hebr. Nation, von ihrer Entstehung bis zur Zer- 

storung ihres Staates. Niirnb., 1800-4. 2 vols. 
De Wette, Kritik der Israel. Gesch. ("Beitriige zur Einl. in das A. T." 2 parts.) 

Halle, 1807. 
J. M. Jost, Geschichte der Israeliten seit der Zeit der Maccabaer bis auf unsere Tage. 

Berl., 1820-47. 10 vols. 

Gesch. des Judenth. u. seiner Secten. Lpz., 1857-59. 3 vols. 

H. Leo, Vorlesungen liber die Geschichte des jiid. Staates. Berl., 1828. 
"^E. Bertheau, zur Gesch. der Israeliten. Zwei Abhandl. Gott., 1842. 

C. V. Lengerke, Kenaan. Volks- u. Religionsgesch. Israels. Part I. (bis zum Tode des 

Josua.) Konigsb., 1844. 
Ch. Th. Engelstoft, hist, populi Judaici biblica usque ad occupat. Palaestinae ad re- 

lationes peregrinas examin. et digesta. Havn., 1832. 
*J. H. Kurtz, Gesch. des alten Bundes. 1 vol. Berl., 1848. 3d ed., 1864; vol. 2. 

2d ed., 1858. Engl. ed. : History of the Old Covenant, 3 vols. Translated by 

Edersheim and Martin. Edinb., 1859. 
L. Herzfeld (Rabbiner), Gesch. des Volkes Israel von der Zerstorung des ersten Tem- 

pels bis zur Einsetzung des Makkab. Schimon. Braunschw., 1847-57. 3 vols. 

(Auszug daraus, Lpz., 1870). 
Sal. Friedlander, Geschichte des israelit. Volkes von der altesten bis auf die neueste 

Zeit. Lpz., 1848. 
*K. A. Menzel, Staats- u. Religionsgeschichte der Konigreiche Israel u. Juda. Bres- 

lau, 1853. 
Gust. Baur, 6 Tabellen iiber die Gesch. des israelit. Volkes. Giessen, 1848. Fol. 
Eisenlohr, das Volk Israel unter der Herrschaft der Konige. 1 part. Lpz., 1855 f. 
J. R. Tiele, Chronologic des A. T. Bremen, 1839. 
G. F. Jatho, die Grundziige der alttest. Chronologic in Uebereinstimmung mit den Zeit- 

bestimmungen der Classiker. Hildesheim, 1856. 
J. K. H. Schmeidler, der Untergang des Reiches Juda. Bresl., 1831. 
J. Salvador, Geschichte der Romerherrschaft in Judaa und der Zerstorung Jerusa- 

lems ; German of Eichler. Bremen, 1847. 2 vols. 
H. Gratz, Gesch. der Juden von den altesten Zeiten bis auf die Gegenwart. Lpz., 

1854-75. 11 vols. 
Js. da Costa, Israel und die Volker. From the Dutch. Frankf. a. M., 1855. 
Bost, I'epoque des Machabees. Strassb., 1862. 
Jastrovv, (Rabbiner), vier Jahrhund. aus der Gesch. der Juden, von Zerstorung des 

ersten Tempels bis zur makkab. Tempelweihe. Heidelb., 1865. 
* Weber u. Holtzmann, Geschichte des Volkes Israel und die Entstehung des Chris- 

tenthums. Lpz., 1867. 2 vols. 

D. Ehrmann, Gesch. der Israel, etc. bis auf die Gegenw. 2 parts. Briinn, 1869. 
*F. Hitzig, Gesch. des Volkes Israel. Lpz., 1869. 2 parts. 

Weiss, zur Gesch. der jiid. Tradition. Part I. Wien, 1871. 

E. W. Hengstenberg, Gesch, des Reiches Gottes unter dem A. B. Berl., 1870, f. 
2 pai'ts. 

A. Kdhler, Lehrb. der bibl. Gesch. A. T.'s. Erl., 1875, ff. 

F. de Saulcy, Sept siecles de I'histoire judaique (after 588). Paris, 1874 
*J. Wellhausen, Gesch. Israels. I. Berl., 1878. 

Apologetical : 
*H. von der Goltz, Gottes Oifenbarung durch heilige Geschichte, nach ihrem Wesen 
beleuchtet. Basel, 1868. 



Duncan Shaw, The History and Philosophy of Judaism; or, A Critical and Philo- 
sophical Analysis of the Jewish Religion. Edinburgh, 178*7. 

Frederick Strauss, The Pilgrimage to Jerusalem : a Picture of Judaism in the Cen- 
tury which preceded the Advent of our Saviour. 2 vols. Boston, 1825. 

Isaac Disraeli, Genius of Judaism. Lond., 1833. 

Alexander M'Caul, The Old Paths : a Comparison of the Principles and Doctrines of 
Modern Judaism with the Religion of Moses and the Prophets. Lond., 1837. 

M. Mendelssohn, Jerusalem ; a Treatise on Ecclesiastical Authority and Judaism. 
Translated by M. Samuels. 2 vols. Lond., 1838. 

E. H. Lindo, The History of the Jews of Spain and Portugal, from the Earliest Times 
to their final Expulsion. Lond., 1848. 

George Smith, The Hebrew People ; or, The History and Religion of the Israelites, 
from the Origin of the Nation to the Time of Christ. 2 vols. Lond., 1850. 

Abraham Mills, The Ancient Hebrews; with an Introductory Essay concerning the 
World before the Flood. New York, 1856. 

J. W. Etheridge, Jerusalem and Tiberias ; Sora and Cordova ; A Survey of the Relig- 
ious and Scholastic Learning of the Jews ; designed as an Introduction to the 
Study of Hebrew Literature, Lond., 1856. 

Baden Powell, Christianity without Judaism. Lond., 1857. 

Morris J. Raphall. Post-Biblical History of the Jews, from the Close of the Old 
Testament till the Destruction of the Second Temple. 2 Vols. New York, 

H. Ewald, History of Israel. 4 vols. Lond., 1868-71. 

J. Hannah, Hollowness, Narrowness, and Fear; Warnings from the Jewish Church. 
Oxford, 1869. 

W. H. Rule, History of the Kairite Jews. 8vo. Lond., 1870. 

I. Mayer, Source of Salvation, A Catechism of the Jewish Religion ; with the Con- 
firmation Service, New York, 1874. 

Frederic Huidekoper, Judaism at Rome. B. C. 76 to A.D. 140. New York, 1876. 

E. M. Meyers, The Jews: their Customs and Ceremonies. New York, 1878. 
Abraham Geiger, Judaism and its History. Translated from the German by Maurice 

Mayer; with an Appendix, " Renan and Strauss." Lond., n. d. 


Derenbourg, Essai sur I'histoire et la geographic de la Palestine, d'apres les Thalmuds 
et les autres sources rabbiniques. P. I. Histoire de la Palestine depuis Cyrus 
jusqu'a Adrien. Paris, 1867. 

* M. Schneckenburger, Vorlesungen iiber neutestam. Zeitgeschichte, herausg. von Loh- 

lein mit Vorw. v. Hundeshagen. Frankf., 1862. 

* A. Hausrath, Neutestam. Zeitgeschichte. Heidelb., 1868, fg. 2ded., 1873-77. 4 parts. 

(Part L in 3d ed. Munch., 1879). 
*E. Schiirer, Lehrb. der neutest, Zeitgesch, Lpz., 1874. 

F, Delitzsch, Handwerkesleben zur Zeit Jesu (Lpz, 1868 u. 6.) ; ein Tag in Capernaum. 

(Lpz. 1871). Amer. ed., translated by Morris. Phila., 1873. 
J. Wellhausen, die Pharisaer u. die Sadducaer. Greifsw. 1874. 
E. Ledraiu, Hi-toire d'Israel. L (until B. C. 887). Paris, 1879. 




■William Cave, Antiquitates Apostolicse ; or, The Lives, Acts, and Martyrdoms of the 
Holy Apostles of our Saviour. 2 vols. Lond., 1836. 

Philip Stauhope Dodd, A View of the Evidence afforded by the Life and Ministry 
of St. Peter to the Truth of the Christian Revelation. Lond,, 183 7. 

Henry Blunt, Lectures upon the History of St. Paul, delivered during Lent, at the 
Church of the Holy Trinity, Upper Chelsea. Phila., 1839. 

Henry Hunter, Sacred Biography ; or, The History of the Patriarchs. 8vo. New- 
York, 1844. 

J. H. Counter, An Inquiry into the History and Character of Rahab. Lond., 1850. 

George Gilfillan, The Bards of the Bible. New York, 1851. 

S. Chandler, A Critical History of the Life of David. Oxford, 1853. 

William C. Duncan, The Life, Character, and Acts of John the Baptist ; and the Re- 
lation of his Ministry to the Christian Dispensation. Based upon the Johannes 
der Taufer of L. von Rohden. New York, 1853. 

Alfred Lee, The Life of the Apostle John, in a Series of Practical Discourses. New 
York, 1857. 

Adolph Monod, Saint Paul : Five Discourses, translated from the French by Rev. J. H. 
Meyers. Andover, 1860. 

"William G. Blackie, David, King of Israel : the Divine Plan and Lessons of his Life. 
Lond., 1860. 

C. M. Butler, St. Paul in Rome ; Lectures delivered in the Legation of the United 
States of America in Rome. Phila., 1865. 

James Floy, Literary Remains. Old Testament Characters Delineated and Illustrated. 

New York, 1866. 
F. W. Krummacher, Elijah the Tishbite. Lond. and New York, 1852. 

Elisha, translated by Jackson. London, 1838. 

David, King of Israel, translated by Marston. London, 1867. 

Conybeare and Howson, Life and Epistles of St. Paul. 2 vols. New York, 1869. 
"W. R. Fremantle, Fi'om Athens to Rome. Six Lectures on St. Paul's Visit to the 

Chief Cities of the Roman Empire. 8vo. Lond., 1869, 
A. P. Stanley, Scripture Portraits and Other Miscellanies. 12mo. Lond., 1870, 
Luke H. Wiseman, Men of Faith ; or. Sketches from the Book of Judges. Lond., 

F. D. Maurice, The Prophets and Kings of the Old Testament. 3d ed. London, 


D. M'Causland, The Builders of Babel. Lond., 1871, 

A. Oxenden, Portraits from the Bible. Vol. 1— Old Testament Series; Vol 2 — New 
Testament Series. Lond., 1871 

S. B. Gould, Legends of the Patriarchs and Prophets, and other Old Testament Char- 
acters. Lond., 1872. 

J. R. Macduff, The Healing Waters ; or. The Story of Naaman. An Old Testament 
Chapter on Providence and Grace, Lond,, 1 873, 

T. Lewin, The Life and Epistles of St. Paul. 2 vols., 4to. Lond., 1875. 

William M. Taylor, David, King of Israel : his Life and its Lessons. New York, 

Elijah the Prophet. New York, 1876. 

Moses the Lawgiver. New York, 1879. 


William M. Taylor, Paul the Missionary, New York, 1 880. 

James M. Macdonald, The Life and Writings of St. John. Edited, with an Introduc- 
tion, by J. S. Howson. New York, 1877. 

On the relations of the Israelites to Egypt, comp. Hengstenberg, Egypt and the 
Books of Moses. Translated by Robbins, (And., 1843). G. Ebers, Aeg. u. die 
Bb. Mose's. 1 Bd. (Lpz., 1868) ; H. Brugsch, I'Exode et les monuments egyptiens 
(Lpz,, 1875). On the relations to Assyria and Babylon: E. Schrader, die Keil- 
inschriften u. das A. T. (Giessen, 1872) ; and Keilinschriften u. Geschichtsfor- 
schung (Giessen, 1878); comp. die Darst. der Israel. Gesch. in M. Duncker's 
Gesch. des Alterthums (4th ed., Lpz., 1874 ff.), and in Maspero's Gesch. der mor- 
genl. Volker im Alterth. (French, Paris, 1875, German translation by Peitschmann, 
Lpz., 1877) ; also, George Smith, Chaldean Account of Genesis, 2d ed., New York, 
1880, and Assyrian Discoveries, New York, 1875. 



J. Ch. Doederlein, De hist. J. tenendae traden^que necessitate ac modo, Progrr. i-iv, Jena, 
1783-86 ; (also in the Opusc. theoL, Jena, 1789). On the different tendencies, in harmony with 
which, and for which, the biographer of Jesus may labor, comp. Bertholdt's Krit. Journal, 
vol. y, (1816), No. 4, pp. 225-245. Comp. infra, the American Literature on the Life of Jesus. 

The life of Christ, as the Son of God, is to be regarded as the 

central o^lory of Scripture history, in which all the rays 

... . Christ's life the 

of former historical manifestations of God are concen- centre of his- 

trated, and from which they again radiate, to extend tory. 

over the whole history of the Church. 

Should the life of Christ be regarded as a special branch in the 

course of theological science? Should it not, rather, shine forth 

from all the other branches? It results from the exegesis of the 

Gospels, stands at the head of Church History, and is the very soul 

of apologetics, dogmatics, ethics, and practical theology.^ But for 

this very reason, it is essential that we gain as satisfactory a view 

of this life as possible. This involves grave difficulties, of course; 

for the Gospels do not furnish, as is conceded by the most evangel- 

* " The life of Jesus is the central point of a newly rising light for the history of 
Christianity." Ammon, Fortbildung d. Christenthums zur Weltreligion, I, p. 133. " The 
life of Jesus reconciles all the interests of speculation, the religious feeling and his- 
tory. It presents to our notice a personality, for the possession of which heaven and 
earth are in dispute, but which may not be exclusively assigned to either ; which con- 
sists of fragments and elements which are transmitted to us by tradition and docu- 
mentary records, and which, nevertheless, cannot be made to fit into our moulds; 
which is conceived as the type of every human being, and yet appears under circum- 
stances and in situations such as ours are not now and never can be." Ihid.^ iv, 
p. 277 sq. " The life of Jesus is a biography which flows out, as does no other, into 
a large and extended history of nations and even of the world. It describes an in/ii- 
vidual life, but the life of a character who is, antecedently, in the exaltation of his self- 
consciousness and in his spiritual might, a symptom of the world's history, and truly a 
new stage in the development of the human spirit, and who, in the next place, be- 


ical scholars/ a minute and complete biography, but only memor- 
abilia (dnofivrjiiovevaara), which, moreover, while partially coinci- 
dent, yet diverge from each other in their relations and points of 
view. John, the most confidential friend of Jesus, said at last : 
"There are also many other things which Jesus did, the which, if 
they should be written every one, I suppose that even the world it- 
self could not contain the books that should be written." Hence it 
becomes necessary to subject the Gospel narratives to criticism, as a 
preliminary measure. Here, again, exegetical and philological crit- 
icism turns over its work to the investigations of historical criticism. 
The former deals only with the authenticity of the Gospel records, 
as belongings to the canon, and with their relation to each other, 
while the latter inquires into the credibility of the sacred writers 

... themselves. There is no ground for alarm at such 
Negative cnti- .... 

cism no ground criticism, since, by the judgment of strictly orthodox 
theologians, both these writings and their contents fall 
within the range of the same historical criticism to which all his- 
torical monuments are subject.^ It may even be admitted that dis- 
crepancies occur in the Gospels, but that does not necessitate the 
conclusion that the Gospel, as a whole, contradicts itself. It would 
therefore be, not piety, but frivolous opposition to God's order, to 

came, by the labors of a brief career, the creator of a new and higher cosmos, whose 
world days are to be reckoned by thousands of years, and are to be measured by the 
circumference of the earth." Keim, Gesch, Jesu v. Nazara, I, p. 1, and the passage 
from Origen, De princ, 4, 5, quoted there. 

^ By Hess, for instance, in the Leben Jesu. 

- Ebrard, Kritik d, evang. Geschichte, i, p. 2 : " It follows, from the nature of the 
case, that a photographic picture of the Saviour could not be given at all ; for a per- 
feet representation of the Saviour in a single picture was impossible, in view of his 
universal character and the unavoidable narrowness with which he would be appre- 
hended by the consciousness of a single observer, and, consequently, in the representa- 
tion of a single writer. The entire Christ could only be presented to view by a number 
of descriptive pictures, the whole combined so as to oblige the observer to view them 
as a unit. God would not deprive us of this combined view. That is to say, he would 
not take from us the personal, scientific reconstruction of his image, upon the basis 
of a historical investigation of the several representations of Christ which are con- 
tained in the New Testament. The application of historical criticism to the Bible is 
certainly an infinitely complicated and wearisome task, and one that can ever be only 
approximately completed. But much has been gained when the task has been defi- 
nitely devolved upon, and honestly recognized by, theology, in the spirit of renouncing 
all unbelieving fear." Rothe, Zur Dogmatik, p. 308 sg. Comp. also Immer, Die Ge- 
schichts-quellen des Lebens Jesu (Lecture at Berne) in the Prot. Vortrage, V, T, Ber- 
lin, ISYS, p. 28 : "All research into the sources of the life of Christ can have no other 
end than to free the pure and concrete image of Jesus from the scattered traits in 
which it is enveloped, without which work the influence emanating from him, and the 
results originating with him, are inconceivable." 


refuse to see this fact, and to seek to avoid such critical labor under 

the questionable plea that damage to the Christian faith criticism nec- 

must result from such an undertakingf. The only essen- ^^^^y^^ }f> ""- 

^ ... derstand the 

tial consideration at this point is, that criticism should Gospels. 
occupy the proper point of view. In recent times it has been urged 
that an entire absence of predispositio/1 is necessary. This is im- 
possible in any absolute sense, for even they who make this de- 
mand have prepossessions ; for example, as to the possibility or im- 
possibility of miracles. But a developed doctrine of Christ (Chris- 
tology) is not to furnish the rule of procedure, any more than dog- 
matics may be allowed to govern exegesis. 

The life of Jesus is matter for history only in so far as it is defi- 
nitely human. The unprejudiced study of that life must, and will 
of itself, lead to the recognition of its divine element, but it must 
not be postulated d priori in dogmatic formulae, or imposed upon 
the history.^ The student who makes the life of Jesus an object of 
scientific investigation will, nevertheless, enter upon it with a cer- 
tain amount of preconceptions. He knows what life it is which is to 
be studied. But the sacred awe ^ with which he enters on his task 
can in no way harm historical impartiality; on the contrary, a 
spiritual and vivid treatment of any life, as well as that of the 
Saviour, is impossible without it.'^ It is as impossible to comprehend 

^ Comp. Hase, Leben Jesu, § 14. 

"^ Comp. the confessions of Lavater and Anna Maria v. Schurmann, in the preface 
to Neander's Life of Jesus. "The life of the Christian," remarks the latter, "is 
the best biography of Jesus." 

3 " The enumeration of outward fortunes in a career is unintelligible and dead with- 
out an apprehension or idea of the individual life itself, from which, as the innermost 
point in the life, all externalities may be explained." Hase, Life of Jesus (Bost. ed.), 
p. 21. " The self consciousness of Jesus of Nazareth must be clearly before the eyes 
of the Christian, as an actual historical fact which is to explain a true philosophy," 
Bunsen, Hippolytus, i, p. xliii. " The personality of Jesus stands before us as the con- 
necting link between two worlds. It stands between the two developments of the old 
and the new worlds, not as an eif ect of the old world, but as its consummation ; not as 
a mere harbinger of the new, but as its enduring type, and as a fountain of life to 
mankind through the Spirit." lUd., Gott in der Gesch., p. 60; comp. p. 100. "He 
was man. He was neither Jew nor Greek, prince nor priest, rich nor mighty, but, 
in contrast with them all, a man. He lived and died for mankind. But for this very 
reason he is called, and is the image of, the Son of God, as none other before or 
after him. His mortal, finite being had truly become a likeness of God, a divine nature." 
" The real centre in the life of Jesus lies in his consciousness. It is, however, by no 
means merely the idea of the unity of the divine and human natures that constitutes the 
peculiarity of his consciousness, for such an idea was present in a hazy form in both 
Plato and Aristotle. It is rather the consciousness of a real union of the Divine and 
human natures in his person in absolute energy, so that in this consciousness are united 
not only the fulness of the Deity with the fulness of his own inner life, but also the 


the life of the Saviour by refusing to measure it by its own rule, and 
to trace each one of its expressions back to our own need of salva- 
tion, as it is to understand the life of a mother who sacrifices herself 
for her children, where the only conception of greatness is that be- 
longing to conquerors or artists. Something that is immeasurable 
will still remain in this unique personality. Besides, while the dis- 
tinction between a historical and a real Christ is wholly inadmissible 
on the plan of absolutely separating between them, and connecting 
them only in outward form, as though by accident, it is yet certain 
that when we resolve the life of Jesus into its separate elements, 
and follow it step by step, or trace it feature by feature, we often 
find ourselves required to supplement, from the idea, matters for 
which no definite historical data can be found. However, this 
must not be an arbitrary idea, constructed and introduced into 
the subject by ourselves, but it is rather one to be gained as 
the sum of historical inquiry. As Scripture explains Scripture, 

^^ ,., ^ ^ so does the life of Jesus as a whole explain the 
The life of Je- . . 

susitsownex- separate features in that life. The life of Jesus con- 
p ana ion. tains its own measure — the absolute measure of the 

Deity glorifying itself in human nature. The attributes which 
constitute the peculiar character of Christ are not, therefore, to be 
at once excluded from the range of historical inquiry as transcend- 
ing the bounds of human conditions, and impossible, but must be 
taken into account in the development of his humanity. Unless 
this be done, the picture will crumble in our hands, and we shall 
obtain only an inadequate and Ebionitic fragment, instead of a 
thoroughly human and really historical portrait. We cannot, and 
should not, remove the picture of Christ from the golden canvas 
upon which it has been painted, not by the fancy of men, but by 
the finger of God, even though we attempt to follow the lines of 
the drawing by historical methods, and seek to arrange them, so 
Spiritual sym- far as may be possible, by the application of critical 

pathy necessa- processes. In this work the critical effort to combine 
ry for correct i^ 

criticism. must be aided by the insight which belongs to the con- 

genial spirit of a religious disposition. 

entire dealing of God with the entire history of his being, yea, the Deity with human- 
ity." J. P. Lange, Gesch. d. Kirche, i, p. 349. Comp. Kliefoth, Einl. in d. Dogmen- 
gesch., p. 39. Karl Ritter has also expressed himself well in opposition to an un- 
spiritual and atomistic treatment of the life of Jesus : " His entire life lies open and 
clear before us like a charming landscape, with no cloud to interrupt the rays of light, 
which, without the tedious explanations of an uninvited guide, we comprehend with 
sacred joy at every step, upon which we stroll in pleasure, and the heart bounds with 
exalted premonitions. This place soon becomes our home, and upon it we could desire 
to live in joy and sadness until we die." Lebensbild von Kramer, vol. i, p. 232 sq. 


The portrait of Christ as outlined in the New Testament writings 
was compared, even before a mythical interpretation was thought 
of, to a torso, upon which the imagination of successive centuries 
has wrought its improvements.^ The comparison is unjust, inas- 
much as the torso lacks the essential feature, the countenance ; and 
it is precisely the countenance that shines forth in the Gospels, 
with genuinely human lineaments, from the surrounding glory of 
the Deity, while the complete outlining of the members of the 
body, as with paintings of the old German school, is either want- 
ing, or at least leaves much to be desired in the drawing. But the 
case is here as it is with every other human and historical counte- 
nance, which differs greatly in accordance with the different points 
of view from which we regard it, or with the light in which differ- 
ent painters apprehend it. Christ seemed different to Diflereutviews 
the world of the Middle Ages from what he does to the ^f Christ. 
world of our time. Zinzendorf, Herder, Schleiermacher, and others, 
each, in his own way, arrived at a different conception of him. 
This, however, need by no means frighten us from attempting to 
solve the problem, nor force us to accept the alternative of " either 
investing the Jewish Messiah with all the attributes which the the- 
ology of the Jews ascribes to him, or of furnishing a natural history 
of the Prophet of Nazareth, such as Venturini wrote." ^ For both 
are caricatures, the original for which is yet, even approximately, 
to be discovered. Still less are we authorized to dispense with any 
historical Christ, and to search for the Redeemer of the .^ ,., ' , 

. Absurdity of 

world solely in the region of myths, on the ground that the mythical 

some things cannot be explained and fitted with cer- ^°^^' 

tainty into the framework of history. This would be to render 

the inexplicable yet more inexplicable, since Christianity without a 

historical Christ would remain an incomprehensible riddle, and the 

Church of Christ a historical monstrosity. The proper course is', 

while making use of historical criticism, with other agencies, "to 

have confidence in God and in the truth, which is much nearer to 

us than we think, and cheerfully expect that assured and certain 

results will, in the end, be realized through such investigations."^ 

^ Kahler, Supranaturalismus und Rationalismus, p. 117. 

2 See Rohr's Krit. Predigerbibl., vol. 18, No. 1, p. 13. Comp. Brief e liber den Ra- 
tionalismus, p. 26 sqq. 
^ Ammon, supra^ i, p. 135. 



Biographical effort began in the early centuries with an external 
collocation of sources, ^ and this method continued to be employed 
down to Bengel. The productions of the Middle Ages were " with- 
out criticism, fantastic, and legendary, and consisted chiefly in works 
for entertainment and devotion." ^ The old Saxon harmony of the 
Gospels, entitled "Heliand," is, however, of great importance for 
the history of civilization and literature,^ and Avith this should be 
compared that of the Weissenburg monk, Otfried, of the ninth 
century.* In other regards, " the life of Christ was represented in 
the 'passion-plays' in the most literal sense, through the aid of 
sculpture, painting, and the dramatic art."^ The dogmatic ele- 
ment still predominated after the Reformation. It was not until 
after the Thirty Years' War that " the manifestation of Christ was 
intensely studied for its own sake." The theology of Herrnhut 
forms the leading agency in this " worship of Jesus," which now 
began to be manifested in hymns and prayers. People became ac- 
customed to regard Jesus as the concrete God, sometimes irrespect- 
ively of his relation to the Trinity, and his history was a history 
of God, in which character it yielded Klopstock the material for 
epical treatment. Rational reflection, which felt itself called to 
consider the human element in a human point of view, asserted its 
claim in opposition to this undeniably monophysite tendency. 

The attack by the Wolfenbiittel Fragmentist, in 1777 and the fol- 
lowing years, forced apologetics into this human method of appre- 
hending the psychology of Jesus and of estimating the moral bear- 
ings of his plan. The critical and pragmatical treatment of the 
life of Christ dates, accordingly, from this time ; that is, from the 
time modern ideas became established. This method has resulted 
in making of the life of Jesus a subordinate branch of 
separate his- theological study, so that what is now understood by 
toricai study. ^^^^ phrase is certainly a " modern idea." ' Foremost in 
this period were the apologetic and somewhat rational representa- 

^ Monotessaron, Harmonia, Synopsis. Comp. Hase, Life of Jesus, p. 20. ^ Ibid. 

3 Editions of Hayne (2d ed.), Paderborn, 1873, and Sievers, Halle, 1878. Trans- 
lated by Simrock, 2d ed., Elberfeld, 1866; and by Grein, Cassel, 1869. 

4 The "Christ," edited by Kelle, Ratisbon, 1856-59, 2 vols. Translated by the 
same, Prague, 1870. 

^ Rosenkranz, Leben Hegels, p. 50. 

* Strauss, Leben Jesu fiirs Volk, 1864, p. 1. 


tions of Reinhard and Hess.^ The divine was separated from the 
human, so far as was possible, and attention was called to the dif- 
ference between the Johannean view and that of the synoptics. 
Herder, for instance, viewed the life of the "Son of God" and of 
the " Son of Man " in accordance with these two distinct points of 
view. There was no lack of coarse reactions, however, in connexion 
with the humanizing process, and rude hands tore away the tender 
screen which had preserved the picture of the Lord from being 
profaned. "Natural histories of the Prophet of Nazareth" were 
published by Bahrdt, Venturini, and, later, by Langs- 
dorf, and it became a "favorite employment to draw tween Christ 
parallels between Socrates and Christ, often to the dis- 
advantage of the latter. This, certainly, grew out of an utter mis- 
understanding of the personality of either. Others, like Paulus 
and Greiling, acting from good intentions, sought to eliminate the 
miraculous from the life of Jesus, in order to recommend him as a 
wise and humane teacher to a conceited age that was inclined to 
make a mock of him. The later theology, beginning with Schleier- 
macher, again took up the ideal element in Christ, and sought to 
prove it in his historical manifestation. Schleiermacher himself, in 
this spirit, but with independent criticism, in 1819, and again in 
1832, delivered lectures on the life of Christ. These lectures were 
not published until their author had been dead thirty years, but 
they were nevertheless timely, though no longer adequate to com- 
plete the argument in all its details. Hase proceeded in a method 
similar to that of Schleiermacher, in prosecuting the task of show- 
ing " how by divine appointment, through the free act of his spirit 
and the interference of his age, Jesus of Nazareth became the 
Redeemer of the world." 

These various attempts were at once neutralized by Strauss, who 
cut the knot with the sword, not, indeed, by denying strauss' m e of 
that a Jesus had lived, but by reducing his historical Jesus, 
existence almost to a historical nullity, since he recognized in the 
Gospel records only a mythical expression of ideas, unconsciously 
and innocently invented by the infant community of Christians, as 
influenced by the extant prophecies of the Old Covenant. This 
work was designed to preserve the poetically speculative truth of 
the ideal Christ, but its tendency was to dissolve him into air, like 
an unsubstantial image in the clouds. The hypothesis of Strauss 

* See the titles of the works below, and comp. Hase, supra, and Ammon, Fortbild- 
ung d. Christenthums zur Weltreligion, vol. iv, p. 156 sqq. It is remarkable that 
Hess received the impulse to treat the life of Jesus from Middleton's Biography of 


was modified by Weisse, * who sought to discover the mystery of 
the life of Jesus, in part, by introducing the higher biology of mag- 
netism, and other factors, but rejected, on the mythical hypoth- 
esis, what could not be forced into this magic circle. Bruno Bauer, 
finally, passed beyond Strauss, claiming to find not harmless poetry, 
but designed inventions, in the descriptions of the evangelists. 
The Jew, Salvador, regarded the life of Jesus from the standpoint 
of modern Jewish enlightenment, but retained the historical per- 
sonality of Jesus, reducing it, of course, to that of a simple Jewish 
reformer and demagogue. 

All of these negative efforts resulted simply in a more thorough 
investigation of the subject under discussion. Not only were num- 
berless works issued in reply to Strauss, but the life of Jesus Itself 
was studied with a universal breadth of inquiry that could only be 
productive of gain to science, even though inquirers occupied very 
diverse points of view, and were influenced by very various pre- 
possessions.^ We refer also to the Dutch works of Meijboom, Van 
Oosterzee, and others. Bunsen announced, prospectively, a new 
*' Life of Jesus," but it never appeared.^ Ewald's History of Israel, 
on the other hand, entered on the life of Jesus with the fifth volume, 
the author expressly designating it the " Life of Christ,'''' and treat- 
ing it as such, making use of independent criticism upon details, 
but preserving the sacred contents as a whole. This has influenced 
the character of his representations also, in which Strauss was un- 
able to find more than a " deafening volume of words and phrases." 
Riggenbach's lectures present the portrait of the " Lord Jesus " in 
a simple manner, their tendency being apologetic and harmonizing, 
combined, however, with the steady aim to do justice to the ques- 
tions raised by science by a thorough examination of details. 
A period of cessation and quietude now seemed to open, which 
Renan. was suddenly disturbed by the publication of the Life 
of Jesus by Renan, in France, through which an agitation was pro- 
duced that equaled the one caused by Strauss thirty years before. 
Numerous editions and translations have placed it upon the same 
level with the most recent productions of the lighter literature of 
France for the great world of readers, which it is designed to 
reach. The science of Germany could not rest satisfied with the 

■* " The numerous lives of Jesus of the better class represent a new dedication of the 
theological temple, which, it is to be hoped, will not speedily be brought to a close. . . . 
But it will be necessary to remain patient if the variegated merchandise of ordered 
or fabricated works connects itself with the dedication." J. P. Lange, Pref. to Leben 
Jesu, pp. iii, iv. 

' Preface to Hippolytus, p. xlix. 


work, though in it the learning of the Orientalist vied with the cap- 
tivating rhetoric of the fine writer, to warp the judgment, of senti- 
mental amateurs. Schenkel, who had expressed the opinion that 
the great theme could only be adequately treated upon German soil, 
now came to the front with his Character of Jesus Portrayed, 
which had been in preparation during an extended period. Simul- 
taneously with this work, Strauss published, not a new edition of 
his former work, but a new revision, adapted for the people. In 
this, as in the other work, the criticism of sources comes into play, 
combined with the appropriation of the negative results obtained 
by other laborers in this field. An enormous number of replies 
and treatises in opposition to the works of Strauss, Schenkel, and 
Renan were written by scholars in both the Roman Catholic and 
Protestant communions; so that we again stand in the midst of a 
crisis, which was introduced by those works. How far we are from 
having reached the end may be seen from the fact, that the opin- 
ions of the latest writers are entirely diverse upon the question of 
the early character of sources (the original Matthew and Mark); 
but it may be said, in the meantime, " In magnis voluisse sat est." 
Time must show to what extent the work by Keim, w^hich is now 
concluded, will have contributed to the advancement of the inquiry. 
It has, at any rate, taken an important step toward the goal for 
which the efforts of science were directed from the vantage ground 
secured by its former progress. But when shall the time come 
that the Church, no longer being in conflict with the results ob- 
tained by science, but rather delivered from prejudice thereby, 
shall see the face of the Lord in its purity and its greatness, in the 
combined historical dignity and divine glory, which are not be- 
stowed on him by us, but which are his from the beginning and are 
secured to him for all eternity? 


* J. G. Herder, vom Erloser der Menschen nach unsern drei ersten Evangelien. Riga, 

* von Gottes Sohn, der Welt Heiland, nach Johannes Evang. Riga, 1797. 

* J. J. Hess, Lebensgeschichte Jesu. 8th ed. Zurich, 1822 f. 3 vols. (1st ed. and 
special title: Gesch. der drei letzten Lebensjahre Jesu. Lpz., 1768. 2 vols.) 

J. A. G. Meyer, Yersuch e. Vertheid. u. Erlaut. der Gesch. Jesu und der Apostel al- 

lein aus griech. und rom. Profanscribenten. Hann., 1805. 
F. B. Reinhard, Versuch iiber den Plan, welchen der Stifter der christl. Religion zum 

Besten der Menschheit entwarf. Wittenb., 1781 ; 5th ed., with additions by A. L. 

Heubner. Wittenb., 1880. 
J. B. R. Hacker, Jesus, der Weise von Nazareth, ein Ideal aller denkbaren Grosse. 

Lpz., 1800-3. 2 vols. 
J. C. Greiling, das Leben Jesu von Nazareth. Halle, 1813. 


f A. Bodent, die erste u. heiligste Gesch. der Menscbh,, Jesus von Naz. ; historkrit. 

isch, mit stetem Riickblick auf griech., rom. u. jiid. Religionsgeschichte. Geraiind 

1818-22. 4 parts. 
H. E. G. Paulas, das Leben Jesu, als Grundlage einer reinen Geschichte des Ur- 

christenthums. Heidelb., 1828. 2 vols. 
*K. Hase, das Leben Jesu. Ein Lehrb. zunachst fiir akad. Vorlesungen. Lpz., 

1829. Amer. ed., transl. by J. F. Clarke. Bost., 1860. 

Gesch. Jesu. Nach akad. Vorles. Lpz., 1875. 

*Dav. Fr. Strauss, das Leben Jesu, kritisch bearbeitet. Tiib., 1835 f. 2 vols. 4th ed. 

1840. Comp. Hase's Reviews and Replies, in Life of Jesus, (pp. 30-40,) Clarke's 

ed. Boston, I860.' 
Streitschriften zur Vertheid. meiner Schrift lib. das L. J. Tiib., 183'7. 3 parts. 

* A. Neander, das Leben Jesu Christi in seinem geschichtl. Zusammenh. und seiner 

geschichtlichen Entwickelung dargestellt. Hamb., 183*7; 1th. ed. Goth., 1873. 

Amer. ed., translated by M'Clintock and Blumenthal. N. Y., 1852. 
K. G. W. Theile, zur Biographie Jesu. Lpz., 1837. 
f J. Kuhn, das Leben Jesu, wissenschaftlich bearbeitet. Mainz, 1838. 
*C. H. Weisse, die evang. Gesch. kritisch u, philos. bearb. Lpz., 1838. 2 vols. 
0. Krabbe, Vorlesungen iiber das Leben Jesu. Hamb., 1839. 
J. Salvador, Jesus-Christ et sa doctrine. Histoire de la naissance de I'eglise, de son 

organisation et de ses progres pendant le premier siecle. Paris, 1838. 2 vols. 

Translated by J. Jacobson. Dresden, 1841. 
Jul. Hartmann, das Leben Jesu nach den Ev. geschichtl. dargest. fiir gebildete Leser. 

Stuttg., 1837-39. 2 vols. 
C. F. V. Ammon, die Geschichte des Lebens Jesu mit steter Riicksicht auf die vor- 

handenen Quellen. Lpz., 1842-47. 3 vols, 
f A. Riegler, das Leben Jesu Chr., krit, histor. u. prakt. erklart. Bamb., 1843 f. o vols, 
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2d ed., 6 vols., 1853-62. Neue (Titel-) Ausg., 1862-65. 
J. P. Lange, das Leben Jesu nach den Evang, Heidelb., 1844-47. 3 vols. Eng. ed., 

translated by Dods. 4 vols. Edinb., 1872. 
■ J. A. H. Ebrard, wissenschaftl. Kritik der evang. Geschichte. Frankf., 1842. 2 vols. 

3d ed., 1868. 
W. J. Lichtenstein, Lebensgesch. des Herrn Jesu Christi in chronologischer Ueber- 

sicht. Erl., 1856. 
H. Ewald, Geschichte Christus und seiner Zeit (vol. 5 der Geschichte des Volkes 

Israel). Gott., 1855. 3d ed., 1867. 

* Ch. J. Riggenbach, Vorlesungen iiber das Leben des Herrn Jesu. Basel, 1858. 

M. Baumgarten, die Geschichte Jesu fiir das Verstandniss der Gegenwart in offentl. 
Vortragen dargestellt. Bransch., 1859. 

* E. Renan, vie de Jesus. Par. 1863. Eng. ed., passim. 

E. Weizsacker, Untersuchungen iiber die evang. Geschichte, ihre Quellen und den 
Gang ihrer Entwicklung. Gotha, 1864. 

* D. Schenkel, das Charakterbild Jesu. Wiesb., 1864. 4th ed., 1873. Translated 

by Furness. Phila., 1866. 

'Called forth: W. Hoffmann (Stuttgart, 1836). Hengstenberg (evang. Kirchenztg., 1836). 
Schweizer (Dlgnitat des Religionsstifters, Stud. u. Kritik., 1837. Heft 2). Tholuck (Glaub- 
wiirdigkelt der evang. Gesch., Hamb., 1837 u. o.). Ullmann (historisch od. mythisch? Hamb., 

1838). E. Luthardt, die modernen Darstellungen des Lebens Jesu, eine Besprechung der 

Schriften von Strauss, Renan, Schenkel, 1864. Riggenbach, Vortrag auf der evang. Alliance in 
Amsterdam, 1867. 


D. Schenkel, das Christusbild der Apostel u. der nachapost. Zeit. Lpz., 1819. 

* D. F. Strauss, das Leben Jesu fiir das deutsche Volk bearbeitet. Lpz., 1864. 

3d ed., 1814. 

E. de Pressense, Jesus-Christ. Son temps, sa vie, son oeuvre. Paris, 1865. Amer. 
ed., N. Y. 

* Fr. Schleierraacher, das Leben Jesu, Vorlesungen an der Univ. zu Berlin im Jahre 

1832; pub. by K. A. Rutenik. Berlin, 1864. (Sammtl. Werke VL Literar. 
Naehlass, zur Theol. I.) 

D. F. Strauss, der Christus des Glaubens und der Jesus der Geschiehte. (Criticism on 
Schleiermacher's "Leben Jesu.") Berlin, 1865. 

■)■ J. Langen, die letzten Lebenstage Jesu. Freiburg, 1864. 
C. C. J. Bunsen, Bibelwerk. Vol. 9. Lpz., 1865. 

* Th. Keim, Geschiehte Jesu von Nazara in ihrer Yerkettung mit dem Gesammtleben 
seines Yolkes frei untersucht und ausfiihrlich erzahlt. 3 vols. Zurich, 1867-72. 

* Th. Keim, Geschiehte Jesu nach den Ergebnissen heutiger Wissenschaft fiir weitere 

Kreise iibersichtlich erzahlt. Ziir., 1872. 2d ed. 1875. 
Gaspari, chronologisch-geograph. Einl. in das Leben Jesu Christi. Hamb., 1869. 
Znmpt, das Geburtsjahr Christi. Lpz., 1869. 
Kriiger-Yelthusen, das Leben Jesu. 1872. 
J. Haberlin, das Leben J. im Lichte uns. Zeit. Frauenf., 1874. 

F. Clemens, Jes. der Nazarener. 5th ed. Berl., 1874. 2 vols. 

L. D. Brocker, Untersuchungen iib. d. Evv. u. das L. J. Hamb., 1874. 

f P. Schegg, 6 Bb. des Lebens Jesu. Freib., 1874 ff. 

f Panth. Naumann, das Leben uns. Herrn u. Heil. Jesu Christi, pub. by Th. Rovack. 

Prag., 1875. 3 vols. 
J. Lindenmeyer, Gesch. Jesu nach d. hi. Schr. Basel, 1875 f. 
Wittichen, das Leben Jesu in urkundl. Darst. Jena, 1876. 
L. Noack, die Gesch. Jesu auf Grund freier gesh. Untersuchungen. 2d ed. Mannh., 1876. 

E. G. Laino, das Leben Jesu auf Grundlage des vornehmsten Gebots. 2d ed. Stuttg, 
1876 f. 3 parts. 

A. Wiinsche, der lebenfreudige Christus der synopt. Evv. im Gegensatz zum leidenden 

Messias der Kirche. Lpz., 1876. 
J. Grimm, Gesch. der offentl. Thatigk. Jesu. Regensb., 1878. 
E. Marius, die Personlichk. Jesu Chr. mit bes. Riicksicht auf die Mythologien u. Mys- 

terien der alten Yolker. Lpz., 1879. 
L. Richou, le Messie dans les livres histor. de la Bible et Jesus Chr. dans le Evan- 

giles. 2 voll. Paris, 1879. 


Wizenmann, die Geschiehte Jesu nach Matthaus, pub. by Auberlen. 1864. 
H. Weiss, sechs Yortrage iiber die Person Jesu Christi. Ingolstadt, 1864. 
*F. L. Steinmeyer, Apologet. Beitrage. L Die Wunderthaten des Herrn. Berl., 

1866. IL Die Leidensgesch. des Herrn. 1868. IIL Die Auferstehungsgesch. 1871. 

lY. Die Gesch. der Geburt des Herrn und s. ersten Schritte im Leben. 1873. 

E. W. Kolthoff, vita Jesu Chr. a Paulo apostolo adumbrata. Havn., 1852. 

R. Hofmann, das Leben Jesu nach den Apokryphen ; im Zusammenh. aus den Quel- 
len erzahlt und wissenschaftlich untersucht. Lpz., 1851. 

F. E. Schorch, das Leben Jesu in seiner Angemessenheit zu den religiosen Bediirf- 
nissen des Menschengeschlechts. Lpz., 1841. 

Th. Keim, die menschliche Entwicklung Jesu Christi. Zur., 1860; der geschichtl. 
Christus. 3 Reden. Zur., 1865 u. 6. ; die geshichtliche Wiirde Jesu. Zur., 1864. 



J. G. L. Kraft, Chronologie u. Harmonie der 4 Evangelien, pub. by Burger. Erlan. 

gen, 1848. 
W. Strout, New Greek Harmony of the four Gospels. Lond., 1853. 
G.Volkmar, die kanon. Synoptiker in Uebersicht, etc. u. das geschichtliche vom Leben 

Jesu. Zur., 1876. 
F. Piper, de externa vitae J. Chr. chronol. recte constituenda. Getting., 1835. 
H. Sevin, Chronologie des Lebens Jesu. 2d ed. Tiib., 1874. 
S. die Synopsen § 52 a. E. und die Lit. zu den Evv. § 56, b. y. 



Lyman Abbott, Jesus of Nazareth : His Life and Teachings. New York, 1869. New 

ed., 1882. 
Samuel J. Andrews, The Life of our Lord upon Earth. New York, 1871. 
H. W. Beecher, Life of Jesus the Christ. Vol. i. N. Y. 1868. 
K. W. Clark, Life Scenes of the Messiah. New York, 1855, 
Howard Crosby, Jesus: His Life and Work. New York, 1870. 
Charles F. Deems, Jesus. New York, 1872. 
C. J. EUicott, Hist. Lectures on the Life of our Lord Jesus Christ. Lond., 1861. 

F. W. Farrar, The Life of Christ. New York, 1876. 
J. Fleetwood, Life of Christ, passim. (Antiquated.) 

C. Geikie, The Life and Words of Christ. New York, 1877. 

W. Hanna, Our Lord's Life upon Earth. 6 vols. New York, 1870. 

Mrs. A. M. Jameson, History of our Lord as Exemplified in Works of Art. 2 vols. 

Lond., 1865. 
J. Parker, Ecce Deus. London, 1855. 
J. R. Seeley, Ecce Homo : a Survey of the Life and Work of Jesus Christ. Boston, 

J. P. Thompson, Jesus of Nazareth. Boston, 1876. 


G. W. Clark, A New Harmony of the Four Gospels in English, according to the Com- 
mon Version. With an Introduction by T. J. Conant. N. Y., 1870. 

Frederick Gardiner, A Harmony of the Four Gospels in Greek, according to the Text 
of Tischendorf ; with a Collation of the Textus Receptus, and of the Texts of 
Griesbach, Lachmann, and Tregelles. Edinb., 1871. 

Same, in English. Edinb., 1871. 

Edward Greswell, Dissertations upon the Principles and Arrangement of a Harmony 
of the Gospels. 2d ed. 4 vols. Oxf., 1837. 

James Macknight, Harmony of the Gospels, with Paraphrase and Notes. 5th ed. 
2 vols. Lond., 1819. 

Robert Mimpriss, The Gospel Treasury and Treasury Harmony of the Four Evan- 
gelists. N. Y, 1869. 

Edward Robinson, A Harmony of the Four Gospels, in Greek, according to the Text 
of Hahn. Revised ed. Boston, 1868. 

Same, in English. 8th ed. Boston, 1859. 

George Smith, The Harmony of the Divine Inspirations. N. Y, 1858. 

James Strong, Harmony of the Gospels, in Greek, of the received Text, for the use of 
Students. N. Y., 1854. 


James Strong, A New Harmony and Exposition of the Gospels, consisting of a Par- 
allel and Combined Arrangement, on a New Plan, of the Four Evangelists, accord- 
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^ Compendium of the Gospels, according to the Arrangement of the Author's 

Harmony and Exposition of the Gospels. N. Y., 1853. 

William Stroud, A New Greek Harmony of the Four Gospels, comprising a Synopsis 
and a Diatessaron. Lond., 1853. 



Life of the Apostles and the Founding of the Church, Article " Apostolisches Zeltalter," in 
Pelt, Herzog's Encyclypaedle, vol. 1. 

The life of the persons by whom the doctrine of the kingdom of 
God in the world was introduced, is connected with the life of 
Jesus. Here, there is less interest in the Twelve, several of whom 
are known to us only by name, than in the men and their coadjutors 
who were most successful in this work of founding the Christian 
community. Among these Paul is preeminent by reason of his 
character, teaching, and deeds. 

Concerning the wider and more limited meanings of the word 
cLTToaroAog, see the New Testament. A comparison of the history 
of the apostles by Luke with the list of the apostles in the Gospels 
(Matt. X, 1-4) will reveal to most inquirers the fact, that the sacred 
narrative leaves us in the dark with regard to the history of a 
majority of the Twelve. Of these, Peter, James, and John are 
prominent, even in the Gospel records, and we have relatively more 
information respecting them than others, although the last days 
of both Peter and John lie beyond the limits of the canon, and 
fall within the realm of tradition. This applies still more fully to 
the work of other apostles. A new period of development evident- 
ly begins with Paul, the apostle to the Gentiles, who, Paul, 
supported by Timothy, Silvanus, and Titus, not only extended 
Christianity to the furthest outward limits, but, together with John, 
also developed its profound internal character, and furnished the 
greatest and most important contribution toward the doctrinal 
canon of the New Testament. He became the founder of a body of 
doctrine, not theoretically, but out of his inmost experience, and 
through the revelation which, according to his own testimony, was 
imparted to him.^ He was the firstfruits of those in whom the 
grace of God in Christ was glorified, and in whom the Gospel was 
demonstrated to be the power of God. The exposition of the book 

^ Comp. *H. Paret, Paulus u. Jesus, Observations on the Relation of Paul and his 
Teaching to the Person, the Life, and the Teaching of the Christ of History, in Jahrb. 
fiir Deutsche Theologie. 


of Acts and the Pauline epistles is, of course, the work of exegetical 
theology. But this is merely a work preliminary to the history, 
while, to combine the work of the apostles into a single picture, be- 
longs strictly to the department of historical science. At this point 
we stand on the boundary line between sacred and Church history. 
Though the latter cannot exclude the history of the apostolic age, 
yet it needs a broader foundation than it there finds. For this 
The apostoUc reason the apostolic age, like the life of Jesus, has re- 
se^arate treat? ^^^^^^^ ^ separate treatment in theological literature, 
ment. Peculiar difficulties attach to this treatment, however, 

because recent criticism has endeavored to shake many points in 
the primitive history of Christianity, as found in the apostolic his- 
tory by Luke, and in the apostolic epistles, and has sought to ex- 
plain, by later events, the history of the older heresies, and what 
has been regarded as belonging to primitive times. Much that the 
Church regarded as belonging to the "apostolic age" was in this 
way classed under the "post-apostolic." The destructive efforts 
upon the apostolic history emanating from the Tubingen school, like 
the Life of Jesus, by Strauss, gave rise to apologetic attempts at 
reconstruction, some of which ascribed an importance to the old 
ecclesiastical traditions that was scarcely to be looked for after all 
the preliminary critical work accomplished in former decades. The 
controversy still goes on, and much remains for more thorough 
investigation, in which research historical inquiry is to take a part 
equal to that of exegesis. 


J. J. Hess, Geschichte und Schriften der Apostel Jesu. Zurich, 1*788. 4tli ed., 1820- 

22. 3 vols. 
Ch. F. Liicke, comm. de ecelesia ehristianor. apostolica. Gott., 1813. 
G. J. Planck, Geschichte des Christenthums in der Periode seiner ersten Einfiihrung 

in die Welt. Gott., 1818. 2 vols. 
* A. Neander, Geschichte der Pflanzung und Zeitung der christl. Eirche durch die 

Apostel. Hamb., 1832. Lond. ed., transl. by Ryland, 1851. 
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A. F. Gfrorer, Geschichte des TJrchristenthums. Stuttg., 1838. 3 vols. 
F. C. A. Schwegler, das nachapostol Zeitalter. Tiib., 1845, f. 2 vols. (Includes the 

apostolic age, but by this author considered, of course, in the post-apostolic.) 
J. B. Trautmann, die apostolische Kirche. Lpz., 1848 ; new ed., 1857. 
K. Wieseler, Chronologic des apost. Zeitalters bis zum Tode der App. Paulus und 

Petrus. Gott., 1848. 
M. Baumgarten, die Apostelgeschichte oder der Entwickelungsgang der Kirche von 

Jerusalem bis Rom. Braunschw., 1852. 2 vols. 2d ed., 1859. 
H. W. J. Thiersch, die Kirche im apostol. Zeitalter und die Entstehung der neutestam. 

Schriften. Frankf., 1852. 3d ed. Augsb., 18*79. 


*E. Reuss, Histoire de la theologie chretienne au siecle apostolique. Paris, 1852. 
2 vols. 2. ed. 1860. Lond. ed., transl. by Annie Harwood, 1872. 

H. Ewald, Geschichte des apostol. Zeitalters bis zur Zerstorung Jerusalems. (Vol. vi., 
Hist, of the People of Israel.) 3d ed. Gott., 1868. 

E. Kenan, les apotres. Par., 1866. The Same, les evangiles et la seconde gener- 
ation chretienne. Par., 18'7'7. 

E. Ferriere, les apotres, etc. Par., 18*79. 

Comp. the works in Church History, cited below, of Lange, Lechler, Schaff, Ritschl, 
and the commentaries, in the Exegetical Literature, on the Acts of the Apostles. 

Popular : Isaak da Costa, die Apostel-Geschichte fiir Geistliche u. d. Gemeine ausge- 
legt. Translated from the Dutch by A. Reifert. Brem., 1860. 2 vols. 


* K. Schrader, der Apostel Paulus. Lpz., 1830-36. 5 parts. 

J. T. Hemsen, der Apostel Paulus ; sein Leben, Wirken und seme Schriften. Pub. 

by F. Liicke. Gott., 1830. 
H. A. Schott, Erorterung einiger wichtigen chronologischen Punkte in der Lebensge- 

schichte des Apostels Paulus. Jena, 1832. 

* F. C. Baur, Paulus der Apostel Jesu Christi. Stuttg., 1845. 2d ed., by E. Zeller. 

Lpz., 1866 f. 
Comp. the Replies by Dietlein (Halle, 1845), and Thiersch (Frankf., 1852). 
A. Fleury, St. Paul et Seneque. Par., 1853. 2 vols. 

* A. Hausrath, der Apostel Paulus. Heidelb., 1865. 2d ed. 1872. 

F. Bungener, S. Paul. Sa vie, son oeuvre, ses epitres. Par., 1867. 

* Ch. F. Trip, Paulus nach der Apostelgeschichte. Leyd., 1866. 
E. Renan, Paulus. (Par., 1869.) Eng. and Amer. eds., passim. 
M. Krenkel, Paulus, der Apostel der Heiden. Lpz., 1869. 

Popular : H. Lang, das Leben des Ap. Paulus. Winterth., 1866. Schwalb, der Ap. 

Paulus. 6 Yortrage. Zur., 1876. 0. Funke, St. Paulus zu Wasser und zu Lande. 

Brem., 1877. 
Comp. the article Paulus, der Apostel, u. seine Schriften, by J. P. Lange, in Herzog's 

On John: M. Krenkel (Berl., 1871). J. H. Scholten, der Ap. Joh. in Kleinasien. 

From the Dutch, by Spiegel. Berl,, 1872. Also the exhaustive article on Paul, 

accompanied by maps. of his tours, in M'Clintock and Strong's Cyclopaedia, vol. vii. 


On the Apostles in general, see Mant, Biography of the Apostles. Lond., 1840 ; Rich- 
ard Whateley, Lectures on the Character of our Lord's Apostles, and especially 
their Conduct at the Time of his Apprehension and Trial. (Lond., Parkers, 
1853); under each name in M'Clintock and Strong's Cyclopaedia ; and the special 
treatment in the Histories of the Ancient Period, cited on pp. 120-124 of this 


Henry Blunt, Lectures upon the History of St. Paul, delivered during Lent, at the 

Church of the Holy Trinity, Fpper Chelsea. Phila., 1839. 
C. M. Butler, St. Paul in Rome ; Lectures delivered in the Legation of the United 

States of America, in Rome, Phila., 1865. 


William Cave, Antiquitates Apostolicae ; or, the Lives, Acts, and Martyrdoms of the 

Holy Apostles of our Saviour. To which are added, Lives of the two Evangelists, 

St. Mark and St. Luke. With an Introductory Essay by Henry Stebbing. 2 vols. 

Lond., 1836. 
W. J. Conybeare and J. S. Howson, The Life and Epistles of St. Paul, comprising a 

complete Biography of the Apostle, and a Paraphrastic Translation of his Epistles. 

2 vols. Lond., 1853, et passim. 
Philip Stanhope Dodd, A View of the Evidence Afforded by the Life and Ministry of 

St. Peter to the Truth of the Christian Revelation. Lond., 1837. 
r. W. Farrar (Canon), The Life and Work of St. Paul. N. Y., 1880. 
W. R. Freemantle, From Athens to Rome. Six Lectures on St. Paul's Visit to the 

Chief Cities of the Roman Empire. Lond., 1869. 
John S. Howson, The Character of St. Paul. (Hulsean Lectures.) N. Y., 18*73. 
The Metaphors of St. Paul and Companions of St. Paul, with an Introduction by 

H. B. Hackett, D.D. N. Y, 1872. 
Scenes in the Life of St. Paul. Lond., 1866. 

Thomas Lewin, The Life and Epistles of St. Paul. 2 vols. Lond., 1878. 

Alfred Lee, The Life of the Apostle John, in a Series of Practical Discourses. N". Y., 

James M. Macdonald, The Life and Writings of St. John. Edited with an Introduc- 
tion, by J. S. Howson. N. Y, 1877. 

J. R. Macduff, St. Paul at Rome ; or, the Teaching, Fellowship, and Dying Testimony 
ot the Great Apostle in the City of the Caesars. Lond., 1871. 

The Footsteps of St. Paul. N. Y., 1856. 

Footsteps of St. Peter. N. Y. 

F. A. Malleson, The Acts and Epistles of St. Paul. Lond., 1881. 

William Paley, Horse Paulinae ; or, the Truth of the Scripture History of St. Paul 
Evinced. N. Y., 1851, et passim. 

Charles Shakespeare, St. Paul at Athens ; Spiritual Christianity in Relation to some 
Aspects of Modern Thought. N. Y., 1879. 

James Smith, The Voyage and Shipwreck of St. Paul, with Dissertations on the Life 
and Writings of St. Luke, and the Ships and Navigation of the Ancients. 4th ed., 
Revised and Corrected by Walter E. Smith, with a Preface by the Bishop of Car- 
lisle, and Memoir. Lond., 1880. 

James Tate, The Horge Paulinse of William Paley, Carried out and Illustrated in a 
Continuous History of the Apostolic Labors and Writings of St. Paul, on the Basis 
of the Acts. Lond., 1840. 





J. P. Gabler, De juste discrlmine theologiae Mblicae et dogmaticae regundisque recte utri- 
usque flnibus, Alt., 1787, reprinted in Kleine theolg. Schriften, Ulm, 1831 ; A. G. F. Schirraer, 
Bibl. Dogmatik in ihrer Stellung u. ihrem VerhSltnisse zum Ganzen d. Theologie, Breslau, 1820; 
K. W. Stein, Begriff u. Behandlungsart d. Bibl. Theologie, in Keil u. Tzschirner's Analekten, 
vol. iii, No. 1 ; D. Schenkel, Aufgabe d. Bibl. Theol. i.d. gegenwartigen Entwicklungsstadien d. 
theol. Wissenschaft, Stud. u. Krit., 1852, i, pp. 40-66; Ch. F. Schmid, Interesse u. Stund d. Bibl. 
Theologie des N. T. in unserer Zeit, in Tubing. Zeitschr. fur Theol., 1838, 4 ; Nitzsch, in Herzog's 
Encykl. ii, p. 219 sqq. ; Al. v. Oettingen, Gesch. Charakter d. Bibl. Theologie Neuen Test., etc., 
in Dorpat, Zeitschr., 1870, pp. 1-54 ; T. D. Bernard, The Progress of Doctrine in the New Testa- 


ment (Bampton Lect. for 1864), Lond., 1864 ; James Donaldson, A Critical History Of Christian 
Literature and Doctrine, from the death of the Apostles to the Nicene Council. 3 vols., Lond., 
1864-66 ; Robert Rainy, Delivery and Development of Christian Doctrine (Cunningham Lect- 
ures), Edinb., 1874. 

Bible doctrine, like sacred history, results from exegesis, and, 
like sacred history, furnishes the basis for its further historical de- 
velopment. Inasmuch, however, as the contents of this study are 
systematic and didactic in their nature, it is found that the bound- 
aries of exegetical, historical, and systematic theology cross each 
other upon its soil, but in such a way as to make the historical ele- 
ment its chief foundation.* 

Biblical dogmatics^ is the intellectual bond which unites exeget- 
ical, historical, and dogmatical studies, the focus where the various 
rays are collected. On this account it forms, in many respects, a 
luminous point in theological study. The point from which it is 
regarded is of importance. If, without reference to gj^^^^j ^^ 
systematic development, it be considered simply as a matics a theo- 
collocation of proof texts in behalf of dogmatics, it be- °^^*^^ ^^^ ^^' 
comes the immediate fruit of exegesis; and, in point of fact, only 
an accomplished exegete is fitted to work in the field of biblical 
dogmatics. But if it be regarded as combined into a system, as 
governed by any leading idea, it will approach the positive science 
of dogmatics itself. Between these two operations, however, is a 
third, namely, the task of comprehending the revelation of the 
Bible itself as a historical fact in connexion with the spiritual de- 
velopment of mankind in other directions. In this way we come 
to occupy the ground of history. Biblical dogmatics is thus simply 
the internal side of sacred history. The representation of the life 
of Jesus requires a representation of his doctrine, or, better, of 
his divine and human consciousness, and his relation to the world 
and the history of mankind as conditioned by that consciousness, 
just as a proper conception of the idea that moved and deter- 

^ Schleiermacher, Danz, and Rosenkranz regard it as a historical science. Comp 
Gabler, p. 183 sqq. 

^ The name "Biblical Theology" which is preferred by some (Baumgarten-Crusius, 
Havernick, and, more recently, H. Schultz), is evidently either too broad, if the term 
theology be taken in the modern sense of a collection of the theological sciences, or 
too narrow, if it be taken to mean merely the doctrine concerning God. Comp. de 
Wette, Bibl. Dogm., and Danz, p. 301, note 1. The term Dogmatics may also be 
found to be too limited in its meaning; as Havernick says, "the fundamental ideas 
of ethics must also be included." Beck's expression, " The biblical science of doc- 
trine," would, accordingly, be the most appropriate. But so long as the ethical ideas 
alone are involved, and are not developed into a system of biblical ethics, the phrase 
Biblical Dogmatics may appropriately be retained. On the inadequacy of the term 
dogmatics in general, see later, on Systematic Theology. 


mined his entire life is the npCjrov klvovv of Christian dogmatics in 

Life and doctrine dissolve into each other with Jesus as with none 
Relation of life of our mortal race. The life of an apostle, too, cannot 
and doctrine, j^g given in any other way than by placing before our 
eyes his inner life, as it was determined by intercourse with Jesus 
or by 'familiarity with his teaching.^ The history of doctrines 
issues from Church History, and becomes a separate branch of it. 
In the same way the material for the history of doctrines which is 
contained m the Bible can be utilized for the purposes of historical 
examination. Thus we acquire a juxtaposition of biblical doctrine 
as a point of departure for the history of Christian doctrines ; with 
the diiference, however, that it is not yet wrought out in scientific 
form, and is not a complete body of dogmatic ideas. These doc- 
trines are rather pliable substances, possessing the capacity for life, 
and include the germs of ethical as well as of dogmatical develop- 
ment, in accordance with which the systems of faith and morality 
in the Bible are chiefly given in combination. 

A largely systematizing treatment, or a purely historical and 
genetic procedure, may prevail in this regard, however, according 
as the contents of biblical doctrine are apprehended as a whole, 
thus constituting the doctrine of the Old and New Testaments ; or 
are divided, to correspond with diiferent times and persons, in thus 
forming the doctrine of Hebraism, of the later Judaism, of Jesus 
and the apostles ; or, with a still closer reference to persons, form- 
ing the teaching of Paul, of John, and others. Each of these is 
given, so far as possible, in its genetic development, which holds 
good especially of the Pauline system of doctrines.^ The more 
flexible the treatment of biblical dogmatics becomes in 
ment of bibii- this regard, and the more the material which has crys- 
cai dogmatics, ^^u^^ed into ideas is brought into its original flowing 
condition, the more closely will it approximate the history of doc- 
trines, and the more decidedly will it fall within the historical field. 
Bat if the leading object be to represent, in its internal connexion, 
and as the foundation of ecclesiastical doctrine, the substance of 

* On the peculiar difficulties of this task, see Schirmer, pp. 51-55. Should the first 
Gospels, or St. John, furnish the type ? 

"^ How St. Paul attained to his theology, and what is the relation of his teaching 
and that of the other apostles to the teaching of Jesus, are important inquiries in this 
connexion. See the treatise by Paret, referred to above, 

^ An analogous arrangement is possible in connexion with the Old Testament also, 
e. g., the religion of Abraham, Mosaism, the religion of David, Solomon, Isaiah, etc. 
The individual element is less prominent in the Old Testament, however, being lost in 
the theocratic, Comp. Schirmer, p, 50. 


Bible teaching as developed through exegetical ' and historical in- 
quiry, biblical dogmatics will partake more largely of the nature 
of systematic theology. It will be distinguished from dogmatics 
proper, however, by confining itself entirely to the beginning, i. e., 
to the primitive Bible times, without in any way intruding upon 
ecclesiastical development. 

A certain view exists which designedly ignores such develop- 
ment, so that the history of doctrines becomes an article of luxury, 
and chooses to know no other than biblical dogmatics. This opinion 
will be examined hereafter, in connexion with the history of doc- 
trines. We may observe here, however, that, in assigning this posi- 
tion to biblical dogmatics, the aim is not to degrade it to a mere 
historical science, which could only be said with propriety if history 
were understood to designate what is antiquated. It is, on the 
other hand, our intention to lift it out from the rigid trammels of 
the letter into the living organism which forms the subject of his- 
torical inquiry. We do not, however, accept the view which holds 
that what was original is inferior and imperfect, and needs to be 
purified and elevated into the character of a higher wisdom.'^ The 
biblical doctrine, on the contrary, although by no means finished 
and complete in itself, and certainly needing to be explained in 
harmony with its historical development, continues to retain its 
normal dignity. The task of biblical dogmatics will be to so pre- 
sent this doctrine in its original vitality and its universal bearings 
upon the well-being of mankind, that the eternal and ever appli- 
cable idea of the God-given truth shall clearly and powerfully shine 
through the temporal veil of conceptions.^ 



This science really began with the Reformation," for it was the 
Reformation that delivered the whole of the science of dogmatics 
from its scholastic fetters, and established it on the Bible. But 

* In exegesis the leading object is to recognize the tendency of the subjectivity and 
individuality in the original form ; in dogmatics we seek to discover the identity and 
truth of the matter. The unity of both tendencies, accompanied with a steady con- 
sciousness of their diversity, must therefore be the governing idea in biblical dog- 
hiatics. Usteri, Entwickl. d. Paulin. Lehrbegr., 4th ed., Pref., p. vii. 

^ Comp. Strauss, Glaubenslehre, i, p. lYY, and Schelling, Methode des akad. Studi- 
ums, p. 197 sqq. 

^ Very much that is valuable on the idea and method of this science may be found 
in Havernick, Bibl. Dogmatik, p. 1 sqq. 

"* This does not deny that biblical theology, in the wide sense, has its origin in 
common with that of theology in general ; for " the fathers of Alexandrian Christianity 


biblical dogmatics was yet united with ecclesiastical by the Re- 
formers Melanchthon and Calvin ; and when, in the seventeenth 
century, scholasticism again intruded itself into dogmatics, it was 
found necessary to remain contented with mere observations, as in 
Vitringa, or, so far as biblical dogmatics as distinguished from 
ecclesiastical was concerned, with expositions of Scripture texts, as 
in Seb. Schmidius, Collegium Biblicum, Argent., 1671-76 ; Hulse- 
mann, Vindiciae S. S. per loca classica systematis theol., Lips., 1679; 
Majus, Theologia prophetica, Francof., 1710; and Baier, Analysis et 
Vindicatio illustrium S. S. dictorum, Altorf, 1719. Spener's pietism, 
Pietism. at the close of the seventeenth and the beginning of the 
eighteenth centuries, again aroused a feeling for the restoration of 
the simple teaching of the Scriptures, but particularly with refer- 
ence to its practical rather than its scientific aspects. 

Theologia Biblica was understood to signify a popular, pre- 
sentation of the system of belief. It is remarkable that rationalism 
became the agency for turning back the current into the proper 
channel, its tendency in opposition to ecclesiastical orthodoxy caus- 
ing it to labor for the separation of the Bible doctrine from that of 
the Church, and to endeavor to present it in its purity. In this 
effort it took away, however, the brightest of the peculiar orna- 
ments of doctrine, so that the thinning out process of rationalizing 
abstraction left only the caput mortuum of a supposed rational doc- 
trine. J. G. Semler published his historical and critical collections 
on the "so-called proof passages of dogmatics" (Halle, 1764-68) 
in this spirit, and Gabler wrote the work mentioned above with a 
like aim. The supernaturalists of that century saw themselves 
compelled, in the interests of a positive belief in the Bible teaching, 
to recognize the distinction between biblical and ecclesiastical doc- 
Eider Tubing- trine. The elder Tubingen school (Storr, Flatt, Bengel, 
en school. Steudel) took the lead in this direction. The Biblical 
Theology of G. T. Zachariae (five parts, the last by Yollborth, Gott., 
1771-86), for instance, was written from the orthodox point of 
view; while Hufnagel's work (Erl., 1785-89) was composed in the 
interest of rationalism. Ammon, L. Bauer, and Bretschneider were 
likewise more or less in sympathy with the latter tendency. Con- 
cerning Kaiser, de Wette, Baumgarten-Crusius, von Colin, Vatke, 
and Bruno Bauer, and also with regard to the more recent develop- 
ment of this science in general, comp. Havernick, Bibl. Dogm., 2d 
ed., p. 8 sqq., and Nitzsch, supra. 

were essentially biblical theologians ; " comp. N"itzsch, p. 220, where attention is also 
called to the services of Erasmus, in whose works " the most valuable outlines of a 
Theologia Biblica are contained." 




C. F. Ammon, Biblische Theologie. Erl, 1792. 2d ed., 1801-2. 3 vols. 

G. L. Bauer, Theologie des A. T. Lpz., 1796. Des N. T., ebend., 1800-2. 4 vols. 

Bibl. Moral des A. T., ebend., 1803-5. 2 vols. Des N. T., ebend., 1804-5. 2 vols. 
K. G. Bretsehneider, System. Darsteilung der Dogmatik und Moral der apokryphischen 

Schriften des A. T. Lpz., 1805. 
L. D. Cramer, Versuch einer system. Darsteilung der Moral der Apok. des A. T. 

Lpz., 1815. 
H. H. Chedius, Uransichten des Christenthums. Altona, 1808. 
G. Ph. Ch. Kaiser, die bibl. Theologie, oder Judaismus und Christianismus. Erlang., 

1813-21. 2 vols. 

* W. M. L. de Wette, bibl. Dogmatik A. und N. T. oder krit. Darsteilung der Relig- 

ionslehre des Ilebraismus, des Judenthums und des Urchristenthums (1st part of 
the Lehrb. der christl. Dogmatik). Berlin, 1^13. 3d ed., 1831. 
L. F. 0. Baumgarten.Crusius, Grundziige der bibl. Theol, Jena, 1828. 

D. von Colin, bibl. Theologie: herausg. von D. Schulz. Lpz. 1836. 2 vols, 
W. Vatke, die Religion des A. T. Berl., 1835. 

B. Bauer, die Religion des A. T. 2 vols. Berl, 1838 f. 

J. G. Knapp, bibl. Glaubenslehre. Halle, 1840. Amer. ed., transl. by Woods. N. Y., 

* J. T. Beck, die christl. Lehrwissenschaft nach den biblischen Urkunden. Stutt- 

gart, 1841. 2d ed., 1875. 
J. Ch. F. Steudel, Vorlesungen tiber die Theologie des A. T. Edited by Oehler. 
Berl., 1840. 

* G. F. Oehler, Prolegomena zur Theologie des A. T. Stuttg., 1845. 

* H. A. C. Havernick, Vorlesungen, iiber die Theol. des A. T. ; edited by Ilahn, pref. 

by Dorner. Erlang., 1848. 2d ed., with notes by Herm. Schultz. Frankf. a. M., 

* J. L. S. Lutz, bibl. Dogmatik, des N. T. ; edited by R. Riietschi, pref. by Schnecken- 

burger. Pforzheim, 1847. 2d ed., 1861. 

* Chr. F. Schraid, bibl. Theologie des. N. T. ; herausg. von C. Weizsacker. Stuttg., 1853. 

2 vols. 3d ed., 1864. 
L. Roack, die bibl. Theol. Einleit. ins A. und N. T. Halle, 1853. 
G. L. Hahn, die Theologie des N. T. 1st vol. Lpz., 1854. 
Chr. F. Baur, Vorlesungen iiber neutestamentl. Theologie. Hamb., 1864. 

* Herm. Schultz, alttestamentliche Theologie. Die Offenbarungsreligion auf ihrer vor- 

christl. Entwickelungsstufe. 2 vols. Frankf. a. M., 1869. 2d ed., 1878.' 
J. J. van Oosterzee, die Theologie des Neuen Testaments. Barmen, 1869. Lond. ed. 

(transl.), 1870. 
*B. Weiss, Lehrbuch der bibl. Theol. des N. Test. Berl., 1868. 3d ed., 1880. 
H. Ewald, die Lehre der Bibel von Gott od. Theologie des alten und neuen Bundes. 

4 parts. Lpz., 1871-76. 
G. F. Oehler, Theologie des A. Test. 2 vols. Tiib., 1873-74. 
A. Immer, neutest. Theologie. Bern, 1878. 

^ In the category of Biblical Dogmatics we may name J. Cli. K. v. Hofmann's Schrifthemers, 
Norkinger, 18.52-55, 2 parts. 2d ed., 1857-60. It Is more systematic than historical. It contains 
the exegetical basis of dogmatics in general from the author's peculiar point of view. 



1. Old Testament. 

A. Knobel, der Prophetismus der Hebraer. 2 parts. Breslau, 183Y. 

E. W. Hengstenberg, Christologie des A. T. und Commentar iiber die messianischen 
Weissagungen, der propheten. Berl., 1829-32. 2 vols. Eng. ed. 4 vols. Edinb., 

f J. Bade, Christologie des A. T. Miinst., 1852. 2d ed., 1858. 2 vols. 
J. Engelbert, das negative Verdienst des A. T. urn die Unsterblichkeitslehre. Berl., 

F. W. C. Umbreit, die Siinde. Beitr. zur Theologie des. A. T. Gotha, 1853. 
J. H. Kurtz, zur Theologie der Psalmen. Dorpat, 1865. 

A. Kahle, bibUsche Eschatologie. Eschatologie des Alten Testaments. Gotha, 

J. C. R. von Hofmann, Weissagung und Erfiillung. Nordl., 1841-44. 2 parts. 

G. Baur, Gesch. der alttest. Weissagung. Giessen, 1861. 
Kiiper, das Prophetenthum des A. Bundes. Lpz., 1869. 

A. Kuenen, de Godsdienst van Israel tot den ondergang van den Joodsehen Staat. 
Haarlem, 1869. 

de Profeten en de Profetie onder Israel. Leiden, 1875. 

B. Duhm, Theologie der Propheten als Grundlage fiir die innere Entwicklungsgeseh. 
der Israel. Religion. Bonn, 1875. Compare on the other hand, R. Smend, Moses 
apud prophetas. Halle, 1876. 

t H. Zschocke, Theol. der Propheten des A. T. Freib., 1877. 
James Drummond, The Jewish Messiah. Lond., 1877. 

E. Stapfer, les idees religieuses en Palestine a I'epoque de Jesus Christ. 2. ed. 
Paris, 1878. 

2, N'ew Testament. 

a. Doctrine of Jesus (Biblical Christology) : 

Ch. F. Bohme, die Religion Jesu Christi, aus ihren Urkunden dargestellt. Halle, 1825. 

2d ed., 1827. The same : die Religion der Apostel Jesu Christi, etc. Halle, 

A. Schumann, Christus oder die Lehre des A. und N. T. von der Person des Erlosers, 

bibl. dogmatisch entwickelt, Hamb., 1852. 2 vols, 
G. Volkmar, die Religion Jesu und ihre erste Entwicklung nach dem gegenwartigen 

Stande der Wissenschaft. Lpz., 1857. 
W. Beyschlag, die Christologie des N. T. Berl, 1866. 

C. Wittichen, die idee Gottes als des Vaters. Ein Beitrag zur bibl. Theol. haupt- 
sachlich der synoptischen Reden Jesu. Gott., 1865; die Idee des Menschen. 
2. Beitrag zur bibl. Theol., etc. Gott., 1868 ; die Idee des Reiches Gottes. 3. Bei- 
trag zur bibl. Theol., etc. Gott., 1872. 

W. Weiffenbach, der Wiederkunftsgedanke Jesu. Nach den Synoptikern kritisch 
untersucht und dargestellt. Lpz., 1873. 

b. Doctrines of the Apostles. 

•f J. A. B. Lutterbeck, die neutestam. LehrbegrifPe. Mainz, 1852. 2 vols. 

H, Messner, die Lehre der Apostel und neutestamentl. Schriftsteller. Lpz., 1856. 

c. Doctrinal Views of Individual Apostles and New Testament Writers. 
J. F. Kleuker, Johannes, Petrus, und Paulus als Christologen. Riga, 1875. 
C. Chr. E. Schmidt, de theologia Joannis Apost. II. progrr. Jenae, 1801. 


K. R. Kostlin, der Lehrbegriff des Evang. u. der Brief e Johaiinis, Berl., 1843. 

(i. C. L. Froramann, der Johanueische Lehrbegriff, etc. Lpz., 1839. 

A. Ililgenfeld, das Evaugelium und die Briefe Johannis nach ihrem Lehrbegriff dar- 

gestellt. Halle, 1849. 
* L. L^steri, Entwickelung des Paulinischen LelirbegrifFs in seinem Verhaltnisse zur 

bibl. Dogniatik des N. T. Zurich, 1824. 6th ed., 1851. 

A. F. Dahne, Eatwickelung des paulinischen Lehrbegriffs. Halle, 1835. 

J. F. Raebiger, de christologia Paulina contra Bauriuni comraentatio. Vratisl., 1852. 
R. A. Lipsius, die Paulinische Rechtfertigungslehre. Mit Vorwort von Liebner. 
Lpz., 1858. 

B. Weiss, die petrinische Lehrbegriff, etc. Berl., 1855. 

der johanueische Lehrbegriff in seiuen Grundziigen untersucht. Berl., 1862. 

K. Holsten, zum Evang. des Paulus u. Petrus. Altes u. Neues. Rostock, 1868. 
K. A. Riehm, der Lehrbegriff des Hebriierbriefes. Ludwigsb., 1858. 2d ed., 1866.^ 
f Simar die Theologie des heiligen Paulus. Freiburg, 1864. 
A. Sabatier, I'apotre Paul. Esquisse d'une histoire de sa pensee. Strassb., 1870. 
Ernesti, die Ethik des Apostels Paulus. Braunschw., 1868. 2d ed. Lpz., 1875. 
R. Schmidt, die Paulinische Christologie in ihrem Zusammenhang mit der Heilslehre 

des Apostels dargestellt. Gott., 1870. 
H. Liideraann, die Anthropologic des Apostels Paulus und ihre Stellung innerhalb 

seiner Heilslehre. Kiel, 1872. 
0. Pfleiderer, der Paulinismus. Ein Beitr. zur Gesch. der Urchristl. Theol. Lpz., 

H. Opitz, das System des Paulus nach seinen Briefen. Gotha, 1 873. 
Irons, Christianity as taught by St. Paul. London, 1876. 
Wold. Schmidt, der Lehrgehalt des Jacobus Briefes. Lpz., 1869. 
H. Gebhardt, der Lehrbegr. der Apocalypse. Gotha, 1 873. 

Biblical Psychology must be named as a branch of Biblical Dogmatics, and has re- 
cently met with its special representatives : 

J. T. Beck, Umriss der biblischen Seelenlehre. Stuttg., 1843. 2d ed. Tiib., 1862. 
Fz. Delitzsch, System der biblischen Psychologic. Lpz,, 1856. 2d ed., Lpz., 1861. 

1 Earlier: G. W. Meyer, Entwickelung des paul. Lehrbegriffs. Altona, 1801. G. L. Bauer (?), 
reine Auffassung des Urchristenthums In den paul. Briefen. Lpz., 1805. Cb. F. Bohme, Ideen 
iiber das System des Ap. Paulus (in Henke's Museum fiir Religionswissenschaft III, 540 fl.). 
t J. B. Gerhauser, Charakter und Theologie des Ap. Paulus. Landsh., 1816. 




J, Jortin, The Use and Importance of Ecclesiastical History. Pp. 405-454 of vol. vii of Works, 
Lend., 1772 ; Herder's Adrastea, Werke zur Philosopbie u. Gesch., x, p, 17C ; J. G. Mueller, Ideen 
ub. Stud. d. Kirchengesctilchte, in his Reliquen alter Zeiten (Lpz., 1803-6, 4 vols.) ii, p. 1 sqq. ; 
A. H. Niemeyer, Die hohe Wichtigheit u, d. zweckmiissigste Methode eines fortgesetzten Stadi- 
ums der Religions- und Kirchengeschichte fiir praktiscbe Religionslehrer, in the preface to 
Fuhrman's Handvvorterbuch der Kirchengeschichte, Halle, 1826; F. F. Rosegarten, Studium 
Plan u. Darstellung der Kirchengeschichte, Reval, 1824 ; K. Ullmann, Stellung des Klrchenhis- 
torikers in uns. Zeit, in Stud. u. Krit., 1829, No. 3, p. 667 ; J. A. H. Tittmann, Behandlung d. 
Kirchengeschichte, etc., in Illgen's Zeitschr. f . hist. Theologie, i, 2, (per contra Gieseler in Stud. 
u. Krit., 1833, No. 4, p. 1139) ; Schleiermacher, § 149-194; Daub, Zeitschr. f. spec. Theologie, 1836, 
vol. i. No. 1 ; C. W. Niedner, Zeichnung des Umfangs f . d. nothwendigen Inhalt allgera. Gesch. 
d. Christl. Religion, in Stud. u. Krit., 1853, No. 4, pp. 787-905 ; Hagenbach in Herzog's Encykl. 
s. V. Kirchengeschichte, vol. vii, p. 622 sqq. 

Philip Schafl, What is Church History? A Vindication of the Idea of Historical Development, 
Phila., 1846 ; W. G. T. Shedd, Lectures upon the Philosophy of History, Andover, 1856 ; Na- 
ture and Influence of the Historic Spirit in Theology, Essays, pp. 53-120, N. Y„ 1877; E. C. 
Smyth, Value of the Study of Church History in Ministerial Education, Andover. 1874; A. P. 
Stanley (Dean), Three Introductory Lectures on the Study of Ecclesiastical History, Oxf., 1857. 

The central point of historical theology is Church History. It is 
the history of the outwardly visible community within whose limits 
the kingdom of God, which Christ founded, is manifested, and at- 
tains to its ultimate development. 

Church history is certainly dependent upon our conception of the 
real nature of the Church.^ But a completed doctrine of the Church 

* On the meaning of suKlrjGLa (pHp T]1V) comp. Gieseler, Ch. Hist., 8 1 ; Bret- 

T 'r T •• 

Schneider, Systemat. Entwicklung aller in d. Dogmatik vorkommenden Begriffe (4th 
ed., 1841), p. 749; Jacobson, Individualitat des Wortes u. Begriffes Kirdhe (in ibid., 
Kirchenrechtl. Versuchen, I, 58-125). The word "church" (Germ, kirehe) has been 
derived from to KvpiaKov rj KvpiaKr]^ curia, from the Celtic cyrch or cylch (central-point, 
place of assembl)'), and from the Teutonic kieren, koren, or kiesen (to choose), sup- 
posed to have been connected with the Latin circus or with keliku (a tower), etc. 
Comp. Wackernagel, Alt d. Worterbuch, and Gravell, Die Kirehe : Ursprung u. Be- 
deutung des deutschen Wortes (Gorlitz, 1856) ; for the derivation of KvpLog comp. 
Grimm, deutsches W. B., v, p. 790 ff. 

" There can," says Trench, *' be no reasonable doubt that ' church ' is originally from 
the Greek, and signifies * that which pertains to the Lord,' or ' the house which is the 
Lord's.' But here a difficulty meets us. How explain the presence of a Greek word 
in the vocabulary of our Anglo-Saxon forefathers ? for that we derive the word medi- 
ately from them, and intermediately from the Greek, is certain. What contact, direct 
or indirect, was there between the languages to account f or^ this ? The explanation is 
curious. While the Anglo-Saxons and other tribes of the Teutonic stock were almost 
universally converted by their contact with the Latin Church in the western provinces 
of the Roman Empire, or by its missionai'ies, yet it came to pass that before this 
some of the Goths on the lower Danube had been brought to the knowledge of Christ 
by Greek missionaries from Constantinople ; and this word KvpiaKT], or church, did, 
with certain others, pass over from the Greek to the Gothic tongue ; and these Goths, 
the first converted to the Christian faith, the first, therefore, that had a Christian 
vocabulary, lent the word in their turn to the other German tribes, among others to 


is no more to precede Churcli history than a doctrine of the person 
of Christ should form the introduction to a life of Je- History to pre- 
sus. It is, indeed, impossible to ascertain the nature of cede doctrine. 
the Church in any other way than through its history. Ko great 
progress can be made by the adoption of the abstract notion of a 
religious association, whose origin is, perhaps, conceived after the 
analogy of Rousseau's Social Contract.* It will, accordingly, be nec- 
essary to start out, with Gieseler, with the statement that " the 
Church is a particular and historically given conception," which 
must not be generalized into that of a religious society. To speak 
of the Church relations of the Jews, Mohammedans, and Hindus is 
inexact, and the expression, " the Christian Church," ^^^ ^^^ 
is, properly taken, a tautology, or derives its signifi- not merely a 
cation from the contrast to the more specific concep- ^"^^^^ ^' 
tions of Catholic and Protestant, or of Romish, Spanish, and Ger- 
man Churches. 

Some writers, such as Stolberg, have extended the idea backward 
into the Old Testament. But it would be equally proper to include 
Old Testament Christology in the life of Jesus. Nor does the life 
of Jesus belong within the range of Church history, which has its 
beginnings at the point where the circle of the earliest disciples 
begins to extend beyond the limits of a private association, and 
where a congregational organization is introduced. Hence Church 
history commences, strictly, as early as the apostolic period, but 
not until after the departure of Jesus from the earth. For this 
reason a maiority of scholars reo^ard the day of Pente- „ , , ,^ 

. "^ . P . . Pentecost the 

cost following ascension as the birthday of the Christian beginning of 
Church. The apostolic period, at the same time, can *^® c^^'^c . 
only be considered the substructure upon which the edifice of the 
visible Church is reared, or the root from which the mighty tree 

our Anglo-Saxon forefathers; thus it has come round by the Goths from Constanti- 
nople to us. The passage most illustrative of the parentage of the word is from 
Walafrid Strabo (about 840), who writes thus: 'Ab ipsis autem Graecis Kyrch a Ky- 
rios — et alia multa accepimus. Sicut domus Dei Basilica, i. e. Regia a Rege, sic etiam 
Kyrica, i. e. Dominica a Domino nuncupatur. Si autem quassitur, qua occasione ad 
nos vestigiatige : graecitatis advenerint, dicendum praecipue a Gothis, qui et Getse, cum 
extempore, quo ad fidem Christi perducti sunt, in Gragcorum provinciis commorante, 
nostrum, i. e. theotiscum sermonem Labuerint.' " Study of Words, pp. 79-81, N. Y., 

^ Comp. Locke: "A church I take to be a voluntary society of men, joining them- 
selves together of their own accord, in order to the public worshipping of God, in such 
a manner as they judge acceptable to him and effectual to the saving of their souls." 
Works, vol. ii, p. 145, Lond., 1*751. For the insufficient and unhistorical nature of 
this view, comp. C. H. Weisse, Reden tiber die Zukunft der evaugelischen Kirche, 
Lpz., 1849, p. 29 sgg. 


grows, with branches interlacing like an involved network. li 
the Church be regarded as a complex organization of communities, 
and if for that very reason it be again distinguished from those 
communities, it will be apparent that Church history, in the strict 
sense, begins where the external union of such communities has 
already been consolidated.^ But the idea of the Church must be 
defined with respect to its nature, as well as its range through 
time and space, and, at this point, care is needed to guard against 
both a false idealism and a superficial empiricism. The correct 
view, by which the external and internal, visible and invisible, are 
apprehended in their proper connexion and correlation, but are 
likewise distinguished from each other, and according to which 
Church history has to do with the actualization of the kingdom of 
God in time and under determinate relations of time and place, 
r^^ r.^ T- . Stands midway between the purely social and abstract 

The Church is . ♦' . . . 

notaione social notion and the strictly theocratic view. For, according 
or theocratic. ^^ ^^^^ social view, the Church is merely an association 
of accidental origin, analogous to an insurance company, while the 
theocratic conception represents the Church as absolutely Divine 
even in its outward manifestation. The social form, which takes 
its shape under the influence of apparently accidental occurrences, 
constitutes the body of the Church, while the idea which is devel- 
oped in harmony with the laws of spiritual freedom, and there- 
fore by an inward necessity, is its soul.'^ Church history is re 
quired to estimate both according to their true value, because 
they would otherwise represent a life that is neither a corpse nor a 
ghost. ^ 



The Church, like every other phenomenon endowed with life, has 
an external or bodily, and an internal or spiritual, side to its nature. 

mi, /.v, T, These cannot be sundered from each other, thoup^h they 

The Church , 7 i=) j 

both external may be separated to a certain extent, and severally 
and internal, ^^eated with particular attention. In this way the dif- 
ferent, but constantly interacting, departments of church life come 
into being, which determine the arrangement of the material of 
Church history, both with regard to the logical rubrics under 

^ Rothe fixes the beginning of Church history as late as the destruction of Jerusa- 
lem ; see his Anf ange der christl. Kirche. 

** Schleiermacher, § 51. 

^Concerning the relation of the ideal to the historical Church, see Schweizer, 
Glaubenslehre, p. 183 sq. 


which it is to be placed and the more independent artistic com- 
bination and connexion of the matter itself. 

Christianity entered the world, and was compelled to assume re- 
lations toward it. So, too, was the world required to enter into 
relations with Christianity. Christ himself had compared the king- 
dom of God to leaven which leavens the whole lump, and to a 
mustard seed which should develop into a wide-spreading tree. 
The expansive element is contained in the nature and the destina- 
tion of Christianity — the Church must grow. In the first stages of 
the life of an individual the outward growth is more noticeable, 
and calculated to excite remark ; and Church history has, similarly 
and most naturally, to deal, in its earliest periods, with the exten- 
sion of Christianity. By the side of the expansion. Expansion and 
however, we must trace the history of the limitation of Limitation. 
Christianity — the persecutions — even as the shadow moves along 
with the person. For our Lord had even foretold that his Church 
would be obliged to suffer persecution. 

The two elements cannot be torn asunder, since the extension of 
the Church often gave rise to persecution, while the latter, being 
overruled by God, aided in the extension. The blood of the martyrs 
was the seed of the Church. Christianity struck its roots into the 
world, however, in proportion as its outward extent increased, and 
its growth involved, as well, the strengthening of the body of the 
Church. This must be regarded as the necessary condition of the 
life of the Church, although it seems to be connected with the dan- 
ger of unduly emphasizing the body, and reducing the Church to 
the level of the world. To trace this incorporating process, and with 
it the course of partial secularization which it involves, is the task 
of the history of the constitution of the Church. But, constitution oi 
in connexion with this, we must give attention to the t^e Church, 
relations of the Church to the State, especially when, under Con- 
stantine, the latter became Christian; and to the internal social 
conditions of the Church itself, such as the separation of the clergy 
from the laity, gradations of rank among the clergy, the develop- 
ment of the hierarchy, morbid excrescences, divisions or schisms in 
the Church, and such special phenomena in connexion with its life 
as monasticism, the vita canonica. But within this body, composed 
as it is of numerous members, for whose study an acute eye is cer- 
tainly necessary, the soul of the life of Christianity unfolded itself, 
being partly carried forward and partly hindered by the Thesoui-iifeof 
body. So, Church History, as a branch of theological the church. 
study, is first of a-11 to fix its attention upon the souL The soul-life 
of the Church, moreover, as manifested in worship, doctrine, and 


custoras, is not only bound organically to the bodily element by 
numerous ties — for the history of the constitution of the Church 
holds an unmistakable relation of interaction to the history of wor- 
ship and of doctrine — but it surrounds itself with a separate body. 
Worship seeks expression in various forms of art, and doctrine 
assumes the form of dogma, more or less fully developed, while 
both are determined by the spirit of special times and peoples, and 
b}^ the degree of culture which has been attained by any particular 
age. It is, of course, true that Christian teachings and customs 
have superseded the old and replaced it by the new ; 
ditions super- but they have also been determined and modilied from 
^^ ® ■ that very direction. The history of worship, doctrine, 

and customs, is, therefore, connected with the general history of 
civilization, in like manner as the history of the constitution stands 
related to ordinary political history. 

No one side of the life of the Church can be thoroughly compre- 
hended apart from the other. It would, therefore, be improper to 
treat Church history in the form of rubrics constructed on a merely 
external and logical plan, like the drawers in a sideboard. On the 
contrary, the richer the manifestation of that life is at certain points 
where it pulsates, the more impossible is it to enforce such a divis- 
ion. This is illustrated by the Reformation, which forces its way 
through all such limitations, with their superscriptions, by includ- 
ing in its scope at once the constitution, worship, doctrine, and life. 
Advantao-e of ^^ arrangement of the material in the form of extended 
Rroupings. groupings, by which means, at times, one feature of the 
life of the Church may be brought into prominence, and at other 
times another, admits of great diversity in the shadings of the rep- 
resentation, and is, for this reason, certainly preferable, in an artistic 
point of view, to the abstract mode of treatment by topics.^ 

It should not be forgotten, however, in the interests of metho- 
dology, that the storing away of the material in the memory is 
facilitated by the arrangement in tabular rubrics, and that the 
artistic treatment can be profitably employed only where a knowl- 
edge of the facts of history already exists.^ It will be sufficient if, 
in connexion with the rubrical arrangement, we continually observe 

the dependence of the several departments upon each 
A necessary ^ ^ . ^ ^ , 

change of ru- Other, and direct attention to the links of the organic 
bncs. chain. The rubrics, moreover, will be required 'to 

change their titles and relation to each other with the change of 

^ Comp. the works of Henke, Spittler, Hase, Schleiermacher, etc. 
^ Warnings have, with propriety, been raised against too much cutting up of the 
material ; comp. Fricke, Lehrb. der Kirchengesch., Part I, Pref., p. ix, and § 9. 


times. It would, for example, be highly improper to assign the lead- 
ing place in connexion with later times to the extension of Christian- 
ity, whose place has, in the course of progress, been removed from 
the centre to the circumference, while the foreground is occupied by 
the Church itself, whose outward form was, in the Middle Ages, 
conditioned by the papacy with its hierarchy. At the time of the 
Reformation, teaching, or dogma, again comes into the foreground. 
Such changes of scenery are positively necessary in order to avoid 
that fatal monotony of style which prevents the presentation from 
producing the proper impression. However, material cannot be ar- 
ranged under such categories alone. Sometimes individual churches, 
in which the Christian spirit has taken on a peculiar stamp, such as 
the Church of Africa, Alexandria, Antioch, Rome, Germany, or 
Slavonia, demand a separate treatment. Sometimes great and ex- 
citing events, that shake the entire Church, and the world itself, 
break through the framework of established rubrics, and claim a 
special treatment. This applies, for example, to the history of the 
Crusades and the Reformation. A mode of arrangement that 
regulates itself according to the nature of the material will, conse- 
quently, become necessary, and in such plan the division with re- 
gard to time, or into periods, demands special attention. 


The categories according to which the rich material of Church 
history is distributed, whatever may be their character, will be 
crossed by the lines of chronological division. The measure of 
these lines is found in those epochal events which have an import- 
ant bearing upon the whole of the history, but not in the external 
symmetry of plan, or in occurrences of subordinate importance for 
the Church. 

The division by centuries has, since Mosheim, been almost uni- 
versally given up. The principle of outward symme- The centuriai 
try, which certainly cannot be justified on scientific division wrong, 
grounds, lay at its basis. But it cannot be denied, on the other 
hand, that the beginning of a new century, for example, the eigh- 
teenth, occasionally introduces an epoch.^ The special point at 

^ To divide a historical representation by centuries is connected with inconvenient 
consequences. Events are not brought sharply to a close with any of them ; the life 
and actions of mankind reach over from one to another. But all the reasons which 
govern any method of arrangement are based simply on some preponderating feature. 
Certain influences appear prominently in a certain century, without suggesting a de- 
sire to mistake the preparation for them, or to deny the future consequences they 
may have produced. — Goethe, Farbeul, ii, p. 169. 


which the epoch that introduces a new period is to be assumed can 
hardly be definitely fixed, an approximation being the most that 
can ordinarily be secured. While Schleiermacher remarks that " the 
epochal points of chief importance are always such as not only j)os- 
sess equal value for the functions of Christianity, but are also im- 
portant to historical development outside the Church,"* and the 
principle is correct in the main, attention may yet be called to the 
idea that distinct stages of development may be apparent in one 
field sooner than in the other, and that, therefore, the epochs of 
Church history can scarcely be identical with those of the history 
of the world. 

The dependence upon theology, to which the latter was subjected 
in former days, may account for the custom of regarding certain 
great phenomena in the religious sphere, particularly the introduc- 
tion of Christianity and the Reformation, in the light of epochs in 
the history of the world as well. Indeed, they certainly are such 
to the profounder researches of history mto the past, though not to 
the immediate historical perception.^ The influence of Christianity 

, upon the history of the world did not become apparent 

Influences of ^ -^ . ^ ^ 

Christianity not until much later, at the time of the overthrow of the 
immediate. Roman Empire in the West. This event, therefore, is 
better suited to be made an epoch in secular history than the 
immediate appearance of Christianity in the world, although the 
latter constitutes the most natural beginning of Church history. 

A similar idea will apply to the Reformation. The political 
transformation of Europe, which was doubtless directly promoted 
by the religious revolution, delayed its appearance in the world of 
phenomena until the Peace of Westphalia. The latter, accordingly, 
possesses greater significance for political history than does the 
Reformation, while, in importance to Church history, it is inferior 
to the Reformation. In like manner, other and even religious 
events, for example, the appearance of Mohammed, occur, and form 
epochs in the sphere of secular history, which yet have but a sub- 
ordinate importance for Church history as such, however grave may 
have been the consequences that reacted upon the fortunes of the 
Church. An agreement of opinions will always be most readily 
secured with reference to epochs in connexion with which the fac- 
tor that moulds a period ^ is most prominently displayed. These, 
therefore, are epochs in the full breadth of the word. 

'§ 165. 

2 Christianity is, no doubt, the hinge between the Old and the New "World, but the 
hinge itself has a breadth — of centuries ! 

^ The distinction between epoch and period is assumed to be from secular history. 


In this sense tlie adoption of Christianity by Constantine, and the 
connected introduction of that faith to be the state relig- -what consti- 
ion, unquestionably constitutes an epoch, although it may ^"^^^ ^^ epoch. 
be dithcult to decide what year should begin the new period — A. D. 
306, 312, or 325. With equal certainty Gregory YII. forms a strik- 
ingly noticeable feature in the history of the development of the 
papacy, and hence of the institution with which the character of the 
Church of the Middle Ages is involved. Nor will it escape the eye 
of the observer that the period from Gregory VII. to the Reforma- 
tion embraces three stages — the progress of the papacy to the time 
of Innocent III.; its hold upon the elevation attained, to Boniface 
YIIL; and its subsequent decline, which may also be dated from 
the removal of the papal chair to Avignon at a somewhat later day, 
down to the period of the Reformation.* 

Finally, none will deny that the division of the Church in the 
sixteenth century forms an epoch in the treatment of ^^^ Reformar 
Church history from both a Roman Catholic and a Prot- tion a univer- 
estant point of view, although the Council of Trent, 
rather than the Reformation, will be the turning point in the for- 
mer case.^ It will prove more difficult to find, on the other hand, 
one or more resting places — excepting Gregory the Great and Char- 
lemagne, who are commonly assumed — between Constantine and 
Gregory VII. that would be equally acceptable to all persons. It 
is likewise difficult to fix an epoch between the Reformation and 
our own time, though all are compelled to acknowledge that a crisis 
intervened after the Thirty Years' War, and again during the first 
decades of the eighteenth century. It is difficult, however, to con- 
nect these with some single event of marked prominence, in- 
asmuch as a multitude of factors co-operated to bring about 
the revolution in the character of that time. It follows that the 
settling of definite epochs will remain subject to a certain amount 
of fluctuations, which, however, involves no loss to science when 
the points upon which the whole must turn are clearly appre- 

^ To overlook the wholly diverse nature of these two courses of development, and 
the epochal effect of the removal of the chair to Avignon, is to misunderstand the 
principal features in which the life of the Church pulsates. — Rettberg, Pref. to vol. 
vii. of Schmid's Kirchengesch, p. vii. It is not easy to say why Gregory VII, should 
not himself present a suitable beginning for a new period. — Fricke, i., p. 12. 

^ It is apparent how very different the periodizing of the history of the Reforma- 
tion must be when regard is had to the Reformation in Germany alone from what it 
would become when that of other lands is also treated. It is usual to conclude the 
history of the Reformation with the religious Peace of Augsburg (1555), but this 
fifrjxfs, a real conclusion only for the German branch of ecclesiastical history. 



The requirements for a thorough and profitable treatment of 
Church history, are: 

1. An impartial i-ecognition of the facts secured by the inves- 
tigation of extant sources and documents. This is historical crit- 

2. Unbiassed estimation of the historical material in harmony 
with the law of the lower and higher causality. This we may call 
historical pragmatism. 

3. A living interest in Christianity, and a disposition to value its 
manifestations according to the Christian standard. This is relig- 
ious fervour or enthusiasm. 

1. It is evident that what has been indicated above can be re- 
quired only of this study in its finished state. This holds good es- 
pecially of the study of sources,^ which can be required of the 
beginner only in limited measure, and in connexion with which the 
labours of others must in any case prepare his way. Every theo- 
logian should, nevertheless, engage in the study of sources in some 
directions, even though not intending to make a specialty of Church 
history, with a view to quicken the historical faculty, and become 
able to estimate the labours of others in this field. 

The criticism to be employed on sources is twofold. In one re- 
Twofoid criti- spect it coincides in function with exegetical criticism, 
cism of sources, ^g [^ deals with the authenticity and integrity of the 
historical monuments which it designs to use. It is governed by 
the same laws. To this philological criticism, however, is added 
that of real history. The question arises, whether the authority to 
whom we appeal could, in view of all his personal traits, his char- 
acter, culture, and outward circumstances, have stated the truth, 
and whether he intended to state it ? The examination must be 
impartially conducted, and the worth or wortlilessness of the 
source as a whole, together with the truthworthiness of each state- 
ment in particular, be determined accordingly. Care must be 
taken, however, not to make the goal in this inquiry absolute truth, 
but relative, and not to apply the measure of our requirements to 
the earlier ages. A report based on the clear statements of a 
Difference in trustworthy witness is termed reliable, while one that 
reports. lacks such complete confirmation is doubtful, unsup- 

ported, and possibly even suspicious. A correct historical judg- 
ment will guard against both a hypercritical or skeptical tendency, 
^ Oomp. Schleiennacher, §§ 156, 157, 184, 190. 


and such an uncritical direction as amounts to a blind belief in 
authorities and legends. 

2. By the side of criticism stands pragmatism. To simply fur- 
nish approved narratives of facts, without any elaboration or add- 
ino- of personal opinions, is the work of merely a good chronicler.' 
The mission of the historian is of a higher character, for history is 
a living, connected whole. The past is mirrored in the present, 
and contains within itself the germs of the most distant future. 
Every particular thing is the product of its age, which is itself 
determined by the co-operation of many individual elements. Nor 
can it be denied that national characteristics and constitutions, cli- 
mate, and various other things, exert an influence over the subjec- 
tive life, and that these, in turn, have a reflex influence upon the 
objective life. 

It follows that an endless chain of causes and effects runs 
through the whole of history, that is, through the de- Reciprocal in- 
velopment of the moral world in time as through that Silences. 
of the physical world in space. To follow this chain, to ascertain 
and comprehend both tlie forces of attraction and of repulsion, ac- 
cording to the laws of social polarity, is the task of historical ])hilos- 
ophy, or historical pragmatism. We postulate a twofold Twofold law of 
law of causality, however, a lower and a higher, a mediate causality. 
and an immediate. Every concrete fact appears to us, in part, as the 
product of outwardly traceable, mechanical causes. But it must be 
remembered that the causal element is itself the effect of other causes, 
and that the new product contains within itself that causative power 
which will produce still farther effects. But underneath all the vari- 
ous causes, mutually sustaining and supporting as they are, must lie 
a primal force, in which they find their absolute and positively ulti- 
mate base. In a true study of history each of these features will 
receive due recognition. The tendency to an atomistic mode of 
treatment must be limited and complemented by the dynamic, in 
order that no feature be in any way exaggerated. To lead back 
every thing to known, accepted, and historical causes, and deduce 
the most exalted matters from inferior antecedents, or explain the 
original by what has been made or has come into being, what is 
spiritually necessary and free by what is accidental and arbitrary — I 
in one word, to explain life by death, is belittling, and devoid at 
once of taste and spirit. 

This would become apparent if the attempt were made to explain 

'On the distinction between chronicle and history, see Schleiermacher, §§ 152, 
154. Upon the whole subject, compare Gervinus, Grundziige der Historik, Leip., 


the spread of Christianity in the first three centuries simply on the 
ground of the political and financial condition of the Roman State, 
the pecuniary difficulties of certain emperors, the excellent charac- 
ter of the Roman roads throughout the realm, and other lesser 
factors, or the Reformation as resulting merely from an insig- 
nificant quarrel between Augustinian and Dominican monks, or 
Congregationalism from a personal grievance of Brown, or Meth- 
odism from John Wesley's individual disapprobation of Oxford 
formality. For it is true, in appearance only, tliat what is greatest 
not rarely springs from what is least, since what is mathematically 
small is yet dynamically great. The oak comes only from the 
True value of acorn. External and apparently accidental causes 
obscure causes, should not be overlooked and neglected, however, any 
more than they should be overrated. To endeavour to trace 
back every thing to a single, mysterious, primal cause, to the disre- 
gard of intermediate links, is to transform history into an exhausted 
garden, a magic lantern, out of which only disconnected, puzzling 
shapes arise, just to vanish again by a mere turn of the hand. " A 
shallow mind," says Herder, " finds and connects nothing in history 
but facts; a perverted mind seeks for miracles in it." The truth 
lies here, also, in the golden middle.^ 

The moral estimate to be formed of persons and their actions, is 
likewise dependent on a correct pragmatism in the mode of treat- 
ment. Here, again, two extremes must be avoided. An atomistic 
Extremes to be pragmatism is usually ready to apply the measure of 
avoided. moral perception belonging to its own time to every his- 

torical phenomenon, and in this way to be dictatorial over history. 
It scents fraud and base and dishonourable intentions everywhere, or 
it rejects, as being silly and fanatical, everything that does not corre- 
spond with its ideal of good reason. On this method the mediaeval 
manifestations of the papacy and monasticism, especially, receive 
rough treatment, and doctrinal controversies assume the character 
of simply hateful quarrels. This method has no apprehension of 
the existence of the profounder impulses of the human spirit which 
are displayed under these fanciful forms. It lacks the elevation of 
soul that is needed to lift it out of its personal prejudices, and to 

' There was a time — it can scarcely be termed fully past — when people found pleas- 
ure in explaining history, even in its most important points of change, out of mere 
blind, accidental occurrences. This was termed the philosophical method. In our 
days many have fallen upon a directly contrary method ; and this, too, is denominated 
the philosophical method. — Reuchlin, Geschichte von Port Royal, p. 54. Comp. Ger- 
vinus, supra, p. 69 sq. In more recent times Gfrorer has come to occupy this ground 
in part. 


enlarge the individual consciousness until it becomes commensurate 
with that of the human species/ 

The contrast to this narrow habit of observation is formed by 
that sublime objectivity which, in entire abnegation of self, abstains 
from expressing any moral judgment, and looks down from its 
speculative watch-tower upon the evolutions of the world-spirit as 
upon a divine drama. History thus becomes a merely natural 
process, without the superadding of any moral element. Between 
these two extremes, the one of which is involved in the nature of 
deism and the other in that of pantheism, is the ground upon which 
proceeds the truly theistic method of historical research, xhe tbeistic 
whose principle is that history moves in the sphere of ^^ethod. 
freedom, though guided by a Providence which binds and controls 
all the threads of progress. This real history, therefore, also lies 
in the sphere of a higher necessity — a necessity which cannot, of 
course, be established by us on a priori principles, but may yet be 
apprehended by that keen sensibility which improves under the 
process of quiet observation. 

It is said that "history is the tribunal of the world." But we 
should probably find that the necessary documents for any real 
and practical apjilication of the idea are wanting to us. God has 
reserved the judgment for himself; and for this reason our judgment 
should be exercised sparingly. The rule by which, in Church his- 
tory, we are to estimate the different phenomena connected with 
the Church, can only be the word of God. This is the ^ ,, ^ ,^ 

' , *' _ God s word the 

canon by which we are to judge of every further stage standard of 
of development in the Christian life. In connexion -"^ ^°^^^ * 
with every new appearance we are to inquire, " How is it related 
to the idea of Christianity, as laid down in the New Testament?" 

This should not be construed to mean, however, that every spe- 
cial form of the Christian life which does not thoroughly resemble 
that of the apostolic Church is to be rejected. Such a view would 

' Hence, Neander, speaking with reference to the Crusades, says: "The lowest place 
is occupied by cold reason, which, more than other judges, denies the native nobility 
of human nature, and looks with aristocratic pity upon such times ; not because it is 
governed by enthusiasm for the truly real, but because only that seems real to its judg- 
ment which is the lowest of all that appears, and because precisely what is most beau- 
tiful in this connexion is regarded by it as only fancy — namely, labour and daring 
expended for things whose only value lies in the bosom of mankind." — Der heil. Bern- 
hard (1st ed.), p. 210. "It is usual to say," observes a Roman Catholic writer, "that 
the chest makes the orator. It may be said, in a higher sense, that the heart makes 
the historian ; truth does not rest on criticism alone, but much more on the determina- 
tion to love it, even when its language is not pleasant." — Hist. pol. Blatter fiir das 
kathol. Deutschland, 1854, No. 8, p. 654. 


be the death of all history, whose very nature requires develop- 
ment. The developed life is related to the original like the plant 
to the germ. The life of the germ, however, passes over i»to the 
The principle plant ; and the principle of Christianity must similarly 
must^be^^e^ver ^^ traceable in every manifestation, any phase of church 
present. life being morally justifiable only in so far as that prin- 

ciple can be made to appear. Wherever this principle is lacking, 
or has been perverted into its contrary, the existence of a morbid 
state cannot be mistaken, though there are many different degrees 
in the malady. An entire institution in the Church, for instance 
the papacy, may, with all its consequences, appear to deserve re- 
jection from the standpoint of pure apostolical Christianity, as be- 
ing itself morbid and the product of morbid conditions, without 
compelling the conclusion that the history of the popes is, for that 
reason alone, a history of antichrist. On the one hand, it will be 
necessary to consider the papacy itself in its historical relation to 
the Christian world under its Germanic form, as the counterpoise 
to barbaric wilfulness and boorishness ; and, on the other, to esti- 
mate the different popes by the measure of the papal idea, which 
will at all events reveal a wide chasm between a Gregory YII. and 
an Alexander VI. 

It is also possible " for a historian to defend the mediaeval popes, 
and, at the same time, to be a determined opponent of the persons 
who desire the restoration of the papacy of the Middle Ages for 
our own times." ^ The same applies to monasticism, from which 
the Reformation itself came forth, while the historical Reformation 
differs from a mere abstract theory of doctrinal improvement by 
reason of the fact that Luther passed through this very vital expe- 
rience of the mediaeval Church, upon which he was subsequently 
called to exert a reformatory influence. A comforting feature in 

^ . . history lies in the fact that error, even where it is most 
Remedies in '' ^ ^ ' 

even a corrupt obdurate, is yet manifested only as an excrescence upon 
^^®' the truth, and that even a corrupt age contains within 

itself, though unconsciously, the remedies upon which a later time 
will lay hold with a more untrammeled judgment. 

History thus becomes the teacher of the present, but only in the 
entirety of its development, though it may be said, with greater 
accuracy, that the present thus results from history. Hence it 
must be regarded as a gross abuse to make history subservient to 
so-called interests of the times and to personal preferences, in such 

^ Mohler, Kleine Schriften, i, p. 76, A striking example is found in Voigt in his 
treatment of Gregory VII. ; comp. his Antwort an den Bischof von La Rochelle, June 
23, 1829, (in pre! to 2d ed.) 


way as to compel it to yield either ideals with which to dazzle the 
nninforraed, or caricatures with which to excite their fears/ His- 
tory is thus reduced to the character of an armory to which every 
combatant resorts for the weapon needed in any special emergency; 
and what they term " the spirit of the times," which they thus call 
up, according to their belief is not rarely " the spirit of the gentle- 
men themselves." 

3. Our third requirement, the moral and religious disposition, is 

for this reason closely connected with the preceding^ re- ,, , 

•^ . . Moral and re- 

marks. It was during an extended period considered iigious disposi- 

the highest wisdom of historical pragmatism to insist ^°^' 
that the historian should belong to no religion, and that, therefore, 
the best Church History is that which displays the least affection 
for its object, and, at the same time, evinces no preference for any 
current tendency of thought — hence, which is distinguished by its 
lack of colour and animation. We recall attention, at this point, to 
our remarks on the objective tendency in exegesis. It is doubtless 
true that prejudice in any direction is damaging to free Damage from 
historical vision. The historian should be superior to Prejudice, 
the appeals of party interest. But this does not imply that he 
should neither have convictions nor express them. If such convic- 
tions do not amount merely to a clinging to blind prejudices, but 
are, instead, the fruit of intellectual effort, they may find expres- 
sion, and naturally will, and ought to be, avowed, in proportion as 
they are living convictions. The person who possesses an enthusi- 
asm for art, and has been initiated into the mysteries of its life, will 
surely be more competent to write its history than one Best historians 
who stands far aloof from it. Moreover, as a rule, the ^^^^^ ^Se^ne^ 
best history of a people will be furnished by him who pie. 
has lived and felt with that people, and has been penetrated with a 

^ Schleiermacher, § 155, note: "An excited, egoistic interest, and, consequently, 
every partial tendency, is a most potent influence to pervert the historical vision in 
the scientific sphere, as in common life." Comp. TJllmann, p. 6*77: "In an age that 
is agitated by the spirit of partisanship, nothing is so likely to mislead as the tempta- 
tion to make historical inquiry, among other things, subserve the demands of party 
and the interests of the day, because fame and advantage may be thus secured, for 
the moment at least, if not permanently. But where this is the case, the thorough 
and comprehensive study of sources will possess no great value." " The introduction 
of present interests into historical labours," says Ranke, " generally results in hinder- 
ing the independent performance of such undertakings" (Pref. to Engl. Geschichte, 
p. xi), Ranke, no doubt, follows his objective tendency to an extreme, with reference 
to ecclesiastical contrasts as well as other matters. He writes history "in the placid 
frame of a painter of fancy pictures." See the review in the Augsburg Allgem. 
Zeitung, supplement, 345, 1860. 


recognition of its most sacred interests — such as Tacitus, Moser, 
J. von Mill lei', Macaulay, Palacky. The objection might be raised, 
indeed, that, for example, on this principle, the history of Islam 
could be best treated by a Mohammedan, and that of Judaism by a 
Jew. We must acknowledge the force of this reply, in so far as 
the Christian inquirer into history who would know and describe 
those religions as they are in their inmost being, will be required to 
enter personally into the life of Mohammedanism or Judaism, so as 
to reproduce them from within himself. It only remains to inquire 
whether such reproduction be possible ; and at this point frequent 
errors have, unquestionably, taken place. Often, too, has the nar- 
row spirit of Christian ecclesiastical historians prevented them from 
forming a correct estimate of the conditions of heathendom. For 
Christianity not this, however, Christianity must not be blamed. Where 
narrow ^Church ^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^ attained to its highest development, it 
history. can be said with propriety that the Christian "proves 

all things." For the most independent and unprejudiced repre- 
sentation of a lower condition is always executed from a higher 
The lower best ^^^^^- Indeed, the really moving principle of the lower 
understood by State can be thoroughly apprehended and understood 
® ^^ ®^* by him only who occupies the higher level. ^ The man- 
ner in which the Christian may apprehend and elaborate Judaism 
and Mohammedanism differs greatly from the treatment which the 
Jew or Mohammedan is able to accord to Christianity, or even to 
his own religion, to which he stands related as a dreamer. The 
"veil of Moses" is on their faces. The real character of such in- 
stitutions is apparent only to the awakened and sober research of 
Christendom. The further elucidation of this question belongs to 
apologetics. We do not assert that certain branches of Church 
history are beyond the capacity of persons w^ho have no sympathy 
with the vital principle of Christianity, or who are even in antagon- 
ism with it. But the efforts of such inquirers must be restricted 
either to the mere collecting of material or to narrow criticisms, 
while that which really gives movement and life to history remains 
concealed from their vision. This was emphatically the case with 

Life, in its inmost relations, is disclosed only to him who loves,' 

^ Upon this point we coincide with Mohler (Kleine Schriften, ii, p. 284), the only 
difference being that he considers Roman Catholicism as constituting the highest stage, 
while we assign that character to Protestantism, Which of these latter is better 
qualified to understand the other, is, of course, a question of time, upon which, how- 
ever, our own opinion is formed. 

* Marcus Aurelius was a good and also an intelligent man, but he was no more able 


while it is doubtless true that the eye of a cold observer, or of a 
foe, will be keener to discover faults and frailties than that of love, 
which is often blind to such traits. Such blindness, however, is 
checked by the cultivation of the true Christian spirit, ^^^ cnristia 
which is a spirit of truth. In this spirit, and in the spirit both lov- 
measure in which it has been received into us, the im- ^^^ ^^ -'"^ * 
age of the Church is most accurately reflected, not, indeed, without 
spot or wrinkle, but exactly as it is, and with all its lights and 
shadows. The cold spirit of worldly wisdom catches upon the con- 
cave mirror of its really hollow head and heart only the caricature 
of the original picture, while it remains itself unknown.* 


It is impossible, in view of the wide extent of Church History, to 
give equal attention to all the noteworthy factors within its do- 
main. For this reason the relation of the general to the particular 
will be determined by the degree of theological interest which at- 
taches to a given matter. Every scholar who desires to work suc- 
cessfully upon details will need to possess a general and 
systematic acquaintance with the whole field in its must be under- 
synchronous relations, in order to which the study of ^'^°°^' 
tables, or, better, the construction of them, will become necessary. 

to conceive of the spirit that brought the martyrs to the stake, and strengthened them 
there, than a person absolutely devoid of speculative ability is able to comprehend 
Spinoza's ethics. — Kliefoth, Einl. in d. Dogmengesch, p. 174. 

^ Gieseler says : " The ecclesiastical historian must renounce party interest, as well 
as prejudices arising from the peculiarities of his time. On the other hand, he can- 
not penetrate into the internal character of the phenomena in Church history without a 
Christian, religious spirit, because no spiritual manifestation that is foreign to our 
habits can be apprehended with historical correctness without being reproduced in the 
imagination of the inquirer. Only such inquiry can discover where the Christian 
spirit is entirely wanting, where it is only used as a mask, and what other spirit has 
taken its place. Nor will it fail to recognize its presence, even though finding expres- 
sion under forms of manifestation that are strange to our eyes." — Church History, 
American edition, vol. i, pp. 23, 24. Comp. also Schleiermacher, § 193, and Fricke, 
Lehrbuch der Kirchengesch, i, § 7. Thiersch makes it the great task of Church his- 
tory " to recognize what, in the course of events, was natural development, what was 
human guilt, and what, in consequence of man's sin, supernatural interference." He 
continues : " Church history rises to the character of a true and real theological sci- 
ence only when it connects the whole of the past with the present, and traces the 
progress of events from the beginning of the Church to our day, in order thus to re- 
veal the work of the Church that now is, to lay a foundation for the understanding of 
our own times, and open a conjectural view into the future of the Church." (Vorles- 
ungen viber Protestantismus und Katholicismus, vol. i, p. 138 sq. Erlangen, 1846.) 
Comp. also Ullmann, in the Preface to the 3d ed. of Neander, Church History. 


But, from this whole, the Protestant theologian will be able to select 
those particular sections in which the Church was either predomi- 
nantly engaged in the course of healthful development, or was 
returning to such state, involving, of course, the leading features of 
the history of its decline and degeneration during the Middle Ages, 
and also, as a necessary connecting link, the grand outward form 
assumed by the Church of that period. 

Every scholar should, moreover, be especially acquainted with 
the history of the Church, and the Reformation, and Protestantism, 
in his own country; and, since the universal derives animation and 
clearness only through its details, it follows that the study of spe- 
cial features is to be recommended as being particularly fitted to 
stimulate and shape the mind. 

The field of Church history is infinite in its extent,^ and there is, 
consequently, no limit to the labours of the Church historian. The 
student, however, who is preparing for ordinary service in the 
Church, the theologian in a general way, can only be required "to 
be familiar with so much of this infinite material as is necessary to 
his independent participation in the government of the Church." 
To this end the general history of the Church, which furnishes him 
Necessity of with the needed outline, is first of all necessary.^ Ev- 
generai history, gj.y scholar should be SO familiar with this as to leave 
no gap in the progress of centuries of development which he can- 
not fill with the names about which its principal reminiscences 
cluster. The fixing of this synchronistic syllabus in the mem- 
ory, by the use of tables, is indispensable, the entering upon par- 
ticulars being nothing more than a planless digging and grubbing 
unless such a picture of the whole has been impressed on the 

Nor is the mere picture all that is necessary. The outline must 
be filled in, and made to live — a feature that should not be made to 
depend on accidental circumstances. No general decision can be 
rendered as to whether the history of the Church is more important 
in its ancient, its intermediate, or its modern periods. It is easy to 
see that the intermediate history will sustain a different relation to 
both the ancient and the modern, according to the Protestant or 
the Roman Catholic view. But it would be unhistorical, and ultra- 
Protestant as well, to argue that we might dispense with the his- 
tory of the Middle Ages and the hierarchy as beyond the limits of 
the Church. If it be regarded simply as a history of the decline 
and corruption of the Church, it would be important to understand 
it for that very reason. But it is more than this. It connects the 
' Schleiermacher, § 184. 2 Schleiermacher, §§ 91, 185, 18'7. 


various threads in many ways, however much it severs and entan- 
gles them in other respects; and it is necessary that such ^^ ^^^^^ ^^ 
points of connexion be recognized, and that the Roman understand 
Catholicism of the Middle Ages be apprehended in its ^"^"^^^ ^^^^^^ 
principles, a work that is possible only when some acquaintance 
Avith the details of the material of history has been secured. It 
would, nevertheless, lead away from the goal at which the Protes- 
tant student of theology aims in the study of Church History, if 
special attention were directed, for instance, upon the details of the 
history of the popes and religious orders, or of the Romish ritual — 
us has been done in Hurter's Innocenz III.^ — while only a rapid 
survey is taken of the Reformation and the history of more recent 
times, or too great brevity is exercised while treating the ancient 
Church. The latter and the history of the Reformation, with the 
events resulting from it, constitute, therefore, the real soil of the 
Protestant Church, upon which the Protestant theologian should 
by all means be at home, even though he may not ignore the Middle 
Ages. The relation might almost be compared with that of the 
study of the Old Testament to that of the New, in the department 
of exegesis. 

To the above we must add the Church history of the student's 
native land. Every one ought to possess a more inti- Necessity of ac- 
mate knowledge of the founding and extension of Chris- quaiutance 

^ . -, , P -T 1 with Church 

tianity m his own country, and be more lamiliarly history of our 
acquainted with the history of its ecclesiastical institu- °^^'^ country. 
tions, and especially of Protestantism within its bounds, than will 
be possible to him from general history alone. In this direction 
private studies will become necessary to supplement the instruction 
received in the theological seminary. 

It is further necessary that just proportions be observed in the 
extent of treatment accorded to the different departments in the 
life of the Church. Protestants are inclined to discuss the history 

^ Corap. § 14, and Schleiermacher, §§ 154 and 191. We would direct attention to 
the fact that, in the study of Church history in general, the leading object is not a 
mere knowledge of details and the cramming of the memory — not merely conception ^ 
but perception. Comp. Roth (in Gelzer's Prot. Mon. Blotter, 1851, Dec, p. 364): " The 
objective history of the Church may be learned from lectures or books, and is an ob- 
ject of conception ; but the subjective history requires perception, as does scarcely 
another study. If the latter be taken as the object of conception merely, it will aiford 
no nourishment to the mind. Is there anything more discouraging than an examina- 
tion at which the candidate expresses his opinion respecting Augustine, Bernard of 
Clairvaux, or Abelard, in the precise terms which he copied from the respective lec- 
tures?" It appears, then, that to stimulate — be the subject what it may — remains 
the principal object of the historical lecture. 


of teaching with greater thoroughness than the history of constitu- 
protestant em- tions and worship. For a long time they neglected 
MTrorT *of ^^^ history of art altogether, though it has now been 
teaching. properly restored by Hase, Piper, Hemans, and North- 

cote to a place in the organism of Church History. The history of 
heresies should be treated in such way as to give prominence to the 
principal tendencies represented by the several heresies, and avoid 
distracting the gaze by dwelling too greatly upon unimportant de- 
tails. At the same time, the danger incident to the generalizing 
process, of becoming superficial, and obliterating what is peculiar 
in any particular instance, should not be overlooked. It will, ac- 
cordingly, be useful to pursue, at times, a thoroughly specific and 
particular question down to its last threads, and this not only for 
him who devotes himself professionally to the study of Church 
History, but for every person who desires to arrive at a clear 
and living apprehension of the facts of ecclesiastical history in 

This leads us to monography, and, more immediately, to biogra- 
Necessity of P^y. It is not only greatly instructive, but also truly 
monograpiiy. refreshing and edifying, to enlarge one's own limited 
life by the process of entering thoroughly into the life of an age, 
or even of an individual and his inmost soul, until, so to speak, we 
breathe, think, and feel with him, look with his eyes upon the outer 
world, and travel, preach, and suffer with him. Let it be admitted 
that a momentary partiality is likely to result from this process. 
It will yet be most readily removed by a later absorption into a 
contemporaneous character of different type, by which means a new 
metempsychosis is passed through, and by a different road. An in- 
creased interest will also be obtained by studying, side by side, two 
antagonizing personalities, which appear to have been raised up in 
order to complement each other, like the two poles of the physical 
world; by explaining each by comparison with the other ; and by 
constructing, in a psychological way, the history to which they give 
movement and life from such personal factors. 

For illustration, let Bernard of Clairvaux be placed beside Arnold 
Necessity of of Brescia, Anselm beside Abelard, Erasmus beside 
parallels. Hutten, Luther beside Zwingli, Calvin beside Castellio, 

Knox beside Cranmer, and Bossuet beside Fenelon. Such parallels, 
if drawn by the hand of some Christian Plutarch, would necessar- 
ily be highly suggestive. In connexion with this subject it is im- 
portant, however, that the law of mutual interaction be not over- 
looked, by which each age is seen to be the product of the spiritual 
and personal forces that exert a controlling influence upon it, while 


they, in turn, are the product of their age, having been rooted in a 
long, extended past. It is equally improper to say that men make 
history, and to regard them as being merely the expression and hu- 
man image of the prevalent spirit of their time. Every person is 
the child of his time; but it is not given to every one to become the 
father of a new generation. 

While biography is undoubtedly a most valuable study for the 
developing theologian,^ it yet does not exhaust the task of monog- 
raphy. The description of sjjecial forms of ecclesiastical life, for 
example, of Port Royal in the seventeenth century, and the pursuit 
of special tendencies of mind down to their ultimate details, such 
as monasticism, mysticism, and other vagaries, is, likewise, highly 
instructive and invigorating, provided the particular subject be not 
treated as a dry curiosity, but in its connexion with the entire de- 
velopment of the life of the Church.'^ 

The Histoey of Church History. 

* F. C. Baur, Epochen d. kirchl. Geschichtsschreibung, Tub., 1852 ; Ter Haar, His- 
toriogiaphie der Kerkgeschiedenis, part i, Eusebius to Laurentius Valla ; part ii, Flac- 
cius to Semler, Uti^echt, 1870-71. John G. Bowling, New Introduction to the Critical 
Study of Ecclesiastical History, Attempted in an Account of the Progress, and a Short 
Notice of the Services, of the History of the Church, Lond., 1838. Philip Schaff, 
What is Church History? Phila., 1846. 

The origin of the Church itself furnishes the necessary condition 
for the origin of its history, and every monument of the life and 
work of the Church is, directly or indirectly, a source for that his- 
tory. The construction of a historical representation could not be 
undertaken before some time had elapsed, that is to say, before 
ground had been gained upon which to rear the structure of Church 
history. The first work of this kind was furnished by 
Eusebius, to A. D. 324, who availed himself, however, 
of the labours of an earlier writer, Hegesippus, about A. D. 150. 
Editions of Eusebius were published by Yalesius, Paris, 1659 sqq., 
and Reading, Cant., 1720; manual edition by Heinichen, Leips., 
1827-39, 4 vols.; and by Burton, including Vita Constantini, 1838. 
Later editions have been by Schwegler, 1852; Lammer, 1859; and 
Dindorf, 1867. With regard to his trustworthiness, compare the 

* Fricke says : " Every person is an individual mirror of his time. But the great 
spirits of any age are those who are most pure, clear, and prophetic. It should never 
be forgotten, however, that both for the purposes of conception and representation, 
they are only important as being the especially prominent expression of the common 
mind of their respective times, which ought always to be apprehended," p. 6. 

^ Upon this point compare, especially, Ullmann in the Preface to Trechsel, History 
of Early Antitrinitarians. 


works of Moeller, 1813, Danz, 1815, Kestner, 1817, Reuterdahl, 
1826, Rienstra, 1833, and Baur, 1834. 

Eusebius was succeeded by Socrates, Sozomen, Theodoret, and the 
Arians, and by Philostorgius in the fifth century, and Theodorus and 
Evagrius in the sixth. Concerning the first three, compare Holz- 
hausen, 1825. The Arians are found in the editions by Reading 
and Valesius. 

The Latin Church was less prominently engaged than the Greek 
Latin histo- during the first period in writing Church history. Men- 
nans. ^JQj^ should, however, be made of Rufinus, the trans- 
lator of Eusebius, Sulpicius Severus at the beginning of the fifth 
century, Cassiodorus and Epiphanius (Tripartita History) in the mid- 
dle of the sixth, and Gregory of Tours at its close. In the Middle 
Ages the following chroniclers in the West are prominent, besides 
the Byzantines (collected by Mebuhr, 1828 sqq., 46 vols.) — Syncel- 
lus, Theophanes, and Nicephorus, in the fourteenth century; Jor- 
nandes (550), Gregory of Tours (died 595), the Venerable Bede 
(died 735), Paul Warnefried (died 795), Ilaymo of Halberstadt 
(died 853), Anastasius (died 886), Hermannus Contractus (died 
1054), Lambert of Herzfeld (died 1077), Sigbert of Gemblours 
(Gamblacensis, died 1112), Adam of Bremen (died about 1076), and 
still others. Besides these are many martyrologists and legend 
writers, who are generally uncritical and deficient in the qualities 
belonging to the historian. 

The influence of the Reformation was less immediately effective 
Reformation of upon Church history than upon exegesis. It was not 
church^wstory ^^^i^ after the religious Peace of Augsburg, when the 
than exegesis, storms were in part over, that a number of Lutheran 
theologians at Magdeburg, headed by Matthias Flacius (Ill^^ricus), 
undertook a diffuse history of the Church, arranged by centuries, 
and, at the same time, under rubrics. This is the Magdeburg Cen- 
turies, 1559-74. The work consisted of thirteen folio volumes, 
each of which covered a century. The German edition is by Count 
Mtinnich, Hamburg, 1855. Compare Twesten's Matthias Flacius, 
Berlin, 1844, pp. 16, 17. In opposition to the Centuries, Caesar 
Baronius published Ecclesiastical Annals (12 vols., Rome, 1588- 
1607) extending to 1198; other editions, with continuations, have 
also been issued from a Romish point of view. 

For a long time afterward Church history was cultivated simply 
in the interests of denominational parties. Of Lutherans, the more 
prominent writers were Kortholdt, Ittig, Cyprian, Buddseus, Weiss- 
mann, and Pfaff. Among the Reformed we may mention Hospin- 
ian, Turretin, J. Hottinger, Jablonsky, and others. Of Roman 


Catholics we enumerate Natalis (Noel), Alexander, Fleury, Bos- 
suet, and Tillemont. To these names mierht be added ^ 

' ^ . Denommation- 

those of members of the order of St. Maur in France, ai character of 

who rendered useful service by publishing editions of Church history. 

the Church Fathers, and by the investigation of special portions of 

Church history. The mystic Gottfried Arnold endeavoured to 

give an impartial attitude to Church history by taking the part of 

the hitherto despised heretics and sectarians, in his History of the 

Church and of Heretics, published in 1699, and frequently since. 

But his impartiality became partiality in their behalf. The great 

Mosheim, who died in 1755, was the first to succeed in „ ^ . 

' _ ' , Mosheim the 

obtaining for Church history the character of an inde- reformer of 
pendent science, and from his time Gottingen became ^^ ^^ ^^^' 
the seat of ecclesiastical historiography.^ Special departments of 
Church history were industriously cultivated by Chr. Wilhelm Fr. 
Walch, who died in 1784, and by his father, Joh. Georg Walch, 
of Jena, who died in 1775. 

Semler made use of criticism that was carried to the extent of scep- 
ticism, but " without any capacity to appreciate the peculiar condi- 
tions of earlier times," ^ or a single trace of historical art. At this 
time the influence of modern views also began to make itself felt, 
giving rise to the pragmatical method of writing history. We 
must regard G. J. Planck, of Gottingen, as the chief representative 
of this tendency. L. T. Spittler wrote a manual which is thought- 
ful, though evincing a rather worldly judgment, and devoted to the 
service of the enlightenment of the age. By its perspicuous ar- 
rangement, however, it affords a clear view of the field. Schrockh's 
work, in forty-five volumes, furnishes a rich wealth of material, and 
is written from the standpoint of moderate orthodoxy. The ra- 
tionalistic idea of Church history, by which it becomes predomi- 
nantly the history of human folly, finds expression in Henke. 
Schmidt, of Giessen, retraced the way to that purely objective pos- 
ition which requires indifference as the primary and cardinal virtue 
of history. Danz and Gieseler, in their text-books — the latter fur- 
nishing a more judicious and comprehensive selection — led the stu- 
dent back to the sources, by accompanying the text step by step with 
extended quotations from the original authorities. Gieseler, espec- 
ially, has added the most thorough elucidations of difficult points. 

This pre-eminently learned treatment was followed by the or- 
thodox and emotional method of Neander, who made 
it his object to present the history of the Church upon 
the basis of learned inquiry, "as a speaking demonstration of the 

^ Compare F. Luecke, De Joanne Laurentio Moshemio, Gott., 1837. ^ Ease. 


divine power of Christianity, as a school of Christian edification, 
doctrine, and warning, for all who are willing to hear." ^ While his 
glance was almost exclusively directed to the internal side of eccle- 
siastical events, in order to ascertain their religious importance, the 
rich mind of Hase reflected, in all its features, the image of the 
limes which, by his artistic skill, he outlines in glowing colours for 
such persons as are already somewhat familiar with the subject. 
Guericke, occupying the position of a prejudiced denominational 
polemic, employed the rich material, which had to some extent been 
borrowed from other writers, for the purpose of a defence of Luth- 
eranism, accompanied with unjust insinuations against the Reformed 
Church views. A similar, though more independent, disposition 
characterizes the work of Kurtz, which is distinguished, however, 
by the richness of its material. Schleiermacher has left a valuable 
work behind him in his Church History. It, however, lays no claim 
to completeness, and is rather a magnificent sketch in the spirit of 
the author than a work of history. Baur has given the results of 
his critical inquiries and combinations from the standpoint of a defi- 
nite, philosophical theory, in a series of descriptions of the several 
periods, which have lately been combined into a whole. 

In the Roman Catholic Church various tendencies likewise come 
into view. Jansenism found its organs, and also the Illuminati of 
the reign of Joseph 11. of Austria (1765-90), both being in oppo- 
sition to the method of writing history in support of ultramontan- 
ism. Stolberg's Church History came to an end with year 530, and 
was continued by Kerz to the year 1300, and by Brischar to the 
present time. Among later works, those by Katerkamp, Ritter, 
Locherer, Doellin ger, Annegarn, Reichlin-Meldezg, and Alzog, are 
of principal importance. 



1. Literature. — Manuals and Text-Books, Latin, German, and French. 

L. Mosheim, institutionumhistoriaeecclesiasticaelibriW. Helmst., 1755. Ed. 2, 1764. 

J. M. Schrockh, christl. Kircheng. Lpz., 1768-1803. 35 vols. (2d ed. of vols. 1-13. 
1772-1808). — Kirchengesch. seit der Reformation. Lpz., 1804-12. 10 vols. 
(Vols. 9 and 10 by Tzschirner). 

J. M. Schrockh, historia rel. et ecclesiae christianae, adumbrata in usum lectionum. 
Berol., 1777. Ed. 7, em. et auct. cur. Ph. Marheineke. Berol., 1828. 

*L. T. Spittler, Grundriss der Gesch. der christl. Kirche. G5tt., 1782. 5th ed. Con- 
tinued to 1812 by G. S. Planck. Gott., 1812. 

^ Hagenbach, Neander's Verdienste und KirchengescMchte, in Stud. u. Krit., 1851, No. 2; O. 
Krabbe, Aug. Neander, Hamb., 1852 ; Ullmann, Pref. to the 3d ed. of Neander's Church History. 


H. Ph. Conr. Henke, allgem. Gescli. der christlichen Kirche. Braunschw., 1788- 
1823. 9 vols. Continued from vol. vii by J. G. Vater. The most of the vols, in 
many editions. 

J. E. Ch. Schmidt, Lehrb. der christl. Kirchengesch. Giess., 1800. 3d ed. 1827. 

Handbuch der christl. Kirchengesch. Giessen, 1801-20. 6 vols. 2d ed, 

from vol. 1-4. 1824-27 (to Innocent III.). Continued by F. M. Kettberg. Vol. 7 
(to Boniface VIII.). Giessen, 1834. 

W. Mimscher, Lehrbuch der christl. Kirchengesch. zum Gebr. bei Vorlesungen. Marb., 
1804. 2d ed. by Machler, 1815. 3d ed. by Beckhaus, 1826. 

Ph. Marheineke, Universal-Kirchenhistorie des Christenthums. Grundziige zu akad. 
Vorlesungen. Pt. I. Erl, 1806. 

f F. L. V. Stolberg, Gesch. der Rel. Jesu Christi, Hamb., 1806-18. 15 vols, (until 
430). Continued by F. v. Kerz, 16-45. vols, (until 12th century) Mainz, 
1824-48. New series by J. N. Brischar, 46-53. vols, (until 13th century) Mainz, 
1851 ff. 

f Til. Katerkamp, Kirchengeschichte. Miinster, 1824-34. 5 vols, (ui^til 1153). 

K. F. Staudlin, Universalgeschichte der christl. Kirche. Hann., 1807. 5th ed. Im- 
proved and enlarged by F. A. Holzhausen. Hann., 1833. 

f J. J. Ritter, Handb. der Kirchengeschichte. Bonn, 1826-35. 3 vols. 6th ed., pub- 
lished by Ennen, 1862. 2 vols. 

J. T L. Danz, Lehrbuch der christl. Kirchengesch. zum Gebrauch akad. Vorlesungen. 
Jena, 1818-26. 2 vols, in 3 parts. 

Kurzgef. Zusammenstellung der christl. Kirchengeschichte. Jena, 1824. 

* J. K. L. Gieseler, Lehrb. der Kirchengesch. 6 vols. Bonn, 1824-55. 4th Germ, 

ed., translated by S. Davidson. Amer. ed., revised and edited by H. B. Smith 
(5 vols.) N. Y., 1868-79. 
f J. N. Locherer, Gesch. d. christl. Rel. u. Kirche. Ravensberg, 1824-34. 9 vols. 

* A. Neander, allgem. Geschichte der christl. Religion und Kirche. Hamb., 1825-52. 

6 vols, in 11 parts. Last number (to 1431) published from the author's MSS. by 
K. F. T. Schneider. Amer. and Eng. ed., translated by J. Torry, New York and 
Edinb., 1851-55. K. F. Th. Schneider (to 1431). 4th ed. 9 vols. Gotha. 
1864 -65. 

M. J. Matter, histoire universelle de I'eglise chretienne. Strasb., 1829. 2 vols. ed. 2, 
Par., 1838 ss. 4 vols. 

F. A. Ad. Naebe, compend. historiae eccles. ac sacrorum christianorum in usum studi- 
osae juventutis compositum. Lips., 1832. 

* K. Hase, Lehrbuch der Kirchengesch. Lpz., 1834. 10th ed. 1877. Amer. ed., 

translated by Blumenthal and Wing. N. Y., 1855. 
H. E. F. Guericke, Handbuch der Kirchengesch. Halle, 1833. 2 vols. 9th ed. 

Lpz., 1866 f. 3 Bde. Amer. ed., translated by W. G. T. Shedd. 2 vols. And., 


Abriss der Kirchengeschichte. Lpz., 1842. 

J. G. V. Engelhardt. Handb. der Kirchengesch. Erl, 1833 f. 4 vols. 

J. C. W. Augusti, histor. ecclesiasticae epitome. Lips., 1834. 

F. Schleiermacher, Geschichte der chi'istl. Kirche, pub. by E. Bonnell. Berl., 1840. 

f J. Alzog, Universalgesch. der christl. Kirche. Mainz, 1840. 9th ed. 1872. 2 vols. 

Am. ed., translated by Pabisch and Byrne. 3 vols. Cin., 1874-78. 
H. J. Royaards, compend. histor. eccles. chr Traj. ad Rhen. 1840-45. 2 fasc. 
A. F. Gfrorer, allgem. Kirchengesch. Stuttg., 1841-46. 4 vols, (to 1056). 
f J. A. Annegarn, Gesch. der christl. Kirche. Miinster, 1842-44. 3 vols. 
*Cb. W. Niedner, Gesch. der christl. Kirche. Lpz., 1846. 2d ed. Berl., 1866. 


W. B. Lindner, Lehrb. der christl. Kirchengesch. mit besonderer Beriicksichtigung 

der dogmat. Entwicklung. Lpz., 1848-54. 3 vols, in 4 parts. 
*J. H. Kurtz, Lehrbuch der Kirchengeschichte. Mitau, 1849. Vth ed. (2 vols.), 18*74. 

(For students.) American ed,, translated by J. H. A. Bomberger. 2 vols. Phila., 

Lehrbuch der Kirchengesch., zunachst flir hohere Lehranstalten. Mitau, 1851. 

6th ed., 1868. 
Handbuch der allgem. Kirchengesch. Vol. I, in 3 parts. Vol. H, 1 part. Same, 

1853-56. 2d. ed., 1858 f. 
G. A. Fricke, Lehrbuch der Kirchengesch. 1st part (to 768). Lpz., 1850. 
J. L. Jacobi, Lehrbuch der Kirchengesch. Berl., 1850. 1st part (to 590). 
f J. G. B. Huber, Universalg. d. christl. Kirche, mnemonisch bearb. Sulzb., 1850. 
H. Schmid, Lehrbuch der Kirchengeschichte. Nord., 1851. 2d ed., 1856. 
J. P. Lange, die Geschichte der Kirche. Braunschw., 1853, 1854. Vols. I, H, 1, 2. 
F. C. Th. Schneider, Compendium der alteren Kirchengesch. Zunachst fiir den akad. 

Gebr. entworfen. 1st part. Berl., 1859. 
*F. C. Baur, Gesch. d. christl. Kirche. 5 vols. Tiib., 1863 f. Also under the spe- 
cial titles : 

das Christenth. u. d. christl. Kirche der 3 ersten Jahrh. 1853. 3d ed., 1863. 

die christl. Kirche des 4-6 Jahrh. 1859. 2d ed., 1863. 

die christl. Kirche des Mittelalters. 1861. 2d ed., 1869. 

Kirchengesch. der neuern Zeit von der Reform, bis zu Ende des 18. Jahrh. 1863. 

Kirchengeschichte des 19. Jahrh. 1862. 2d ed., E. Zeller. Lpz., 1811. 

F. R. Halle, Kirchengeschichte. Pub. by A. Kohler. 3 vols. Lpz., 1864. 2d ed., 

1872 (in 1 vol.). 
R. Rothe, Vorless. liber Kirchengesch. u. Gesch. des christl.-kirchl. Lebens. Pub. by 

H. Weingarten. Heidelb., 1875. 2 parts. 
f F. X. Kraus, Lehrb. der Kirchengesch. fiir Studirende. Trier, 1872-75. 3 parts. 

(4 Th.: Synchronist. Tabellen, 1876). 
f J. Hergenrother, Hdb. der AUg. Kirchengesch. Freib., 1876-78. 2 vols. 2d ed., 

J, Herzog, Abriss der gesammten Kirchengesch. Erl., 1876-79. 2 parts. 
fRohrbacher, histoire universelle de I'eglise catholique. Par., 1842 ff. 29 vols.; 

nouv. ed. par Fevre, Par., 1875 if. ; German by Rump, Toppehorn, and Neteler. 

Milnster, 1858 ff. 

For cultivated readers in general : 
J. G. Miiller, Denkwiirdigkeiten aus der Gesch. des Christenthums. Lpz., 1806 fP. 

3 vols. (Also under the title, " Reliquien alter Zeiten," etc., 2-4. parts.) 
A. Neander, Denkwiirdigkeiten aus der Gesch. des Christenth. und des christl. Lebens. 

Berl., 1822 f. ; 2d ed., 1825-27. 3 vols. In part a reproduction of his larger his- 
tory; and again reduced, and pub. in English translation under title of Light in 

the Dark Places. Lond. and N. Y., 1850. 
J. G. D. Ehrhart, die christl. Kirche in alter und neuer Zeit. Ulm, (1829) 1839. 
H. Thiele, kurze Geschichte der christl. Kirche fiir alle Stande. 2d. ed. Ziirich, 

E. Zeller, Geschichte der christl. Kirche. Stuttg., 1848. 
W. Zimmermann, Lebensgeschichte der Kirche Jesu Christi (mit Vorwort von Hundes- 

hagen). 4 vols. Stuttg., 1857-59. 
J. H. A. Ebrard, Handb. der christl. Kirchen- u. Dograengeschichte fiir Prediger u. 

Studierende. 4 vols. Erl., 1865-67. 
J. A. Mohler, Kirchengesch., pub. by P. Gams. Regensb., 1867 f. 3 vols. 


For popular use: 
J. B. Trautmann, Geschichte der christl. fvir Jedermann. Dresd., 1851 ; continued 

by K. A. E. Kluge. 3 Abth. 1852-57. 
C. Sudhoff, Gesch. d. christl. Kirche in Vorl. Frankf., 1855. 2d ed., 1861. 
Th. Sauer, Gesch. der christl. Kirche far Schule u. Haus. Dresd., 1859. 
K. R. Hagenbach, Kirchengesch. von der altesten Zeit bis zum 19. Jahrh. 7 vols. 

Lpz., 1869-72. English translation of his Hist, of Reformation in Germany and 

Switzerland, by Evehna Moore. 2 yols. Edinb., 1878, 1879. 
H. Thiele, christl. Kirchengesch. fiir Schule u. Haus. 3d ed. Stuttg., 1875. 
P. V. Schmidt, Hdb. der Kirchengesch. Lpz., 1879. 

In Biographical Form (also for the general reader) : 
F. Bohringer, die Kirche Christi und ihre Zeugen, oder die Kirchengesch. in Bio- 

graphien. Ziirich, 1842-58. 12 vols. 2d ed., Stuttg., 1861 ff. (2d ed., 1873 ff.) 
A. G. Rudelbach, christl. Biographie. Lebensbeschreibungen der Zeugen der christl. 

Kirche als Bruchst. zur Gesch. derselben. Lpz., 1849 f. 
f J. Hepp, Gesch. der christl. Kirche in Lebensbeschreib. Mainz, 1850 f. 2 vols. 
Fd. Piper's evang. Kalender. Berl., (Lpz.), 1850-70. 21 years. 
f F. X. Kraus, Charakterbilder aus der christl. Kirchengesch. Trier, 1879. 

2. Tables.* 
J. S. Yater, svnchronistische Tafeln der Kircheng. Halle, 1803. 6th ed. (continued 

by Thilo), 1833, fol. 
K. G. H. Haupt, tabell. Abriss der vorziiglichsten Religionen der jetzigen Erdbewoh, 

ner, insonderheit der christl. Welt. Quedlinb., 1821, fol. 
A. W. Moller, Hierographie oder topographisch-synchronist. Darstell. der Gesch. der 

christl. Kirche in Landkarten. Elberf., 1822 f. 2 parts, fol. 
C. Schoene, tabulae hist. ect;les. sec. ordin, synchron. et periodos digestae. Berol., 

1828, fol. 
P. T. Hald, historia ecclesiast. synoptice enarrata. Kopenh., 1830-32. 2 parts. 
F. Fiedler, tabula ecclesiastico-historica, seriem xix seculorum synchronistice exhibens. 

Lips., 1832. 
J. T. L. Danz, kirchenhistorische Tabellen. Jena, 1838, fol. 
Lobeg. Lange, Tab. der Kirchen- und Dogmengeschichte. 2d ed. Jena, 1848, 4. 
C. D. A. Douai, pragmatisch-synchronistische Tabellen zur Gesch. der christl. Religion 

und Kirche. Lpz., 1841. 2d ed., Braunschw., 1849, fol. 
C. Wahl, Kirchen-Geschichte in Bildern, oder Hauptmomente der Kirchengesch, in 

sinnbezeichnenden bildern dargest. u. synchron. geordnet. Meissen, 1840, fol, 
De Bray, tableau general d'histoire ecclesiastique, 1855. 
F. Uhlemann, Zeittafeln der Kirchengesch. vom 1. christl. Jahrb. bis zum Augsb. 

Frieden. Berl., 1864. 2d ed., 1865. 
H. Weingarten, Zeittafeln zur Kirchengesch. 4th ed. Berl., 1874. 


W. D. Fuhrmann, Handworterb. der christl. Religions- und Kirchengesch. Mit Yor- 
rede von A. H, Niemeyer. Halle, 1826-29. 3 vols. 

Ch. G. Neudecker, allgem. Lexikon der Religions- und christl. Kirchengesch. fiir alle 
Confessionen, enth. die Lehren, Sitten, Gebrauche u. Einrichtungen der heidn., 
jiid., christl. und mohamed. Religion, etc. Weim., 1834-37. 5 vols. 

' Older works by Sachs (1760), Semler (17aS-86), Seller (9tb ed., ]809\ 

2 Older works by Rechenberg (Hlerolexlcon reale, 1714), Herold (Kirchen- u. Ketzerlexicon, 
r 58), MebHg (1758), von Einem (1789), Roch (1784), Wittlg (1801). 


P. Kohler u. R. Klopsch, Revert, der Kirchengesch. Glog., 1845. 
Compare also the Lexicons of Aschbach, Wetzer, and Welte (Freib., 184'7-56. 12 vols.) 
and Herzog's Realencylopadie. 

4. Selections from the Original Authorities. 
* Herm. Olshausen, historiae ecclesiasticae veteris monumenta praecipua. Praef. est 
Neander. Berol., 1820-22, vol. 1, pars 1, 2. 

5. Periodicals in Church History. 

Magazin f iir Religions-, Moral-, u. Kirchengesch. ; published by K. F. Staudlin. Hann., 
1802-5. 4 vols. 

Archiv fxir alte und neue Kirchengeschichte ; pub. by K. F. Staudlin u. H. G. Tzschir- 
ner. Lpz., 1813-22. 5 vols. 

Kirchenhistorisches Archiv, pub. by Staudlin, Tzschimer, und J. S. Vater. Halle, 
1823-26. 4 vols. 

Zeitschrift fiir die historische Theologie ; pub. by Ch. F. Hlgen ; (since 1846) by Ch. 
W. Niedner ; (since 1867) by Kahnis. Lpz., 1832-'74. 

Archief voor kerkelijke geschiedenis, inzonderheid van Nederland, door N. Ch. Kist 
en Hm. J. Royaards. Leyden, 1829 ff. (Still continued.) 

Zeitschr. fiir Kirchengesch., in Yerbind. mit W. Gass, H. Reuter, u. A. Ritschl, pub. 
by Th. Brieger. Gotha, 18*76 fp., in 4 Nos. (Still published, and furnishes im- 
portant contributions in the newest literature of Church history.) 



a. The Earlier Church History (First Six Centuries). 
1. General. 

J. L. Mosheim, Commentarii de rebus Christianorum ante Constantinum. M. Helmst. 

1753. 4. Best English ed. of Mosheim is the translation by Murdock and Barnes, 

edited and brought down to the present time, by W. Stubbs, 3 vols. Lond., 

J. A. Stark, Gesch. der christl. Kirche des 1. Jahrh. Berl , 1779 f. 3 vols. 
A. F. Gfrorer, das Jahrhundert des Heils (1. u. 2. Abth. der "Gesch. des Urchris- 
, tenth."). Stuttg., 1838. 
Gesch. der christl. Kirche in den 3 ersten Jahrh. Stuttg., 1841. (1 vol. of the 

Allgem. Kirchengesch.) 
W. 0. Dietlein, das Urchristenthum (against Baur). Halle, 1845. 
Capefigue, les quatres premiers siecles de I'eglise chret. Par., 1848-50. 3 vols. 

F. C. Baur, das Christenthum und die christl. Kirche der drei ersten Jahrh. 3d ed. 
Tiib., 1863. 

die christl. Kirche vom Anfang des 4. bis zum ende des 6. Jahrh. in den Haupt- 

moraenten ihrer Entwicklung. 2d ed., 1863. 

G. V. Lechler, das apostol. und nachapostol. Zeitalter. (Haarlem, 1851.) 2d ed. 
Stuttg., 1857. 

J. P. Lange, das apostolische Zeitalter. Braunschw., 1853, 1854. 2 vols. 

K. Graul, die christliche Kirche an der schwelle des Irendaischen Zeitalters. Lpz., 1860. 

J. J. Dollinger, Christenth. und Kirche in der Zeit ihrer Grundlegung. 2d ed. 

Regensb., 1868. English ed., translated by E. Cox. 4 vols. Lond., 1840-42. 
F. Overbeck, Studien zur Gesch. der alten Kirche. 1. Heft. Schloss-Chemn. 1875. 
Th. Keim, aus dem Urchristenthum. Zur., 1878. 


G. Ublhorn, der Kampf des Christenth. mit dem Heidenth. 3d ed. Stuttg., 1879. 
American ed., translated by E. C. Smyth and C. J. H. Ropes. N. Y., 1879. 

F. Gorres, krit. Untersuchungen iiber die Licinianische Christenverfolgg. Jena, 1875. 
K. Wieseler, die Christenverfolgg. der Ciisaren bis zum 3. Jahrh. Giitersl., 1878. 

B. Aube, hist, des persecutions de I'eglise. La polemique paienne a la fin du 2. siecle. 

Par., 1878. 

Popular Presentations : 
Ch. Hoffmann, das Christenthum ira ersten Jahrhundert. Stuttg., 1853. 
K. R. Hagenbach, Kirchengesch. der ersten sechs Jahrh. 3d ed. Lpz., 1869. 
f A. Winiger, die drei ersten Jahrhunderte der Christen. Luzern, 1854. (Especially 

after Stolberg.) 
H. Kritzler, die Heldenzeiten des Christenthums. Vol. I. : der Kampf mit dem Heiden- 

thum. Lpz., 1856. 
Merle d'Aubigne, Bungener, de Gasparin et Viguet, le Christianisme des 3 premiers 

siecles. Geneve et Paris, 1857. 
E. de Pressense, histoire des trois premiers siecles de I'eglise. Par., 1858 ff. Eng. 

and Anier. ed., translated by Annie Harwood. Lond. and N. Y., 1873-78. 

C. Burk, die Jugendzeit der christl. Kirche. (7 Lectures.) Stutt., 1875. 

2. Spread of Christianity and Downfall of Paganism} 

J. B. Lederwald, die Ausbreitg. der christl. Religion. Helmst., 1788. 
J. Andra, Entwickelung der natiirlichen Ursachen, welche die schnelle Ausbreitung 
des Christenthums in den ersten 4 Jahrh. beforderten. Helmst., 1792. 

G. E. Lessing, von der Art und Weise der Fortpflanzung und Ausbreitung der christl. 
Religion; in collected works. 7th vol., pp. 131-160. 

J. A. Osiander, Kritik der gangbaren Meinung, die angebliche grosse und schnelle 

Ausbreitung des Christenthums betr. ; in Staudlin und Tzschirner's Archiv fiir 

Kircheng. Vol. 4., No. 2. 
A. Neander, die verschied. Wege der Bekehrung vom Heidenth. zum Christenthume ; 

in den Denkwiirdigkeiten aus der Gesch. des Christenth. Vol. 2, pp. 1-66. 
C. H. Blumhardt, Versuch einer allgem. Missionsgeschichte der Kirche Christl. Basel, 

1828-37. 3 vols, in 5 parts. (Incomplete.) 
C. D. A. Martini, iiber die Einfuhrung der christl. Religion als Staatsreligion im rom. 

Reiche durch Kaiser Constantin. Miinchen, 1813. 
H. G. Tzschirner, der Fall das Heidenthums ; pub. by C. W. Xiedner. Lpz., 1829. 

1st vol. (Incomplete.) 
E. V. Lasaulx, der Untergang des Hellenismus und die Einziehung seiner Tempelgiiter 

durch die christl. Kaiser. Miinchen, 1854. 

(Comp. the Monograph on Constantine and Julian, p. 253 If.) 

3. Constitutional History. 

* G. F. Planck, Geschichte der Entstehung und Ausbildung der christl.-kirchl. Gesell- 

schaftsverfassung. Hann., 1803-5. 5 vols. 
A. Ritschl, die Entstehung der altkatholischen Kirche. Bonn, 1850. 2d ed., 1857, 

(greatly improved.) 
S. Sugenheim, Geschichte der Enstehung und Ausbildung des Kirchenstaats. (See 

History of the Popes.) 
K. B. Hundeshagen, Beitrage z. Kirchenverfassungsgesh. "Wiesb., 1864. 

^ Rich historical Material in J. A. Fabricius, Salutarls lux evangelii, etc. Hamb., 1731, vol. 4. 
And in R. Millar, Hist, of the Propagation of Christianity in Several Ages. 3d ed. Lond., 1735. 
2 Parts. 



4. Heresies and Delusions (comp. History of Doctrines). 
W. F. Walch, Entwurf einer vollstand. Historie der Ketzereien, etc. Lpz., 1*762-85. 

11 vols. (To the close of the Image Controversy.) 
A. Neander, genetische Entwickelung der vornehmsten gnostischen Systeme. Berl., 

J. Matter, hist, critique du Gnosticisme et de son influence sur les autres sectes Relig. 

et philos. pendant les 6 premiers siecles de notre era. Par., 1828. 2 vols. (2. ed. 

Strasb., 1843. 3 vols.) German, by Ch. H. Dorner. Heilb., 1833. 2 vols. (2d ed., 

f J. A. Mohler, Yersuche ilber den Gnosticismus. Tiib., 1831. (Also in his collected 

Works, pub. by Dollinger, vol i.) 

F. C. Baur, die christl. Gnosis in ihrer geschtl. Tiib., 1835,^ 

das manichaische Religionssystem, nach den Quellen untersucht und entwick- 
elung. Tiib., 1831. (Comp. also Schneckenburger, in Stud. u. Krit. 1833. 3.) 

A. Schwegler, der Montanismus u. die christl. Kirche des 2 Jahrh. Tiib., 1841. 

A. Lipsius, der Gnosticismus. Wesen, Ursprung, Entwickelung. Lpz., 1860. (Comp. 
A. Harnack, zur Quellenkritik der Gesch. des Gnosticismus. Lpz., 1873.) 

Strohlin, essai sur le Montanisme. Strasb., 18Y0. 

A. Lipsius, die Quellen der altesten Ketzergesch. Lpz., 1875. 

A. Thierry, les grandes heresies du Y. siecle (Nestorius et Eutyches). Par., 18*78. 

W. Hermann, die Kirche der Thomaschristen. Giitersl., 1877. 

5. Church Councils. 
Ch. W. F. Walch, Entwurf einer vollstand. Historie der Kirchenversammlungen. 
Lpz., 1759. 

G. D. Fuchs, Bibliothek der Kirchenvers. des 4. und 5. Jahrh. in Uebers. und Auszii- 
gen aus ihren Acten, etc. sammt dem Original der Hauptstellen. Lpz., 1780-84. 
4 vols. 

H. T. Bruns, bibliotheca ecclesiastica. Canones et concilia saecc. 4-7. Berol., 1739. 

2 torn. 
*f Hefele, Conciliengeschichte. 7 Bde. (to 16th Cent.) Freib., 1855-74. 2d ed. 

1873 fe.2 English ed., translated by H. N. Oxenham. Edinb., 1871-76. 

6. Ecclesiastical Institittions. 
H. E. F. Guericke, de schola quae Alexandriae floruit catechetica. Hal., 1824, 1825. 

2 vols. 
Hasselbach, de schola, que Alexandriae floruit, catechetica. Stett., 1826. 
J. Matter, histoire de I'ecole d'Alexandrie. Par., 1820 (1840). 2 vols. 

7. Worship and Life of the Christians, together with the Beginnings of Monasticism. 

E. Leopold, das Predigtamt im IJrchristenthurae. Liineb., 1846. 

F. Piper, Geschichte des Osterfestes. Berl., 1845. 

K. L. Weitzel, die christl. Passafeier der drei ersten Jahrh. ; zugl. ein Beitrag zur 
Gesch. des Urchristenth. Pforzh.. 1848. (On the contrary, Baur in the Tiib. 
Jahrb., 1848, 2. Reply by Weitzel in Stud. u. Krit., 1848, 4.) 

* More especially on the Gnostic Systems, in Winer's Handb. der theol. Liter. 3d ed., i, p. 640 f . 

^ For a more thorouarh study, see the collection of proceedings by Ph. Lahheus and Gahr. 
Cossart. Par., 1671 fl. 18 vols., fol. Also a supplementary vol. by St. Baluzius. Par., 1683, fol. 
Further, by J. Harduin, conciliorum collectio regla maxima s. acta coucc. et epistt. decretales 
summorum pentiff. Par., 1715. 12 vols. fol. The most complete collection by J. D. Mansi, sacr. 
conciliorum nova et amplissima collectio ; acced. et notae et dlssertatt., etc. Flor. et Venet., 
1759-98. 31 vols. 


A. Ililgenfeld, der Pasehahstreit der alten Kirche, etc. Halle, 1860. 

C. Schmidt, essai hist, sur la societe civile dans la monde romain et sur sa transfor- 

mation par le christianisme. Strasb., 1853. 

E. Chastel, etudes hist, sur Tinfluence de la charite durant les premiers siecles Chre- 
tiens. Par., 1853. (German, with Preface, by Wichern. Hamb., 1854.) 

G. J. Mangold, de monachatus originibus et causis. Marb., 1852. 

f A. Mohler, Geschichte des M5nchthums in der Zeit seiner Enstehung ; in his col- 
lected Works, vol. ii, p. 165 ff. 

*H. Weingarten, derUrspr. des Monchthums im nachconstant. Zeitalter. Gotha, 1877. 

E. Friedberg, aus deutschen Bussbiichern. Ein Beitrag zur deutschen Culturge- 
schichte. Halle, 1868. 

f Fr. Frank, die Bussdisciplin der Kirche von den Apostelzeiten bis zum 7. Jahrhun- 
dert. Mainz, 1868. 

f F. Probst, Liturgie der drei ersten christl. Jahrh. Tiib., 1870. 

Lehre und Gebet in den drei ersten christl. Jahrh. Tiib., 1871. 

Sakramente u. Sekramentalien in d. drei ersten christl. Jahrh. Tiib., 1872. 

kirchl. Disciplin in den drei ersten christl. Jahrh. Tiib., 1873. 

E. de Pressense, la vie ecclesiastique religieuse et morale aux 2. et 3. siecles. Par., 


8. Biography.'^ 

J. C. F. Manso, das Leben Constantins. BresL, 1817. 

J. Burckhardt, die Zeit Constantins des Grossen. Basel, 1853. 

Th. Keim, der Uebertritt Constantins des gr. zum Christenthum. Ziir., 1862. 

G. Wiggers, Julian der Abtriinnige. (Zeitschr. fiir hist. Theol. 1837. 1.) 

fj. Auer, Kaiser Julian der Abtriinnige im Kampfe mit d. Kirchenvatern f. Zeit. 

Wien., 1855. 
A. Xeander, Kaiser Julian und sein Zeitalter. Lpz., 1812. 2d ed., Gotha, 1867. 

D. F. Strauss, der Romantiker auf dem Thron der Casaren, oder Julian der Abtriin- 

nige. Mannh., 1847. (Political Tendency.) 
W. Mangold, Julian der Abtriinnige. Stuttg., 1862. 
C. Semisch, Julian der Abtriinnige. Bresl., 1862. 
A. Miicke, Fl. Claudius Julianus. Gotha, 1867-69. 
G. Torquati, Studien iiber Jul. Apostata (Italian). Rome, 1878. 
J. H. Stuffken, de Theodosii M. in rem christ. meritis. Lugd. Bat., 1828. 
J. W. Lobell, Gregor von Tours und seine Zeit. Lpz., 1839. 2d ed. (by Sybel), 1869. 
K. G. Kries, de Gregorii Turonensis vita et scriptis. Yratisl., 1839. 
J. H. Reinkens, Martin von Tours. Gera., 1866. 3d ed., 1876. 

b. Church History of the Middle Ages. 

1. General. 

J. K. Fiissli, neue und unparth. Kirchen- u. Ketzerhistorie der mittlem Zeiten (11-13. 

Jahrh.). Lpz., 1770-74. 3 vols, 
f J. F. Bamberger, Synchronist. Geschichte der Kirche und der Welt im Mittelalter. 

Regensb., 1850-54. 6 vols. 
Capefigue, Feglise au moyen-age. Par., 1852. 

F. V. Raumer, Gesch. der Hohenstaufen u. ihrer Zeit. 4th ed. Lpz., 1871. 6 vols. 
Giesebrecht, Gesch. der deutschen Kaiserzeit. 4 vols. Braunschw., 1854-72. 

C. F. Baur, Kirchengesch. des Mittelalters. (See his General Church History.) 

^ See further, the literature on Archaaologv. 
^ Exclusive of matter belonging to Patristics. 


For the more cultivated : 
Chastel, le christianisme de I'eglise au moyen-age. Par., 1859. 

Agenor de Gasparin, le christianisme au moyen-age. (Innocent III.) Geneve, 1859. 
K. R. Hagenbach, Kirchgeschichte des Mittelalters. 2d ed. Lpz., 1869. 

2. On the History of the Popes {from the Beginning to the Reformation). 

a. In General.^ 

Ch. W. F. Walch, Entwurf einer vollstand. Historic der rom Papste. Gott., (1756) 

G. J. Planck, Gesch. des Papstthums. Hann., 1805. 3 vols. 

J. A. Llorente, die Papste, etc. (From the French.) Lpz., 1823. 2 vols. 

L. T. Spittler, Gesch. des Papstthums ; with annotations, pub. by J. Gurlitt, Hamb., 
1802 ; new ed. by H. E. G. Paulus. Heidelb., 1826. 

\ C. Hofler, die deutschen Papste. Regensb., 1839. 

F. A. Gfrorer, Geschichte der Karolinger. Freib., 1848. 2 vols. 

Artaud de Montor, Geschichte der rom. Papste ; translated from the French, and con- 
tinued by Boost. Augsb., 1848 ff. 8 vols. 

J. A. Wylie, Geschichte, Lehren, Geist u. Aussichten des Papstthums. Elberf., 1853. 
2d. ed., 1854. 

S. Sugenheim, Gesch. d. Entsteh. u. Ausbildung d. Kirchenstaats. Lpz., 1854. 

R. A. Lipsius, Chronologic der rom. Bischofe bis zur Mittedes 4. Jahrh. Kiel, 1869. 

Gams, series episcoporum ecclesiae cathol. Regerisb., 1873. 

J. Friedrich, zur altesten Gesch. des Primates in d. Kirche. Bonn, 1879. 

E. Dumont, la papaute, les premiers empereurs Chretiens et les premiers conciles ge- 
neraux. Par., 1877. 

E. Castan, histoire de la papaute. Par., 1875 ff. 

V. Grone, die Papst-Geschichte. 2d ed. Regensb., 1875. 2 vols. 
W. Wattenbach, Gesch. des rom. Papstthums. Vortrage. Berl., 1876. 
Fevre, histoire apologetique de la papaute. Par., 1878 f. (So far, 4 vols.) 
f J. J. Dollinger, die Papstfabeln das Mittelalters. Miinchen, 1863. 
R. Baxmann, die Politik der Papste von Gregor I. bis Gregor VII. Elberf., 1868 f. 
2 vols. 

F. Gregorovius, Geschichte der Stadt Rom im Mittelalter. Vom 5. bis zum 16. Jahrh. 

Stuttg., 1859-73. 2d ed., 1869 ff. 8 vols. 
A. V. Reumont, Geschichte der Stadt Rom. 3 vols. Berl., 1866-70. 
R. Zopffel, die Papstwahlen und die mit ihnen im nachsten Zusammenhange stehen 

den Ceremonien, etc., vom 11-14. Jahrh. Gott., 1872. 
f C, Hofler, die Avignonesischen Papste, etc. Wien., 1771. 

/?. Biographies of Individual Popes : on Gregory I., see Patristics. 
D. Bartolini, di S. Zaccaria papa e degli anni del suo pontificate. * Regensb., 1879. 
f 0. F. Hock, Gerbert od. Silvester II. und sein Jahrh. Wien., 1837. 
Delarc, un pape Alsacien (Leo IX.). Par., 1876. 
J. Voigt, Hildebrand als Papst Gregor VII. und sein Zeitalter. Weimar, 1815. 2d. ed., 

J. M. Soltl, Gregor der Siebente. Lpz., 1847. 

* Older Works, by B. Platina (de Sacchi), In different editions ; F. Pagi, A. Sandin, Arch. 
Bower (History of Popes, Lond., 1749. 4. ; translated and continued by J. J. Rambach, Magdeb., 
1751-80, 10 vols.). Comp. Winer, pp. 680 ff. Also sources : Ph. Jaffe, regesta pontifleum ro- 
man. a condita eccl. ad a. 1198. BeroL, 1851 (continued to 1304, by A. Pottbaust. BeroL, 1874. 
3 vols. 4.) 


F. A. Gfrorer, Papst Gregor VII. u. s. Zeitalter. Schaffh., 1859-64. 8 vols. 

M. Villemain, hist, de Gregoire VII. Par., ISIS. 2 vols. 

O. Meltzer, Papst Gregor VII. und die Bischofswahlen. 2d ed. Dresd., 18*76. 

H, Renter, Gesch. Alexander III u. der Kirche seiner Zeit. Bresl. (Lpz.), 1845-64. 

3 vols. (Vol. I., 2d ed., 1860.) 
f F. Hurter, Gesch. Innocenz III. und seiner Zeitgenossen. Hamb., 1834 ff. 4 vols. 

3d ed., 1845 ff. 
f Jorry, hist, du pape Innocent III. Par., 1853. 

W. Drumann, Gesch. Bonifacius des Achteu. Konigsb., 1852. 2 vols. 
M. Brosch, Papst Julius II. u. die Griindung des Kirchenstatts. Gotha, 18*78. 

Geschichte des Kirchenstaates. Gotha, 1880. 

A. J. Dumesnil, hist, de Jules II. sa vie et son pontificat. Par., 18*73. 

3. On the History of Monks, Orders, and Saints} 
L. T. Spittler, Geschichte der Bettelmonchsorden ; pub. by J. Gurlitt. Hamb., 1823. 4. 

E. Miinch, Gesch. des Monchthums in alien seinen Verzweigungen, etc. Stuttg., 1828. 

2 vols. 
M. W. Doring, Gesch. der vornehmsten Monchsorden, etc. Dresd., 1828. 

F. V. Biedenfeld, Ursprung, etc., siimmtlicher Monchs- u. Klosterfrauen-Orden, Weim., 

1837. 2 vols. Supplementary vol., 1839. 
f Montalembert, les moines d'occident depuis St. Benoit jusqua a St. Bernard. Par., 

1860 ff. English ed., 5 vols, thus far, Edinb., 1861-6*7. 
C. E. Gilbert, les moines au moyen-age. Moulins, 18*75. 
Der hi. Benedikt u. seine Orden. Einsied., 18*75. 
Fz. Winter, die Pramonstratenser des 12. Jahrh. Berl., 1865. 

die Cistercienser des nordostl. Deutschlands. Gotha, 1868-*71. 3 vols. 

L. Janauschek, originum Cisterciensium. Vol. I. Wien., 1877. 

4. History of the Crusades and Propagation of Christianity? 
J. Michaud, bibliotheque des croisades. Par., 1829 f. 4 vols. 

F. Wilken, Geschichte der Kreuzzilge. Lpz., 1807-32. 7 vols. 

J. Michaud, hist, des croisades, Par., 1812, ed. 6., 1840 ff., 6 vols. ; Germ, by Un- 

gewitter und Forster. Quedlinb., 1828-31. 7 vols. 
H. Hagenmeyer, Peter der Eremite. Lpz., 1879. 
C. Klimke, die Quellen zur Gesch. des 4. Kreuzziiges. Bresl., 1875. 
f K. Maurer, Bekehrung des norweg. Stammes z. Christenth. 1st part. Miinch., 1855. 

G. Weil, Gesch. der islam. Volker von Mohammed bis zur Zeit des Sultans Selim. 
Stutt., 1866. 

5. Mysticism, Sects, Inquisition. 
H. Schmid, der Mysticismus des Mittelalters, etc. Jena, 1824. 
J. Gorres, die christl. Mystik. Regensb., 1836-42. 4 vols. 
W. Prager, Gesch. der deutschen Mystik im Mittelalter. 1st part. Lpz., 1874. 

1 Older works by R. Hospinian (de manachis, etc. Tigur., 1588, 1609. Gen., 1669). H. Hel- 
yot (hist, des ordres monastiques, etc. Par., 1714-19. 8 vols. 4. ; German, Lpz., 1753-56. 8 vols. ; 
new ed., 1829 fl.) Comp. Winer, pp. 698 ff., on the Acta Sanctorum, Idem, pp. 670 ff. The most 
celebrated among these, the Acta Sanctorum, quotquot toto orbe coluntar, coll., etc. J. Bollan- 
dus, with accessions of many other editors, the so-called BoUandists (Antv., 1643-1794. 53 vols. 
fol. Ten further vols, appeared 1845 fl.) A new edition of this work appeared at Paris, 1863-76. 
L. Surius, hlstoriae sen vitae sanctorum (Coin, 1560 fl. u. o.) ; new ed., Turin (Lpz.), 1875 ff. 
J. E. Stadler, Vollstand Heiligenlexikon (Augsb., 1856 fl.), was continued by J. N. Ginal. 

2 J. Bongars, Gesta Dei per Francos. Hanau, 1611. 2 voll. fol. For the older and newer 
literature, see Winer, pp. 588 fol. 


C. A. Hahn, Gesch. der mittelalterl. Ketzer. Stuttg., 1846-50. 3 vols. 

J. M. Manderbach, Gesch. des Priscillianismus. Trier, 1851. 

A. Lombard, Pauliciens, Bulgares et Bons-Hommes en Orient et en Occident. Ge- 
neve, IS'ZQ. 

A. W. Dieckhoff, die Waldenser im Mittelalter. Gott., 1851. 

J. J. Herzog, die romanischen Waldenser, ihre vorreformatorisclien Zustande u. 
Lehren, etc. Halle, 1853. (Comp. the Waldensian Histories of Monastier, Hus- 
ton, and others.) 

K. Hase, neue Propheten. Lpz., 1851. 2d ed., 1861. (Maid of Orleans, Savonarola.) 

A. Sartori, die christliehen und mit der christlichen Kirche zusammenhangenden Sec- 
ten. Liibeck, 1855. (In tabular form, 4to.) 

E. Schmidt, die Gottesfreunde im 14. Jahrh. Jena, 1854. 
I Jos. Schwab, Johannes Gerson, etc. Wiirzb., 1858. 

H. Reuter, Gesch. der relig. Auf klarung im Mittelalter vom Ende des 8. bis zum Anf. 

des 14. Jahrh. Berl., 1875-77. 2 vols. 
Frd. Hoffmann, Gesch. der Inquisition. Bonn, 1878. 2 vols. 

(For the History of Scholasticism, see the general history of the Church and Doc- 
trines. On the more important Scholastics and Mystics, see the following biographies.) 

6. Monographs} 
f A. Seiters, Bonifaz der Apostel der Deutschen nach seinem Leben und Wirken. 

Mainz, 1845 (to be used with allowance). 
J. P. Miiller, Bonifacius. Eene kerkhistorische studie. Amsterd., 1869 f. 2 vols. 
A. Werner, Bonifac, der Ap. d. Deutschen, u. die Romanisirung von Mitteleuropa. 

Lpz., 1875. 
G. Pfahler, St. Bonifac. u. s. Zeit. Regensb., 1880. 
G. H. Klippel, Lebensbeschr. des Erzbisch. Ansgar. Bremen, 1845. (In addition, the 

biographies by f A. Tappehorn, 1863, G. Lentz, 1865, C. Monckeberg, 1865.) 
A. Hiifing, der hi. Liudger. Mlinster, 1878. 
H. Gehle, de Bedae Venerab. vita et scriptis. Lugd., 1838. 
K. Werner, Beda der Ehrwiirdige u. s. Zeit. Wien., 1875. 

F. Lorentz, Alcuins Leben. Halle, 1829. 

K. Werner, Alcuin u. sein Jahrh. Paderb., 1876. 
f F. Kunstmann, Hrabanus Maurus. Mainz, 1841. 
f F. A. Staudenmaier, Joh. Scotus Erigena und die Wissenschaf t seiner Zeit. Frankf,, 

Th. Christlieb, Leben und Lehre des Joh. Scot. Erigena. Gotha, 1860. 
C. B. Hundeshagen, de Agobardi . . . vita et scriptis. Giess., 1831. 
A. Vogel, Ratherius von Verona und das 10. Jahrh. Jena, 1854. 2 vols. 

G. F. Franck, Anselm von Canterbury. Tilb., 1842. 

F. R. Hasse, Anselm von Canterbury. Lpz., 1843-52. 2 vols. 

Ch. de Remusat, St. Anselme de Cant. Par., 1853; German, by C. Wurzbach, 
Regensb., 1854, 

Abailard. Par., 1845. 2 vols. 

Ragey, vie intime de St. Anselm au Bee. Par., 1877. 

J. de Crozals, Lanfranc, etc. Par., 1877. 

H. Franke, Arnold von Brescia und seine Zeit. Ziirich, 1825. 

Clavel, Arnauld de Breschia et les Romans, du 12 siecle. Par., 1868. 

Guibal, Arnauld de Brescia, et les Hohenstauffen. Par., 1868. 

Giesebrecht, Arn. von Brescia. Mlinchen, 1873. 

^ Comp. also the History of Doctrines and Patristics. 


G. de Castro, Arnaldo da Brescia, etc. Livorno, 1875. 

A. Neander, der h. Bernhard u. sein Zeitalter, Berl., 1813, 3d. ed., Gotha, 1865. 

J. Ellendorf, der h. Bernh. v. Clairvaux u. d. Hierarchie s. Zeit. Essen, 1837. 

C. A. Wilkens, Petrus der Ehrw. Abt von Clugny. Lpz., 1857. 

*A. Liebner, Hugo v. St. Victor u. die theol. Richtungen s. Zeit. Lpz., 1832. 

J. G. B. Engelhardt, Rich, von St. Victor u. Job. Ruysbroek. Erl., 1838. 

II. Renter, Jon. von Salisbury. Bresl., 1842. 

E. Voigt, der heil. Franciscus von Assisi. Tiib., 1840. 

K. Hase, Franz, von Assisi, ein Heiligenbild. Lpz., 1856. 

Caterina von Siena, ein Heiligenbild. Lpz., 1864. 

L. de Cherance, St. Frangois d' Assise. Par., 1879. 

At, hist, de St. Antoine de Padoue. Par., 1879. 

f K. Werner, der h.' Thomas von Aquino. Regensb., 1858 ff. 3 vols. 

Ch. W. Stromberger, Bertold v. Regensburg. Giitersl., 1877. 

A. Kaufman, Casarius, von Heisterbach. Koln, 1850. 

f J. Bach, Meister Eckhardt, der Vater der deutschen Speculation. Wien., 1864. 

A. Lasson, Meister Eckhardt der Mystiker. Berl., 1868. 

C. Schmidt, Job. Tauler von Strassburg. Hamb., 1841. (Comp. Bohringer, in the 

Biographies, where also the Lives of Suso and Ruysbroek can be found.) 
f J. B. Diepenbrock, Suso's Leben und Schriften, mit Einleit. von Gorres. Regensb., 

1829. 3d ed., 1854. 

F. W. V. Ammon, Geiler v. Kaisersberg. Erl., 1826. 

A. Stoeber, essai historique et litteraire sur la vie et les sermons du de Geiler' 

Strasb., 1834. 4, 
J. Dacheux, J. Geiler de Kaysersberg. Par., 1876. 
H. Vast, le cardinal Bessarion. Par., 1879. 
Rolland, hist, de St. Frangois de Paule. 2. ed. Par., 1876. 

7. Forerunners of the Reformation. 
L. Flathe, Gesch. der Vorlaufer der Reformation. Lpz., 1835 f. 2 vols. 
*C. Ullmann, Reformatoren vor der Reformation, vornehml. in Deutschl. und in den 

Niederlanden. Hamb., 1841 f. 2 Bde. 2d ed., Gotha, 1865 f. (Vol. L : Joh. von 

Goch, Joh. von Wesel, and others. Vol. II. : Joh. von Wesel and others, especially 

the German Mystics. EngUsh ed., translated by R. Menzies. 2 vols. Edinb., 

C. de Bonnechose, reformateurs avant la reforme du XVI. siecle. Par., 1853. 2 vols- 

(Gerson, Hus, the Council of Constantinople.) 
F. Scharpff, der Cardinal u. Bischof Nicolaus von Cusa als Reformator in Kirche, Reich 

u. Philosophic des 15. Jahrhunderts. Tiib., 1871. 
A. G. Rudelbach, Hieron. Savonarola und seine Zeit. Hamb., 1835. 
F. K. Meier, Girol. Savonarola. Berl, 1836. 
F. Perrens, Jer. Savonarola, etc. Par., 1853-57. 2 vols. 
Pasquale Pierroli, Geschichte Girolamo Savonarola u. seiner Zeit. Deutsch von M. 

Berduschek. Lpz., 1868. 2 vols. 

E. C. Bayonne, etude sur Jer. Savonarole. Par., 1879. 
0. Jiiger, John WyclifPe. Halle, 1854. 

F. Bohringer, J. Wycliffe (Biographien II, 4, 1 ; s. p. 248). 

*G. Lechler, Joh. v. Wiclif u. die Vorgesch. der Reformation. Lpz., 1873. 2 vols. 
J. A. Helfert, Hus und Hieronymus. Prag., 1853. '. 
L. Krummel, Gesch. der bohm. Reformation im 15. Jahrh. Gotha, 1866. 
Utraquisten u. Taboriten. Gotha, 1871. 


F. Palacky, Documenta Mag. Joa. Hus vitam, doctrinam, causam in Constantiensi con- 

cilio actam et controversias de religione in Bohemia annis 1403-1418 motas illus- 

trantia, etc. Prag., 1869. 

urkundl. Beitrage zur Gesch. des Husitenkriegs. Prag., 18*73 f. 2 vols. 

W. Bergei', Johaunis Hus und Konig Sigismund. Augs., 1872. 

F. Reiser, Reformation des Konig Sigmund. Pub. by W. Bohm. Lpz., 1876. 

F. V. Bezold, zur Gesch. des Husitentums. Miinchen, 1874. 

Konig Sigmund und die Reichsl^riege gegen die Husiten. Miinster, 1872-75. 

2 parts. 
E. Denis, Huss et la guerre des Hussites. Par., 1878. 
E. Th. Mayerhoff, Joh. Reuchlin und seine Zeit. Berl., 1830. 
L. Geiger, Johann Reuchlin, sein Leben und seine Werke. Lpz., 1871. 
A. Miiller, Leben des Erasmus von Rotterdam. Hamb., 1828. 
0. Stichart, Erasmus von Rotterdam. Seine Stellung zu der Kirche und zu den kirchl. 

Bewegungen seiner Zeit. Lpz., 1870. 
Martin, Erasmus en zijn tijd. Amsterd., 1870. 
Durand de Laur, Erasme precurseur et initiateur de I'esprit moderne. 2 vols. Par., 

D. F. Strauss, Ulrich von Hutten. Lpz., 1858-60. 3 vols. (New ed., in 1 vol., 1871.) 

Booking published the works of Hutten (Lpz., 1859-62) in 5 vols. 
K. Ullmann, Franz von Sickingen. Lpz., 1872. 

H. A. Prohle, Andreas Proles, ein Zeuge der Wahrheit kurz vor Luther. Gotha, 1867. 
0. G. Schmidt, Petrus Mosellanus, ein Beitrag zur Geschichte des humanismus in 

Sachsen. Lpz., 1867. 

On the Reformatory Councils : 

Monumenta conciliorum gener. saec. XV. Wien., 1857-74 (tom. I, II: Concil. Basil. 

f J. H. K. V. Wessenberg, die grossen Kirchenversammlungen des 15. und 16. Jahr- 

hunderts. Const., 1840. 4 vols. 
P. Tschackert, Peter von Ailli. Gotha, 1877. 

c. History of the Reformation. 

1. General {and German) History of the Reformation} 

K. L. Woltmann, Gesch. der Reformation in Deutschland. Altona, 1801-5. 2d ed., 

1817. 3 vols. 
*Ph. Marheineke, Geschichte der teutschen Reformation. Berl., 1817. 2 vols. 

2d ed., 1831-34. 4 vols. 
K. A. Menzel, neuere Geschichte der Deutschen, von der Reformation bis zur Bunde- 
sacte. Vols. 1-8. Breslau, 1826 ff. 

' Sources : the Writings of the Reformers (Corpus Reformatorum, pub. by Bretschneider, and 
after his death by Blndseil. Halle, 1834 fl. (Melanthonis opera, 28 tomi), continued by Baum, 
Cunitz, Reuss. (CaMni opera. Brunsv., 1863 ff., thus far 20 tomi). Luther's Briefe und Send- 
schreiben by de Wette. Berl., 1825-28. 5 vols. Vol. 6 by J. Seidemann, 1856. [In addition : C. 
Burckhardt, Luther's Briefwechsel. Lpz., 1866.] Luther's sammtl. Werke by Plochmann and 
Irmischer. Frankf ., 1826-57. 67 vols. 2d ed., 1864 fl. Zwingli's Werke by Schuler and Schul- 
thess. Zur., 1828 fl. Calvin's Briefe, French, pub. by Jules Bonnet. Par., 1854. 2 vols. Older 
Histories of the Reformation by Sleidanus (1555 ; edition by E. Hoche, Lpz., 1846), Seckendorf 
(1688; German abridgement by Junius 1755, by Roos 1788), Scultetus (1618), Gerdes (1744 ff.), etc. 
For Switzerland : H. BuUinger (pub. by Hottinger and Vogeli, Frauenfeld, 1838 fl. 3 vols.) ; 
J. Strickler, Actensammlung zur Schweizer. Reformationsgesch. (1521-32.) Zur., 1877 ff. Comp. 
also the collections of the acts and original documents by Loscher, Kopp, Strobel, Wagenseil, 
Forstemann, Neudecker, Friedlander, K. and W. Krafft (Briefe u. Documente aus der Zeit der 
Reform., Elberf., 1876), etc. 


K. R. Hagenbach, Geschichte der Reformation, vorzuglich in Deutschland und der 

Schweiz. In vorlesungen. 4lh ed. Lpz., 1870. 
W. Wachsmuth, Darstellungen aus der Gesch. des Reform ationszeitalters. 1st part. 

Lpz., 1834 (Peasant War). 
H. Clausen, populiire Vortrage iiber die Reformation. Translated from the Danish 

by Jenssen. Lpz., 183*7. 
Merle d'Aubigne, hist, de la reformation du 16. siecle. Par., 1835-53. 5 vols. 4. ed., 

1861 ff. English ed. passim. 
hist, de la ref. en Europe au temps de Cauvin. Par., 1863-78. 8 vols. (German, 

Elberf., 1863 ff.) American ed., 8 vols. N. Y., 1873. 
*L. Ranke, deutsche Geschichte im Zeitalter der Reformation. Berl., 1839 ff. 5th ed., 

Lpz., 1874. 6 vols. 
K. Hagen, Deutschlands liter, und relig. Verhaltnisse im Reformationszeitalter. Erl., 

1841-44. 3 vols. 
C. G. Neudecker, Gesch. der deutschen Reform, von 1517-32. Lpz., 1842, 
Gesch. des evang. Protestant, in Deutschland. Lpz., 1844 f. 2 vols. 

F. A. Holzhausen, der Protestantism us in seiner geschichtl. Entstehung, Begriindung 

und Fortbildung. Lpz., 1846-59. 3 vols. 
C. H. Bresler, die Gesch. der deutschen Reform. (1846). 2d ed., Berl., 1850 f. 2 vols. 
f J. J. Dollinger, die Reformation, ihre innere Entwicklung und ihre Wirkungen. 

(1846 ff.) 2d ed., Regensb., 1851 ff. 3 vols. 
H. E. F. Guericke, Geschichte der Reformation. Berl., 1855. 
B. ter-Haar, Reformationsgeschichte in Schilderungen. From the Dutch by C. Gross. 

Gotha, 1856. 2 vols. 
*D. Schenkel, die Reformatoren u. die Reformation. Wiesb., 1856. 
*G. Freytag, Bilder aus dem Jahrh. der Reformation. 11th ed. Lpz., 1879. 
K. Braune, die Reform, u. die drei Reformatoren. 2d ed. Altenb., 1 873. 
*L. Hausser, Geschichte des Zeitalters der Reformation, pub. by Oncken. Berl., 

1867 f. 
E. F. Souchay, Deutschland wahrend der Reformation. Frkf. a. M., 1868.^ 

G. Plitt, Einleit. in die Augustana. Vol. 1 : Gesch. der evang. Kirche bis zum Augs- 

burger Reichstage. Erl., 1867. 

W. Maurenbrecher, Karl V. und die deutschen Protestanten, 1545-1555. Diisseld., 1865. 

A. Baur, Deutschland in den J. 1517-25. Betrachtet im Lichte gleichzeitiger anony- 
mer u. pseudonymer deutscher Volks- u. Flugschriften. Ulm, 1872. 

K. Griin, Culturgeschichte des 16. Jahrhunderts. Lpz., 1872. 

Jahrbiicher des deutschen Reichs und der deutschen Kirche im Zeitalter der Reforma- 
tion, pub. by J. K. F. Knaake. 1 vol. Lpz., 1872. 

E. L. Th. Henke, neuere Kirchengesch. (Lectures) Pub. by W. Gass. Yol. 1 : Gesch. der 
Reform. Halle, 1874. Yol. 2: Gesch. der getrennten Kirchen(to about 1750). 1878. 

On Persecutions : 
Th. Fliedner, Buch der Martyrer und anderer Glaubenszeugen der evang. Kirche von 
den Aposteln bis auf unsere Zeit. Kaiserswerth, 1852-60. 4 vols. 

2. Lives of Individual Reformers. 
Yitae quatuor Roformatorum — Lutheri a Melanchth., Melanchthonis a Camerario, 
Zwinglii a Myconio, Calvini a Th. Beza — conscriptae, nunc junctim editae. Prae- 
fat. est A. F. Neander. Berol., 1841. 

' Attractive special features of the history of the Reformation, in the 3d and 4th vols, of J. G. 
Miiller's Denkwiirdigkeiten, etc. Also the Reformationsalmanach, published by F. Keyser (three 
years, 1817-20), presents much interesting history. 


a. German Keformers of the Lutheran Church. 

* Leben und ausgewahlte Schrif ten der Vater und Begriinder der luther. Kirche, pub. 
by J. Hartmann and others, introduction by K. J. Nitzsch. Elberf., 1861 ff. (Parts 
1 and 2: *M. Luther by J. Kostlin. 1875. Part 3: Melanchthon by C. Schmidt, 

1861. Part 4: Joh. Bugenhagen Pomeranus by K. A. T. Vogt. 1867. Part 5: 
Andreas Osiander by W. MoUer. 1869. Part 6: Joh. Brenz by Jul. Hartmann. 

1862. Part V : Urbanus Khegius by G. Uhlhorn. 1861. Part 8: J. Jonas, C. 
Cruciger, P. Speratus, L. Spengler, N. v. Amsdorf, P. Eber, M. Chemnitz, D. Chy- 
traus, by Th. Pressel. 1863.) 

Lives of Luther : 
G. H. A. TJkert, Luthers Leben, nebst einer kurzen Gesch. der Reform. Deutschlands. 

Gotha, 1817. 2 vols, (with abundant literature). 
Ch. W. Spieker, Gesch. M. Luthers und der durch ihn bewirkten Kirchenverbesserung 

in Deutschland. 1 vol. Berl, 1818. 

C. F. G. Stang, Mart. Luther. Sein Leben und Wirken. Stuttg., 1835-7. 
G. Pfeizer, Mart. Luthers Leben. Stuttg., 1836. 

K. r. Ledderhose, M. Luther, nach seinem aussern und innern Leben darges'tellt. 
Speier, 1836. 

M. Meurer, Luthers Leben, aus den Quellen erzahlt. Dresd., 1843-46. 3 vols.; se- 
lection from the same, 1850. 3d ed., 1870. Jugend- u. Volksausg. 3d ed., Lpz., 

K. Jiirgens, Luthers Leben. Lpz., 1846, 1847. 3 vols. 

Luther, der deutsche Reformator, in bildichen Darstellungen von G. Konig und in 
geschichtl. Umrissen, by H. Gelzer. Hamb., (Gotha) 1851. 4to, with 48 steel 
plates. (Excellent.) 

G. A. HofP, vie de Luther. Par., 1860. 

H. W. J. Thiersch, Luther, Gustav Adolph und Maximilian L Nordl., 1869.^ 

D. Schenkel, Luther in Worms und in Wittenberg und die Erneuerung der Kirche in 
der Gegenwart. Elberf., 1870. 

H. Lang, Martin Luther, ein religioses Charakterbild. Berl., 1870. 

K. E. Kohler, Luthers Leben dargest. in s. Reisen. Eisen., 1875. 

H. Spath, Lather u. sein Werk. Oldenb., 1876. 

Aubin, histoire de la vie, etc., de Luther. 4. ed. Par., 1876. 

A. Baur, M: Luther. Tiib., 1878. 

Comp. also: Luthardt, die Ethik Luthers in ihren Grundziigen, 2d ed., Lpz., 1875; 
S. Lommatzsch, Luthers Lehre vom ethisch-relig. Standp. aus., Berl., 1879 ; H. Ber- 
ing, die Mystik Luthers, etc., Lpz., 1879 ; K. Hase, 275 Lutherbriefe in Auswahl 
u. Uebers., new ed., Lpz., 1878. 

Melanchthon (by Camerarius. See foot note below).' 
M. Facius, Melanchthons Leben und Charakteristik, Lpz., 1832. 
L. F. Heyd, Melanchthon und Tubingen 1512-18. Tiib., 1839. 
F. Galle, Versuch einer Charakteristik Melanchthons als Theologen. Halle, 1840. 

^ Older biographies of Luther by Melanchthon, Mattheslus (frequently published, by Rust, 
with pref. by A. Neander (Berl., 1841), Walch, Keil, (1753 ff. 4 vols.), by Ch. Niemeyer, and 
many others. 

2 The older biography by Joach. Camerarius, de Ph. Mel. ortu, totius vitae curriculo et morte, 
implicata rerum memorabilium temporis illius hominumque mentione, etc. (first, Lips., 156(5), 
has been frequently pubhshed. The most useful, with many annotations, is by Strobel (Halle, 
1777). Later (at same time with Melanchthons Life of Luther), by August! (BresL, 1817) ; Ger- 
man, by Zimmermann, with notes by Villers, and Preface by Planck, Gott. (1813), 1816. 


Wohlfahrt (1860) and many other works which appeared on anniversary of Melanch- 
thon's death, 19th April, 1860. (Comp. die Gottinger Biblioth. theol. XIII. 1. 
pp. 13-15). 

Herlinger, die Theol. Melanchthons in ihrer gesch. Entwicklung. Gotha, 1879. 

Brenz': J. H. Vaihinger (Stuttg., 1841), J. Hartmann und K. Jiiger (Hamb., 1840-42. 
2 vols.). 

Justus Jonas': Knapp (1817). 

Bugenhagen's : Zietz (Lpz., 1829; 2d ed., 1834), Bellermann (Berl, 1859), and 
Vogt (1867). 

Fr. Myconius' : C. F. Ledderhose (Gotha, 1854). 

Karlstadts: K. F. Jager (Stuttg., 1856). 

M. Chemnitz' : H. Hachfeld (Lpz., 1867). 

(3. The Reformers of the Reformed Church. 

* Leben und ausgewahlte Schrif ten der Viiter und Begriinder der ref ormirten Kirche, 
published by J. W. Baum, R. Christoifel, K. R. Hagenbaeh, and others, introduced 
by K. R. Hagenbaeh, Elberf., 1857-63. (I. Zwingli, by Christoffel. II. Oecolam- 
pad u. Myconius, by Hagenbaeh. III. Capito u. Butzer, by Baum. IV. Joh. Cal- 
vin, by E. Stahelin. V. Heinr. Bullinger, by C. Pestalozzi. VI. Th. Beza, by 
H. Heppe. VII. Peter Martyr Vermigli, by C. Schmidt. VIII. Olevianus u. Ur- 
sinus, by K. Sudhoff. IX. 1. Joh. a Lasco, by P. Bartels; Leo Juda, by Pestalozzi; 
Franz. Lambert, by F. W. Hassencamp ; Wilh. Farel u. Peter Viret, by C. Schmidt. 
IX. 2. J. Vadian, by Th. Pressel ; B. Haller, by Pestalozzi ; A. Blaurer, by Th. 
Pressel. X. John Knox, by Brandes.) 

Leben Zwingli's: Nuscheler (1776), Rotermund (1818); J. C. Hess, vie d'Ulr. Zwingle 
(Par. et Gen., 1818; German, by Usteri, Ziir., 1811); J. M. Schuler (Ziir., 1819); 
J. Hettinger (Zur., 1842); G. Roder (St. Gallen und Bern, 1855); R. Christoffel 
(see above). H. Sporri, Zwinghstudien. Lpz., 1866. *J. C. Morikofer, Ulrich 
Zwingli. Lpz., 1867-69. 2 vols. 

Oekolampadius : J. Herzog (Bas., 1843. 2 vols.), Hagenbaeh (see above). 

Oswald Myconius' : M. Kirchhofer (Ziir., 1830), Hagenbaeh (see above). 

Berthold Haller's: M. Kirchhofer (Ziir., 1828). 

Heinr. Bullinger's (and his wife) : H. Christoffel (Ziir., 1875). 

y. Calvin and his Disciples. 

Lives of Calvin: H. Bolsec (Lyon, 1577; new ed., by P. L. Chastel, Lyon, 1875); P. 
Henry (Hamb., 1835-44. 3 vols.; Selections by same, 1846); F. P. W. Guizot 
(Joh. Calvin, ein Lebensbild, from the French, by M. Runkel, Lpz., 1847); *Stahelen 
(see above); F. Bungener (1862, French; German, Lpz., 1863); Pressel (1864); 
Viguet et Tissot (1864); *f Kampschulte (Joh. Calvin, seine Kirche und sein Staat 
in Genf. 1st vol., Lpz., 1869) ; Guizot (in Vies de quatre grands Chretiens francais. 
Par., 1873, tom i); C. Goguel (2d ed., Toulouse, 1878); P. Lobstein (die Ethik 
Calvins in ihren Grundziigen entw., Strassb., 1877) ; and many smaller writings on 
the centennial occasion of his death, 1864.^ 

Farel's: Kirchhofer (Ziir., 1832, 1833); Schmidt (Strassb., 1834); Junod (Par., 1865). 

Beza's : J. W. Baum (Theodor Beza, Lpz., 1843-51, 2 vols. ; appendix to 2d vol., 
Lpz., 1852) ; Schmidt (Farel and Viret, see above. 

6. Further Biographical Histories of the Reform,ation. 

f G. Tb. Rudhardt, Thomas Morus. Nurnb., 1829.) Augsb., 1852. 

R. Baumstark, Thom. Morus. Freib., 1879. 

* Of special value Is the Brlefsammlung der franzosischen Reformatoren, published by Her- 
mlnjard. Genf., 1866. 



Jules Bonnet, vie d'Olympia Morata. Par., 1850. 

*Ch. H. Sixt, Petrus Paulus Vergerius, papstl. Nuntius, kathol. Bischof und Vor- 

kampfer des evangeliums. Braunschw., 1855. 
Th. Keim, Ambr. Blurer, der schwab. Reformator. Stuttg., 1860. 
Th. Pressel, A. Blaurers, des schwab. Reformators, Leben und Schriften. Stuttg., 

C. J. Cosack, Paulus Speratus' Leben und Lieder. Braunschw., 1861. 
K. Benrath, Bernardino Ochino von Siena